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[TOTNES, JULY, 1920.] 





Copyright 1920. 


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The Council and the Editor desire it to be understood that 
they are not answerable for any statements, observations, or 
opinions appearing in any paper printed by the Society ; the 
authors only are responsible. 

The Transactions of the Society are not published, nor 
are they on sale to the public. They are printed for 
Members only. 

Page 40, line 9 from bottom : — For " Marlborough " read " Malborough. 


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1 * ] 


List of Plates 

list of Officers 

Places of Meeting . 


Bye-laws and Standing Orders 

Balance Sheet 

Report of the Council 

Selected Minutes of Council appointing Committees 

Proceedings at the Fifty-eighth Annual Meeting 

Obituary Notices .... 

President's Address 

Thirty-third Report of the Committee on Devonshire 
vincialisms .... 

Thirty -ninth Report of the Barrow Committee . 

Eleventh Report of the Committee on Church Plate 

Twelfth Report of the Botany Committee . 

Fifth Report of the Committee on Bibliography . 

Thirty-eighth Report [3rd Ser.] of the Committee on 
of Devon .... 

A Lost Lake • . . . 

An Armada Relic .... 

The Old Devon Farm-house 

Sir John Bowring, First President of the Devonshire Association 




20, 21 


the Climate 








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Sir Henry Went worth Acland, President of the First Totnes Meeting . 207 

Joseph Pitts of Exeter . . . ... 223 

The Origin and Upgrowth of the English Parish . . 239 

The Fresh -Water Alga of Devonshire . ... 263 

A Further Note on the Migration of Salmon in the Rivers Avon and 

Erme . . . ... 276 

The Investigation of Place-Names . . ... 282 

The Hill Observatory, Salcombe Regis . . . 289 

When the Saxons came to Devon . . ... 293 

Haccombe. Part III. (1830-1400) . . ... 310 

The Baptismal Fonts of Devon. Part VII. . . . 327 

list of Diptera hitherto recorded from the County of Devon. Part II. 336 

Saint Loye's, East Wonford, Devon . . ... 360 

List of Members . . . . ... 367 

Index . . ... 385 


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[7 ] 


Barrow Report — 

Plan of Kistvaen on Vixen Tor To face p. 79 

Church Plate Report— 

Covered Beaker. Upton Hellion*. Circ A.D. 1600 .... „ 96 

Chalice. Kenn. A.D. 1688 „ 112 

Ak Armada Relic , „ 157 

The Old Devon Farm-house— 

Plate I. Woodlands, Bridford. Showing approach by rough track 

through Homer Field „ 164 

Plate II. Weeke Barton, Bridford. Showing front garden, with 

ornamental trees and shrubs ........ ,, 169 

Plate III. Farley Farm, Chudleigh. Showing typical Devon farm- 
house porch, with porch-room „ 172 

Plate IV. The Barton, Alphington. A typical Devon farmhouse of 

Elizabethan style, in the shape of an E ..... „ 175 

Plate V. Old Round-house, or Machine-house, at Hole, in the Parish 

of Hartland ; showing part of Horse-gear „ 177 

Plate VI. Old Covered Well at Blegberry, in the Parish of Hartland ; 
dated 1657. The initials W.A. are those of William Atldn, the 
owner at that time. Now in the possession of Mr. R. Pearse Chope „ 177 

The Hill Observatory, Salcombe Regis— 

Fig. 1.— Showing the "Ruathall Dome" on the right and the "Ken- 
sington Dome" on the left. View looking S.W. from the 
Observatory site „ 290 

Fig. 2.— Interior view of the offices, showing the library (nearest room), 

laboratory, and directors' room ,, 290 

Fig. 3. — A corner of the spectroscopic laboratory • • • • ., 291 

Fig. 4. —The Kensington Twin Equatorial. The 9-inch prismatic camera 
is the tube on the left, the 10-inch refractor being a little to the 
right ,,291 

Fig. 5.— Wireless Receiving Apparatus for Time and Weather Signals „ 291 


Haccombe. Arms of England and France on Tiles. Arms of Carew 

on Shields „ 810 

Haccombe Church. The Chancel „ 825 

The Baptismal Fonts ot Devon— 

Plate I. Fonts at West Down and Berry Narbor .... ,,328 

„ II. Fonts at Merton and Stoke St. Nectan .... ,,832 

Saint Loye's, East Wonford — 

Carved Figures of St. Loye : (i.) On outer face of door inside south 
porch, Totnes Parish Church, (ii.) On boss in roof of north aisle, 
Ugborough Parish Church „ 360 

Ruined Chapel of Saint Loye, East Wonford, Heavitree. (Viewed 

from the N.W.) „ 361 


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[ 8 ] 


EDWARD WINDEATT, Esq., j.p., c.a. 



(B. W. Hayman, Esq., j.p.). 

Lt.-Col. The Right Hon. F. B. 

MILDMAY, p.c, m.p. 
Sie ROBERT HARVEY, d.l., j.p. 
Lt.-Col. W. E. P. BASTARD, o.b.e., 

D.L., J.P. 

.P.ADAMS, Esq. 
Rev. W. AITCHESON, m.a. 
JOHN S. AMERY, Esq., j.p. 
Rev. W. E. COX, m.a. 
F. G. HANKS, Esq. . . 

REV. F. J. ODELL, r.n. 

HENRY PAIGE, Esq., j.p. 

0. D. PARKER, Esq., j.p., o.o. 

C. F. REA, b.a., B.SC, j.p. 

Rev. A. H. SAYERS. 

W. F. ULYATT, Esq. 


R. H. WATSON, Esq., d.l., j.p. 

Rev. W. T. WELLACOTT, m.a. 


M.INST., C.E. 

Lt.-Col. F. K. WINDEATT, t.d. 

3fcon. 0rneral Sreasurer, 
J. S. AMERY, Esq., j.p., Druid, Ashburton. 

3fcon. General Secretaries. 

MAXWELL ADAMS, Esq., e/o Messrs. W. Brendon & Son, Ltd., Printers, Plymouth. 

Major GEORGE 8. WINDEATT, o.b.e., t.d., The Elms, Totnes. 

fton. local treasurer an* Ssmrtarp. 
Major GEORGE E. WINDEATT, o.b.e., t.d., The Elms, Totnes.' 

fcon. ftttoftor. 
Major ROBERT G. TUCKERj j.p., c.a., The Hall, Ashburton. 

•ADAMS, 8. P. 

•ALLEN, B. J. 

ALMY, P. H. W. 

AMERY, J. 8. 


BEEBE, Rev. W. N. P. 


CHALK, Rbv. B. 8. 


CHANTER, Rev. J. P. 
•CHAPMAN, Rbv. C. 



CLARKE. Miss K. M. 

ORE88WELL, Miss B. F. 
•CROFT, Sir A. W. 

DOE, G. M. 




•GAMBBE, Thi Very* Rev. 

H R 


•HIERN, W. P. 




JOCE, T. J. 




LARTER, Miss 0. Ethelinda. 


LOOKYER, Major W. J. S. 




NECK, J. S. 

Permanent Mtmben q/ tht CounoU. 






REIOHEL, Rev. O. J. 



•ST. GYRES, Visoount. 
•STEBBING, Rev. T. R. R. 


TROUP, Mrs. ROSE-.j 

TUCKER, Major R. C. 







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Place of Meeting. 












Barnstaple . 




Dartmouth . 


Dsvonport . 








Teionmotjth . 










Ilfraoombb . 










Newton Abbot 




St. Maryohuroh 






Tavistock . 


Barnstaple . 








South Molton 


Oxehampton . 




Kingsbridge . 



Sir John Bowring, ll.d., f.r.s. 
0. Spence Bate, Esq., F.R.S., f.l.s. 
E. Vivian, Esq., m.a. 
0. 6. B. Daubeny, m.d., ll.d., f.r.s. 
Earl Russell, x.g., k.o.c, f.r.s., etc. 
W. Pengelly, Esq., F.R.S., f.g.s. 
J. D. Coleridge, Esq., Q.c., m.a., m.p. 
q. P. Bidder, Esq., as. 
J. A. Fronde, Esq., m.a. 
Rev. Canon C. Kingsley, m.a., f.l.s., f.g.s. 
The Lord Bishop of Exeter (Dr. Temple). 
Right Hon. S. Cave, m.a., m.p. 
The Earl of Devon. 
R. J. King, Esq., m.a. 
Rev. Treasurer Hawker, m. a. 
Yen. Archdeacon Earle, m.a. 
Sir Samuel White Baker, m.a., f.r.s., f.r.g.s. 
Sir R. P. Collier, m.a. 

H. W. Dyke Aoland, m.a., m.d., ll.d., f.r.s. 
Rev. Professor Chapman, m.a., ll.d. 
J. Brooking-Rowe, Esq., F.8.A., f.l.s. 
Very Rev. C. Merivale, d.d., d.c.l. 
Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, m.a. 
R. F. Weymouth, Esq., m.a., 
Sir J. B. Phear, M.A., f.g.s. 
Rev. W. H. Dallinger, ll.d., f.r.s., f.l.s., eto. 
Very Rev. Dean Cowie, d.d. 
W. H. Hudleston, Esq., m.a., f.r.s., f.g.s., etc. 
Lord Clinton, m.a. 
R. N. Worth, Esq., f.g.s. 
A. H. A. Hamilton, Esq., m.a., j.p. 
■ T. N. Brushfield, m.d., f.s.a. 
Sir Fred. Pollock, Bart., m.a. 
The Right Hon. Earl of Halsbury. 
Rev. S. Baring-Gould, m.a. 
J. Hine, Esq., F.R.I.B.A. 
Lord Coleridge, m.a. 


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Place of Meeting. 












Teignmouth . 


Princetown . 






Newton Abbot 


Launceston . 




Dartmouth . 










Plymouth . 


Barnstaple . 






Totnes . 


Rev. Chancellor Edmonds, b.d. 
. Lord Clifford, M.A. 
Sir Roper Lethbridge, k.c.i.e., m.a., d.l. 
Rev. W. Harpley, M.A., f.c.p.s. 
Sir Edgar Vincent, k.c.m.o., m.p. 
Sir Alfred W. Croft, k.c.i.e., m.a. 
Basil H. Thomson, Esq. 
F. T. El worthy, Esq., f.s.a. 
The Lord Bishop of Exeter (Dr. Robertson). 
Lord Monkswell, d.l., ll.b. 
The Lord Bishop of Truro (Dr. Stubbs). 
John D. Enys, Esq., r.o.s. 
Robert Burnard, Esq., f.s.a. 
The Viscount St. Cyres, m.a. 
Ashley A. Froude, Esq., o.m.o. 
Professor A. M. Worthington, c.b., f.r.s. 
Principal A. W* Olayden, m.a., f.g.s. 
E. J. Allen, Esq.,, f.r.8. 
W. P. Hiern, Esq., m.a., f.r.8., J. p., o.a. 
Hugh R. Watkin, Esq. 
The Very Rev. Dean H. R. Gamble, d.d. 
Edward Windeatt, Esq., J. p., c.a. 


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[ 11 ] 


1. The Association shall be called the Devonshire Association 
lor the Advancement of Science, Literature, and Art. 

2. The objects of the Association are — To give a systematic 
direction to scientific inquiry in Devonshire ; and to promote 
the intercourse of those who cultivate Science, Literature, or Art, 
in different parts of the county. 

3. The Association shall consist of Members and Honorary 

4. Every candidate for membership, on being nominated by a 
member to whom he is personally known, shall be admitted by 
the General Secretary, subject to the confirmation of the General 
Meeting of the Members. 

5. Every, person, admitted to membership under Rule 4, shall 
forthwith receive intimation that he has been admitted a Member, 
subject to confirmation at the next General Meeting of Members ; 
«nd the fact of the newly admitted Member's name appearing in 
the next issue of the printed List of Members, will be a sufficient 
intimation to him that his election has been confirmed. Pending 
the issue of the volume of Transactions containing the Rules of 
the Association, the newly admitted Member shall be furnished by 
the General Secretary with such extracts from the Rules as he 
shall deem necessary. 

6. Persons of eminence in Science, Literature, or Art, or those 
who have rendered any special service to the Association, may, 
at a General Meeting of the Members, be elected Honorary Members 
of the Association: but such Honorary Members shall not be 
entitled to take any part in the management of the Association. 

7. Every Member shall pay an Annual Subscription of Half a 
Guinea or a Life Composition Fee limited to the amount of 
Sixteen Years' Subscriptions. But Members of Five, Ten, or 
Fifteen Years' standing, whose subscriptions are not in arrear, 
may compound by the payment of seven guineas, six guineas, or 
five guineas respectively. No person under 21 years of age 
is eligible for Life-Membership. 

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12 RULES. 

8. Annual Subscriptions shall be payable in advance, and shall 
be due in each year on the first day of January ; and no person 
shall have the privileges of a Member until the Subscription for 
the current year or a Life Composition has been paid. 

9. Any Member who does not, on or before the first day of 
January, give notice, in writing, to the General Secretary of his 
intention to withdraw from the Association, shall be regarded 
as a Member for the ensuing year. 

10. Whenever a Member is in arrear in the payment of his 
Annual Subscription, the Treasurer shall apply to him for the 

11. Whenever, at an Annual Meeting, a Member shall be two 
years in arrear in the payment of his Annual Subscriptions, the 
Council may, at its discretion, erase his name from the Lost of 

12. Every Member, whose Subscriptions are not in arrear, 
shall be entitled to a copy of the volume of the Transactions 
for the year. 

13. Every Member shall be entitled to a lady's ticket for the 
Annual Meeting. 

14. Only ladies shall be eligible for admission as Associates to 
an Annual Meeting, on payment of the sum of Five Shillings each. 

15. The Association shall meet annually, at such a time in July 
or August and at such place as shall be decided at a previous 
Annual Meeting. 

16. One month at least before the Annual Meeting each Mem- 
ber shall be informed by the General Secretary, by circular, of the 
place and date of the Meeting. 

17. The affairs of the Association shall be managed by a Council, 
which shall consist exclusively of the following Members of the 
Association : — 

(a) Those who fill, or have filled, or are elected to fill, the offices 
of President, General and Local Treasurers, General and Local 
Secretaries, and Secretaries of Committees appointed by the 

(6) Authors of papers which have been printed in extenso in 
the Transactions of the Association. 

The Council so constituted shall have power to make, amend 
or cancel the Bye-laws and Standing Orders. 

18. With the exception of the ex-Presidents, every Councillor 
who has not attended any Meeting of the Council for twenty-four 
calendar months, shall forfeit his place as a Councillor, but it 
shall be competent for him to recover it by a fresh qualification. 

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RULES. 13 

19. The Council shall hold a meeting at Exeter in the month 
of February in each year, on such day as the General Secretary 
shall appoint, for the due management of the affairs of the Asso- 

20. In the intervals of the Annual Meetings, all Meetings of 
the Council shall be held at Exeter, unless some other place shall 
have been decided on at a previous Council Meeting. 

21. Every Meeting of the Council shall be convened by circular, 
sent by the General Secretary to each Member of the Council not 
less than ten days before the Meeting is held. 

22. The General Secretary, or any four Members of the Council, 
may call extraordinary Meetings of their body for any purpose 
requiring their present determination, by notice under his or 
their hand or hands, addressed to every other Member of 
the Council, at least ten clear days previously, specifying the 
purpose for which such extraordinary Meeting is convened. No 
matter not so specified, and not incident thereto, shall be deter- 
mined at any extraordinary Meeting. 

23. The officers of the Association shall be a President, two or 
more Vice-Presidents, a General Treasurer, one or more General 
Secretaries, one or more Auditors, a Local Treasurer, and one or 
more Local Secretaries. 

24. A Committee shall be appointed annually by the Council 
to consider at what place the Association shall hold its Annual 
Meeting, and who shall be invited to fill any official vacancies 
which may from time to time occur, as follows : — 

(a) The President subject to confirmation by the Council. 

(6) All other officers (except Vice-Presidents, the Local Treasurer, 
and Local Secretary or Secretaries) subject to confirmation at a 
General Meeting of the Members of the Association. 

25. The Vice-Presidents, Local Treasurer, and Local Secretary 
or Secretaries shall be elected by the local Reception Committee 
appointed by the Authorities of the city or town issuing the in- 
vitation to the Association, subject to confirmation by the Council 
of the Association; and the Council shall have power to add to 
the number of Vice-Presidents elected by the Local Authorities 
from among the Members of the Association. 

26. The President shall enter on his duties at the Annual Meeting 
for which he has accepted office : the General Treasurer, General 
Secretary or Secretaries, the Vice-Presidents and Local Officers shall 
enter on their duties as soon as convenient after their election. 

27. The Council shall have power to fill any official vacancy 
which may occur in the intervals of the Annual Meetings, on the 
recommendation of the Committee appointed under Rule 24. 

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14 RULES. 

28. The President shall be eligible for re-election, provided that, 
the same person does not hold office in two consecutive years. 

29. The General Treasurer shall receive all sums of money due to 
the Association ; he shall pay all accounts due by the Association 
after they shall have been examined and approved ; arid he shall 
report to each Meeting of the Council 'the balance he has in hand, 
and the names of such Members as shall be in arrear, with the 
sums due respectively by each. 

30. The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, 
by one or more Auditors appointed at each Annual Meeting, but- 
who shall not be ex-officio Members of the Council. 

31. All investments of the funds of the Association shall be 
made in the names of three trustees to be elected by the Council, 
in securities authorized by law for the investment of Trust 

32. The Association shall have the right at its discretion of 
printing in extenso in its volume of Transactions all papers read at 
the Annual Meeting. The copyright of a paper read before any 
Meeting of the Association, and the illustrations of the same which 
have been provided at his expense, shall remain the property of 
the Author : but he shall not be at liberty to print it, of allow it 
to be printed elsewhere, either in extenso or in abstract amounting 
to as much as one-half of the length of the paper, until after 
the issue of the volume of Transactions in which the paper is 

33. The Association shall, within a period not exceeding six 
months after each Annual Meeting, issue to each Member and 
Honorary Member its volume of Transactions, which shall in- 
clude the Rules and Bye-Laws, Selected Minutes of the Council ap- 
pointing Committees, a Financial Statement, a List of the Members, 
the Report of the Council and of the Proceedings, the President's 
Address, and such Papers, in abstract or in extenso, read at the 
Annual Meeting, as the Council shall decide to print, together 
with, if time allows, an Index to the volume. 

34. The Honorary General Secretary acting as General Editor is 
empowered to decide what small print, tabulated and other work 
coming under the head of " printers' extras " is necessary for each 
Report or Paper, and to veto any attempt on the part of the Author 
to exceed this, the cost of such extra charges being borne by the 
Association. But the cost of all corrections other than printer's 
errors and of all revisions made by" the Author, after the Report or 
Paper is in type, shall be borne by the Author and recovered from 
him by the Treasurer." 

35. If proofs of papers to be printed in the Transactions are 
sent to authors for correction, and are retained by them beyond 
four days for each sheet of proof, to be reckoned from the day 

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BULBS. 15 

marked thereon by the printers, but not including the time need- 
ful for transmission by post, such proofs shall be assumed to require 
no further correction. 

36. Authors of papers printed in the Transactions shall receive 
twenty-five copies, free of expense, and shall be allowed to have 
any further number printed at their own expense by private 
arrangement with the printers of the Association. The Honorary 
Secretaries of Committees appointed by the Council for special 
service may be supplied, if required, with any number of copies 
of their Keports printed in the Transactions, not exceeding forty, 
free of expense; but the Secretary of the Committee on the 
Climate of Devon may be supplied, if required, with any number 
of copies of his or her Report printed in the Transactions, not 
exceeding fifty, free of expense. In each case the Secretary of 
the Committee will note on the proof of his or her Keport, for 
the information of the printers, the number of copies actually 
required, subject to the above limitations. 

37. No Rule shall be altered, amended, or new Rule added, except 
at an Annual General Meeting of Members, and then only pro- 
vided that notice of the proposed change has been given to the 
General Secretary, and by him communicated to all the Members 
at least one month before the Annual General Meeting. 

38. Throughout the Rules, Bye-laws, and Standing Orders 
where the singular number is used, it shall, when circumstances 
require, be taken to include the plural number, and the masculine 
gender shall include the feminine. 


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[ 16 1 


1. It is desirable that a copy of the President's Address shall 
be in the hands of the General Secretary not later than the twenty- 
fourth day of June in each year, in order that it may be printed 
and distributed to the Press in time for publication in newspapers 
issued on the day after its delivery. The President's Address 
shall be considered a confidential document until after its delivery. 

2. Papers to be read at the Annual Meetings must strictly relate 
to Devonshire, and the procedure for the submission, selection, 
and reading of papers shall be as follows : — 

(a) Papers and Reports of Committees to be read at any Meeting, 
together with all drawings, photographs, maps, etc., to illustrate 
the same, must be submitted to the General Secretary, so as to 
reach him not later than the twenty-fourth day of June in each 

(b) All Papers and illustrations considered unsuitable shall be 
returned to the authors as soon as possible. 

(c) The General Secretary will obtain from the printers of the 
Association for presentation to the Council a statement showing 
the number of pages each Paper and Report will occupy when 
printed, the estimated extra cost of printing tables, of the use of 
special type or change of type, and of all other extra charges, if 
any, in each Paper and Report, as well as the estimated cost of 
all charges connected with the preparation, binding and issue of 
the volume of Transactions. 

(d) The General Secretary will communicate the printers' report 
and estimates to the Council, at the Meeting of that body on the 
first day of the Annual Meeting. The Council will then select the 
Papers and Eeports to be read on the two following days. 

3. Papers which have already been printed in extenso cannot be 
accepted unless they form part' of the literature of a question on 
which the Council has requested a Member or Committee to 
prepare a Report. 

4. The reading of any Report or Paper shall not exceed twenty 
minutes, or such part of twenty minutes as shall be decided by the 

Digitized by 



Council as soon as the Programme of Reports and Papers shall 
have been settled, and in any discussion which may arise no speaker 
shall be allowed to speak more than five minutes. 

5. The Council will arrange Papers for reading to meet the con- 
venience of the authors, as far as possible. Papers shall be read in 
the order appointed by the Council, but in the event of the author 
of any Paper not being present to read his Paper, and in the absence 
of any arrangement by the author of a Paper for its reading by 
some Member present at the meeting, such Paper or Papers, if 
more than one, shall be held over till the conclusion of the reading 
of the Papers, when it shall be put to the vote of the Meeting 
whether such Paper or Papers shall be read by substitute or not. 

6. Papers which have been accepted by the Council cannot be 
withdrawn without the consent of the Council. 

7. Papers communicated by Members for Non-Members, and 
accepted by the Council, shall be placed in the List of Papers for 
reading below those furnished by Members themselves. 

8. In the event of there being at an annual Meeting more 
Papers than can be disposed of in one day, the reading of the 
residue shall be continued on the day following. 

9. At the close of the Annual Meeting in every year there 
shall be a Meeting of the Council, and the Council shall then 
decide what Reports and how many of the Papers accepted for 
Teading the funds of the Association, as reported by the Treasurer, 
will permit of being printed in the volume of Transactions. 

10. All Papers read to the Association which the Council shall 
decide to print in extenso in the Transactions, shall be sent to the 
printers, together with all drawings required for illustrating them, 
as soon as possible after the close of the Annual Meeting at which 
they were read. 

11. All Papers read to the Association which the Council shall 
decide not to print in extenso in the Transactions, shall be returned 
to the authors as soon as possible after the close of the Annual 
Meeting at which they were read; and abstracts of such Papers 
to be printed in the Transactions shall not exceed such length 
as the General Secretary shall suggest in each case, and must be 
sent to him within seven days after such Paper has been returned 
to the author. 

12. The printers shall return every Manuscript to the author as 
soon as it is in type, but not before. They shall be returned intact, 
provided they are written on one side of the paper only and each 
sheet numbered. 

VOL. in. B 


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13. Excepting mere verbal alterations, no Paper which has been 
read to the Association shall be added to without the written 
approval and consent of the General Secretary, or in the event of 
there being two Secretaries of the one acting as Editor ; and no 
additions shall be made except in the form of footnotes or brief 
postscripts, or both. 

14. The author of every Paper which the Council at any Annual 
Meeting shall decide to print in the Transactions shall pay for the 
preparation of all such illustrations as in his judgment and that of 
the Council the said Paper may require. That is to say, he shall 
pay for the preparation of all necessary drawings, blocks, litho- 
graphic transfers or drawings on stone ; but the Association will 
bear the cost of printing (by the Association's printers), paper and 
binding ; provided that should any such illustrations be in colours 
or of a size larger than can be inserted in the volume with a single 
fold, or be desired to be executed in any other process than printing 
from the block or lithography, then in each and either of these 
cases the author shall himself bear the whole cost of production 
and printing, and should the Council so decide shall also pay any 
additional charge that may properly be made for binding. 

15. The pagination of the Transactions shall be in Arabic 
numerals exclusively, and carried on consecutively, from the 
beginning to the end of each volume ; " and the Transactions of 
each year shall form a' distinct and separate volume. 

16. The Council shall from time to time, when deemed advisable, 
revise the prices fixed for each volume of the Transactions and all 
other publications of the Association. 

17. The General Secretary shall report to each Annual Meeting 
of the Members the number of copies in stock of each volume of 
the Transactions, and other publications of the Association, with 
the price per copy of each volume ; and such Report shall be printed 
in the Transactions. 

18. The General Secretary shall prepare brief Obituary Notices 
of Members deceased during the previous year, and such notices 
shall be printed in the Transactions. 

19. All Resolutions appointing Committees for special service for 
the Association shall be printed in the Transactions. 

20. The following are the Rules for reprinting Reports of 
Committees other than the reprints supplied to authors under 
Rule 36 :— 

(a) The printers of the Association alone are permitted to reprint 
any Report. 

(6) The written permission of the General Secretary is required 

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before any Keport may be reprinted, the copyright of all Reports 
printed in the Transactions being vested in the Association. 

(c) The printers shall pay to the General Secretary on behaltpf 
the Association, as royalty, a sum of sixpence per fifty copies for 
each half -sheet of eight pages, any number of copies less than fifty 
or between two exact multiples of fifty being regarded as fifty, 
and any number of pages less than eight or between two exact 
multiples of eight, being regarded as eight. 

(d) Each copy of the reprint shall have printed on the first page 
the words, " Reprinted from the Transactions of the Devonshire 
Association for the Advancement of Science, Literature, and Art 

for by permission of the Council of the Association," 

the year in which the Report was originally printed being indicated. 

(e) The reprint shall be an exact copy of the Report as originally 
printed in the Transactions, without addition, abridgment, or 
modification, the necessary corrections for printer's errors and 
changes in pagination alone excepted. 

21. An amount not less than eighty per cent, of all Compositions 
received from Life Members of the Association shall be invested. 

22. At each of its Ordinary Meetings the Council shall deposit at 
interest, in such bank as they shall decide on, and in the names of 
the General Treasurer and General Secretary of the Association, 
all uninvested Compositions received from Life Members, all 
uninvested prepaid Annual Subscriptions, and any part, or the 
whole of the balance derived from other sources which may be in 
the Treasurer's hands after providing for all accounts passed for 
payment at the said Meeting. 

23. The General Secretary is authorized to spend any sum not 
exceeding Twenty Pounds per annum in employing a clerk for 
such work as may be found necessary, and any sum not exceeding 
Two Guineas for the preparation of an Index to each annual volume 
of the Transactions. 

24. Only Members and Ladies holding Ladies' tickets are 
admitted to the Association Dinner, when one is held. Members 
and Ladies intending to dine must send in their names to the 
Honorary Local Secretary not less than two clear days before the 
date of the Dinner, 


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[ 20] 
Treasurer's Receipts and Expenditure for the 

i»i». "Receipts. 

By Subscriptions : — 
1916 (439 at 10/6) . 
Arrears (22) 
Lady Associates (16 at 5/-) 

,, Life Compositions (2 at £5 5s.) 
„ „ „ (3 at £7 17s. 6d.) 

„ Sale of Transactions 
„ Dividends — 

£400 India 3 per cent 

£300 Consols 

Bank Interest . . . 

,, Authors Extras and Contributions 

£ s. d. £ s. d: 

230 9 


11 11 




10 10 

23 12 










8 8 

5 5 

4 6 







16 10 

£317 15 5 
„ Balance from 1918 . . . . . 30 9 1 

£348 4 6 

JOHN S. AMERY, Hon. Treasurer. 

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[ 21 ] 

Tear ending the Z\st day of December, 1919. 



To Printing Notices and Circulars, etc., Messrs, 
,, ,, Receipt-books and Notices, Mr. Dent 

,, General Secretaries' Expenditure 

,, ,, Clerical Assistance 

,, Index, including slips 
,, General Treasurer's Expenditure 

,, Messrs. Brendon and Son, Ltd. : — 
Printing Vol. LI, 575 copies 
Authors' Reprints 
Addressing, packing, and postage 

„ Insurance of Stock to December 31st, 1920 

£ ,. d. £ s. d. 

23 10 
2 2 6 

16 9 


22 16 


1 13 


4 4 


45 3 10 



12 11 


23 7 


9/lftilQ H 

Balance (1919) 

£290 16 9 
. 57 7 9 

£348 4 6 

Account Audited this Tenth day of July, 1920. 



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[ 22] 


Presented to the General Meeting, held at Totnes, 20th July, 1920, 

The Council have the honour to present their Report for 
the past year. 

The ordinary meetings of the Council were held at 
Tiverton on the 22nd and 24th July, 1919, and at Exeter 
on the 26th February, 1920. 

A special meeting of the Council was also held at 
Exeter on 30th October, 1919, to consider the Majority 
and Minority Reports of the Committee appointed by 
the Council to enquire into the practicability or otherwise 
of Mr. Hugh R. Watkin's twelve proposals for the recon- 
struction of the Association, referred to in last year's 
Report of the Council, at which the Minority Report was 

Active steps have been taken by the Officers of the 
Association to oppose the Bill before Parliament for the 
exploitation of Dartmoor by the proposed incorporation 
of the Dartmoor and District Hydro-Electric Supply 

As regards Lydford the following extract from the 
Report of the Committee on Ancient Earthworks and 
Fortified Enclosures of the Congress of Archaeological 
Societies for 1919 will show what was done in this matter, 
viz : — " The ancient town wall was threatened with 
destruction early in 1919 for the purpose of building 
workmen's dwellings, but the Hon. Secretary of the 
Devonshire Association addressed a successful protest 
to the First Commissioner of Works, Commander Williams, 
M.P., and the local Councils concerned." 

At the meeting held on 26th February, 1920, it was 
decided by the Council to support the Hill Observatory 
Corporation, Salcombe Regis, by inviting Members of 
the Devonshire Association to become members of that 
Corporation or by subscribing to its funds. 

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A cordial invitation from the local authorities of Lyme 
Regis to the Association to hold its annual meeting in 
1921 in that town has been received, which the Council 
has decided to accept. 

The thanks of the Council were conveyed to authors 
who presented Plates of Illustrations to their Reports and 
Papers printed in Vol. LI of the Transactions, and also to 
those Members who contributed to the funds of the 

A copy of Vol. LI of the Transactions has been sent to 
every Member not in arrear with his or her subscription, 
and the following Societies have been presented with 
copies of the same volume, viz. the Royal Institution, 
the Royal Anthropological Institute, the Geological 
Society, the Library of the British Museum, the Natural 
History Museum (Cromwell Road), the Bodleian Library, 
the University Library, Cambridge, the Devon and 
Exeter Institution, the Plymouth Institution, the Natural 
History Society, Torquay, the North Devon Athenaeum, 
Barnstaple, the Royal Institution of Cornwall, Truro, 
the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History 
Society, Taunton, the Dorset Natural History and Anti- 
quarian Field Club (c/o Rev. Herbert Pentin, m.a., Hon. 
Secretary, St. Peter's Vicarage, Portland), and the 
National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth. 

Also copies of Vol. XXIV-L inclusive of the Trans- 
actions were presented to the Louvain Library, Belgium, 
to assist in its reconstitution, through the agency of the 
John Ryland's Library, Manchester. 

The stock of Transactions, Wills, etc., now in hand is 
as follows : — 







Transactions, Vol. XXXIV 

Wills, Part IV 

Index to Vol. XXXIV 

57 copies 
59 „ 
79 „ 

Transactions, Vol. XXXV 
Wills, Part V 

. 22 


Transactions, Vol. XXXVE 
Wills, Part VI 

. 38 


Transactions, Vol. XXXVII 
Wills, Part VII 



Transactions, Vol. XXXVIII 
Wills, Part VEII. 



Transactions, Vol. XXXIX 
(No Wills issued) 




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1908 Transactions, Vol. XL 
Wills, Part IX 

1909 Transactions, Vol. XLI 
(No Wills issued) 

1910 Transactions, Vol. XLII 
Wills, Part X '. 

1911 Transactions, Vol. XLIII 
Wills, Part XI 

1912 Transactions, Vol. XLIV 
Wills, Part XII . • 

1913 Transactions, Vol. XLV 
(No Wills issued) 

1914 Transactions, Vol. XLVI 
Wills, Part XIII 

1915 Transactions, Vol XLVII 

1916 Transactions, Vol. XLVIII 

1917 ' Transactions, Vol. XLIX 

1918 Transactions, Vol. L 

1919 Transactions, Vol. LI 























Maxwell Adams, 

George E. Windeatt, Major, 

Hon* General Secretaries, 


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[ 25] 


Passed at the Meeting at Totnes, 20th July, 1920. 

That Mr. Maxwell Adams, Sir A. Croft, Mr. W. P. Hiern, 
Mr. H. K. Watkin, Rev. J. F. Chanter, and Lady Radford be 
a Committee for the purpose of considering at what place the 
Association shall hold its Annual Meetings, and who shall be 
invited to fill any official vacancy or vacancies which may occur ; 
and that Mr. Maxwell Adams be the Secretary. 

That Mr. J. S. Amery, Mr. G. M. Doe, Mr. E. A. S. Elliot, 
Mr. H. Montagu Evans, and Mr. H. B. S. Woodhouse be a 
Committee for the purpose of noting the discovery or occurrence 
of such facts in any department of scientific inquiry, and connected 
with Devonshire, as it may be desirable to place on permanent 
record, but which may not be of sufficient importance in them- 
selves to form the subjects of separate papers ; and that Mr. G. M, 
Doe be the Secretary. 

That Rev. S. Baring-Gould, Mr. R. Pearse Chope, Mr. G. M. 
Doe, Mr. T. Cann Hughes, Mr. J. S. Neck, Lady Radford, 
Mrs. Rose-Troup, and Mr. H. B. S. Woodhouse be a Committee for 
the purpose of collecting notes on Devonshire Folk-lore ; and that 
Lady Radford be the Secretary. 

That Mr. J. S. Amery, Rev. J. F. Chanter, Mr. R. Pearse Chope, 
Miss C. E. Larter, Mr. C. H. Laycock, Rev. G. D. Melhuish, 
Rev. 0. J. Reichel, and Mrs. Rose-Troup be a Committee for the 
purpose of noting and recording the existing use of any Verbal 
Provincialisms in Devonshire, in either written or spoken language ; 
and that Mr. C. H. Laycock and the Rev. 0. J. Reichel be the 

That Rev. S. Baring-Gould and Mr. R. Hansford Worth be 
a Committee to collect and record facts relating to Barrows in 
Devonshire, and to take steps, where possible, for their investi- 
gation ; and that Mr. R. Hansford Worth be the Secretary. 

That Mr. J. S. Amery, Mr. A. H. Dymond, and Major R. C. 
Tucker be a Committee for the purpose of making arrangements 
for an Association Dinner or any other form of evening entertain- 
ment as they may think best in consultation with the local 
Committee; and that Major R. C. Tucker be the Secretary. 

.That Mr. J. S. Amery, Sir Alfred W. Croft, and Mr. R. Hans- 
ford Worth be a Committee to collect and tabulate trustworthy and 

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comparable observations on the Climate of Devon ; and that Mr. 
R. Hansford "Worth be the Secretary. 

That Mr. R. Pearse Chope, Mr. T. Cann Hughes, Mr. F. W. 
Chanter, and Mr. E. Windeatt be a Committee for the purpose of 
investigating and reporting on any Manuscripts, Records, or Ancient 
Documents existing in, or relating to, Devonshire, with the nature 
of their contents, their locality, and whether in public or private 
hands ; and that Mr. E. Windeatt be the Secretary. 

That Mr. J. S. Amery, Rev. S. Baring-Gould, Mr. J. D. Pode, 
and Mr. R. Hansford Worth be a Committee for the purpose of 
exploring Dartmoor and the Camps in Devon; and that the 
Rev. S. Baring-Gould be the Secretary. 

That Mr. Maxwell Adams, Rev. J. F. Chanter, Mr. R. Pearse 
Chope, Col. Arthur B. Prowse, and Major G. Windeatt be a 
Committee, with power to add to their number, for compiling 
complete Indexes to the First and Second Series of the Trans- 
actions ; and that the Rev. J. F. Chanter be the Secretary. 

That Mr. Maxwell Adams/Mr. J. S. Amery, Mr. T. Cann Hughes, 
Miss B. Cresswell, Rev. 0. J. Reichel, Mr. A. J. Y. Radford, Mr. 
A. L. Radford, Mr. Harbottle Reed, Major George E. Windeatt, and 
Rev. J. F. Chanter be a Committee, with power to add to their 
number, to prepare a detailed account of the Church Plate of the 
County of Devon; and that Mr. Harbottle Reed and the Rev. 
J. F. Chanter be the joint Secretaries. 

That Miss Rose E. Carr-Smith, Miss Chichester, Mr. G. T. 
Harris, Mr. W. P. Hiern, Miss C. E. Larter, Mr. C. H. Laycock, 
Mr. C. V. B. Marquand, Mr. H. G. Peacock, Miss C. Peck, and 
Col. A. B. Prowse be a Committee, with power to add to their 
number, for the purpose of investigating matters connected with 
the Flora and Botany of Devonshire ; and that Miss C. E. Larter 
be the Secretary. 

That Mr. Maxwell Adams, Mr. J. S. Amery, Rev. S. Baring- 
Gould, Rev. J. F. Chanter, Mr. W. E. P. Chappie, Mr. R. Pearse 
Chope, Mr. A. W. Clayden, Miss B. F. Cresswell, Mr. G. M. Doe, 
Mr. M. T. Foster, Mr. T. V. Hodgson, Rev. S. M. Nourse, 
Mr. H. Lloyd Parry, CoL A. B. Prowse, Mr. A. L. Radford, 
Lady Radford, Mr. Harbottle Reed, Mr. F. R. Rowley, Mr. H. 
Tapley-Soper, Mr. H. R. Watkin, Mr. E. Windeatt, Mr. G. D. 
Woollcombe, and Mr. R. Hansford Worth be a Committee for 
preparing a list of "Ancient Monuments" in the county of Devon, 
which it is considered desirable should be handed over, with the 
consent of their owners, to the custody of the First Commissioner 
of Works, under the provisions of the Acts of 1882, 1900, 
1913, with the view to their preservation and protection ; 
and that Mr. A. L. Radford and Miss Radford be the joint 

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That the Rev. J. A. BaUeine, Rev. J. F. Chanter, Mr. R. Pearse 
Chope, Mr. C. H. Laycock, Col. Arthur B. Prowse, Rev. O. J. 
Reichel, Mr. F. W. Chanter, Mrs. Rose-Troup, and Mr. H. B. S. 
Woodhouse be a Committee for the purpose of collecting and 
recording information concerning Place-Names and Field-Names in 
Devonshire ; and that Col. Arthur B. Prowse be the Secretary. 

That Mr. Maxwell Adams, Rev. J. F. Chanter, Mr. Hugh R. 
Watkin, Mr. H. B. S. Woodhouse, Miss B. F. Cresswell, Mr. R. 
Burnet Morris, Mr. J. Northmore, and Mr. H. Tapley-Soper be a 
Committee for the compilation of a Bibliography of the County of 
Devon ; and that Mr. R. Burnet Morris be the Secretary. 

That Mr. J. J. Alexander, Rev. J. F. Chanter, Mr. R. Pearse 
Chope, Prof. W. J. Harte, Lady Radford, Mrs. Rose-Troup, Mr. 
Hugh R. Watkin, and Mr. E. Windeatt be a Committee with 
power to add to their number, for the purpose of collecting and 
arranging inf6rmation relating to the history of Devon and its 
inhabitants during the first ten centuries of the Christian Era, and 
that Mr. Alexander be the Secretary. 

That Mr. J. J. Alexander, Rev. E. S. Chalk, Mr. W. E. Pitfield 
Chappie, Mr. G. M. Doe, Mr. M. T. Foster, Mr. C. H. Laycock, 
Mr. R. Hansford Worth, and Mr. Harbottle Reed be a Committee, 
with power to add to the number, for the purpose of preparing 
a list of all mediaeval Bells in Devonshire and for taking steps 
for their preservation ; and that Mr. W. E. Pitfield Chappie be the 


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[ 28] 

JULY, 1920. 

The 59th Annual Meeting of the Association was held at 
Totnes for the third time on the 20th to 23rd July, 1920, 
the two previous visits having been in 1880 and 1900 

On Tuesday, the 20th July, a meeting of the Council 
was held at 2 p.m. in the Gate House Room, which was 
followed by a General Meeting of the members at 3.30 p,m., 
at which, among other business, the election of fifty-four 
new members was confirmed and the Hon. General 
Secretary submitted the Report of the Coun6il (see p. 22). 

On behalf of Professor Harte, Mr. Tapley Soper appealed 
to the members for assistance in the production of a 
standard history of Exeter. It was rather a reflectibn that 
no such publication existed. The histories existing were 
based upon Hoker's, written in the sixteenth century, and 
recent research had put out of court statements laid down 
in Freeman's work. Many eminent people had promised 
to assist in the production of a real authoritative and 
standard history. The idea was that members should pro- 
duce monographs, which' would be digested by an Editorial 
Committee, and it was hoped at some time to publish it as a 
whole, with a smaller history from the greater work. 

At 4.30 p.m. a Civic Reception was given to the Associa- 
tion at the Guildhall, where there was a large attendance. 
The Mayor (Mr. B. W. Hayman) extended a very hearty 
welcome, and said his pleasure was greatly enhanced, by 
the fact that the President for the year was his lifelong 
friend, Mr. E. Windeatt. He understood that the Associa- 
tion was doing very useful work, in connection with the 
county, in bringing to their notice the history of many 
notable men and making the stone monuments of the 
county speak to them. He trusted the meetings would 
extend that knowledge very extensively. Totnes people 

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were a little and a humble people, but a proud people. 
They were inhabitants of the fairest county of the King- 
dom, and Totnes people dwelt in its fairest part. They 
had the most lovely scenery to be found in the world, with 
a river of surpassing beauty. The town was celebrated for 
its antiquities. They had a lovely old castle, which he 
hoped one day would be, if not handed over to the inhabi- 
tants, opened free to them ; they had a beautiful church, 
and old buildings with beautiful ceilings. They hoped the 
Association would have a really enjoyable time, and go 
back to their homes saying what a nice lot of people there 
were in Totnes and what a lovely neighbourhood they 

Mr. C. F. Rea joined in the welcome, and said they were 
proud that the town should have sufficient interest to 
attract such a learned Association. They were proud to 
think Totnes was of importance something like one 
thousand years ago, and that it was fortified, if not by 
King Alfred, by one of his successors as part of the national 
scheme against the Danes. It was an important town 
under William the Conqueror, when the keep of the Castle 
was built, and had still part of the old Saxon wall. It had 
played its part in all the events of English history. They 
were proud that the local Antiquarian Society was able to 
lend its President to the Devonshire Association. 

Dr. Allen, in acknowledging the welcome, said Totnes 
was one of the most attractive places for the Association, 
and the fact that it was so full of antiquities made it 
specially interesting. One of the great objects of the 
Association was to study the past and keep records of the 
things which were disappearing. Among the papers to be 
read was one on " The Flies of Devon," which were to be 
catalogued and named. Many years ago naturalists 
visiting the tropics studied the flies, including mosquitoes. 
One of the great enemies to white men living in the tropics 
was malarial disease, and directly it was found to be 
spread by mosquitoes the information needed by scientists 
was found in the old naturalists' work which proved to be 
of the utmost importance. He expressed the indebtedness 
of the members to the Council for their kind reception, 
and for the arrangements made for the entertainment and 
comfort of the members. 

On the invitation of the Mayor and Mayoress, the 
members partook of tea at the Temperance Hall, and 

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afterwards visited the Castle, by the kind permission of His 
Grace the Duke of Somerset. 

In the evening at 8.30 p.m., at the Seven Stars Assembly 
Room, Col. A. B. Prowse, who presided, announced that 
the Dean of Exeter, the retiring President, was unable to 
attend. He said the President-Elect needed no introduction 
to Devonshire men, for he was well-known throughout the 
county, had been most active over a long series of years 
in every good work — public work and other — and had 
contributed over thirty papers to the Association. That 
showed that he had been long connected with the Associa- 
tion, and had done his duty. He was sure that Mr. 
Windeatt would make a most excellent President and that 
the Association would look back upon his Presidential 
duties with very great pleasure and satisfaction. 

The President then delivered his Address (p. 48), on 
the conclusion of which the Mayor moved a vote of thanks 
to the President for his deeply interesting paper, not only 
to Totnes, but to the County and the Association. He 
understood Mr. Windeatt joined the Association in 1875. 
In 1880, when the Association visited Totnes for the first 
time, he acted as Hon. Secretary ; in 1900, at the second 
visit, he was a Vice-President ; and now, twenty years 
afterwards, he was President, and he thought they would 
agree that he had found the position he ought to occupy. 
Mr. Maxwell Adams seconded, and the vote was accorded 
and acknowledged. 

On Wednesday, the 21st July, the reading of the 
Reports and Papers was commenced at 10 a.m. in the 
Gate House Room, with the President in the chair, and 
during the discussion which followed the reading of the 
Report of the Bibliography Committee, Mr. Tapley Soper 
remarked that the parish registers in many cases were 
very neglected, and if the Government or a Central 
Authority took charge of them the better it would be for 
their safe keeping. Mr. Soper added that he knew of 
cases where parish registers and churchwardens' books had 
been sold, and had himself acquired some in the public 
interest so that they should be preserved. 

The President mentioned that the registers of a South 
Devon parish were sold a few years ago with a heap of 
rubbish for twelve shillings. The purchaser re-sold them 
to the next Rector, who reclaimed the money from him. 
Two copies of the register were made, of which he had one. 

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In the afternoon the members drove to Berry Pomeroy 
Church, which was inspected, subsequently proceeding to 
Berry Pomeroy Castle, where they were entertained at tea 
by the President and Mrs. E. Windeatt. 

At Berry Pomeroy Church the President read a descrip- 
tive paper, and the Rev. W. Aitcheson showed the church 

In the evening it had been intended by the Totnes 
Antiquarian Society to hold a conversazione on the Island, 
but owing to weather uncertainty the Seven Stars Assembly 
Room was utilised for it. Alderman C. F. Rea extended a 
welcome which the President, who is also President of the 
Antiquarian Society, acknowledged. Music was played by 
the Totnes Borough Band (under the baton of Mr. R. 
Castleman) in the hotel garden, and in the hall the boys' 
choir of the Grammar School rendered the songs, " Drake 
goes West," " Nelson's gone a-sailing," and " Your 
England and mine." The President expressed apprecia- 
tion of their services and complimented Mr. C. H. Phelps 
(their instructor and accompanist) on their success, 
following which they added the School song, " Floreat 
Totnesia." Major G. E. Windeatt sang " Tavistock 
Goosey Fair" and "Widecombe Fair"; Mr. Laycock, 
" Out 'pon Dartymoor " and " The road to Moreton," and 
the President gave some Devonshire yarns, and a most 
enjoyable evening was spent. 

On Thtjbsday, the 22nd July, the reading of the Papers 
was resumed at 10 a.m. in the Gate House Room, with the 
President in the chair. With reference to Dr. Elliot's 
paper on " The Migration of Salmon in the Rivers Avon 
and Erme," the President observed that when Dr. Brush- 
field read a paper on the subject of the apprentice clause 
in apprentice indentures, he proved to his own satisfaction 
that no such indentures existed. The offer of a reward had 
failed to produce such an indenture. Very probably, said 
the President, the clause was not in the indenture, but 
there was an understanding between servants and appren- 
tices and their masters that they were not to be given 
salmon more than twice weekly. * 

On the conclusion of the reading of the Papers a General 
Meeting of the members was held, at which votes of thanks 
were accorded to (a) His Grace the Duke of Somerset, for 
the use of the rooms so kindly placed at the disposal of 
the members for the meeting and for permission to visit 

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Totnes and Berry Pomeroy Castles ; (6) to the Local 
Secretary, Major G. E. Windeatt, for his efficient services, 
and (c) to His Worship the Mayor of Totnes and Miss 
Hayman, to the President and Mrs. Edward Windeatt, to 
the members of the Totnes Antiquarian Society, and to 
Sir Robert Harvey for their hospitality extended to the 
members during their visit to Totnes. 

This was followed by a meeting of the Council, at which, 
among other business, the Reports and Papers to be printed 
in the volume of Transactions for 1920 was determined. 

In the afternoon the members proceeded to Harberton 
Church, and subsequently to a garden party at Dundridge. 
Mr. H. R. Watkin gave a description of the church. At 
Dundridge much interest was manifested in an ancient 
relic found ten feet below the surface during building 
operations in the village. It is probably a small coffin 
cover of slate bearing a primitive cross, dating from before 
the thirteenth century. The President moved a hearty 
vote of thanks to Sir R. Harvey for the splendid way in 
which he had entertained the members. He remarked 
that Sir Robert was a Vice-President of the Association in 
1900, and on the present occasion, and had been a member 
for twenty years. The Mayor (Mr. B. W. Hayman), who 
seconded, said Sir Robert was always ready to do what he 
could to promote the interests of Totnes. Sir Robert 
Harvey, in reply, recalled that the President, twenty years 
ago, invited him to make a speech to the Association on a 
subject he knew nothing about. Like most M.P.'s, who 
spoke with similar lack of knowledge, he acquitted himself 
very well. Ever since he had taken a particular interest in 
the Association. Their appreciation was quite sufficient to 
repay him for any services he had rendered them. 

In the evening, at the Seymour Hotel Assembly Room, 
Mr. R. Hansford Worth, F.G.S., gave a lecture, illustrated 
with forty-six slides, on " Flint : Its origin, history, and 
use," of which the following is an abstract : 

The lecturer stated the chemical composition of flint 
&nd briefly described the various forms in which silica 

He said that flint was unlike other rocks in that it never 
occurred in considerable continuous masses. Its natural 
home was in chalk, when found elsewhere it was either 
detrital or the residue left on the removal of chalk beds 
by solution. 

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Chalk, at the time of its first deposit on the bed of the 
sea, contained the skeletons or pustules of organisms which 
secreted silica in the form of opal. This opal was soluble 
and was removed in solution from the general mass of the 
chalk, leaving clear evidence of its previous existence. It 
was, however, redeposited locally within the chalk, at 
points where either silica was in the first place unusually 
abundant, or upon joint faces and in planes of bedding. 
Its re-deposit largely took the form of replacement of the 
carbonate of lime of the chalk and hence it was a pseudo- 
morph of that material in chalcedonic silica. This bringing 
of scattered particles together into segregations was 
paralleled by the formation of mineral veins, and in each 
case enabled man to utilise materials otherwise inaccessible. 

The even grain and uniform texture of flint gave it a 
oonstancy of fracture, and enabled man to fashion tools 
and weapons from it with freedom and certainty. Its 
toughness, hardness, and uniform structure fitted it to 
yield sharp-cutting edges by simple fracture. 

It was the first raw material used by mankind in the 
handicrafts ; the discovery of its properties and practice 
in handling it left man, not only a craftsman but an 
artist. Slides were shown by the help of which the gradual 
development of the art of flint working was illustrated. 
The earlier and more massive implements showed a. 
certainty of handling and a comprehension of the qualities 
of the material which enabled definite forms to be repro- 
duced at will, and there was obvious intent on the part of 
the workman to adhere to what might be considered 
standard patterns. Later, more delicate objects were 
fashioned, and some of these were finished with a minute 
attention to effect which added nothing to the usefulness 
of the tool or weapon, but could only be considered as the 
practice of art for art's sake. Most' of the slides were 
taken from tools and implements found in Devonshire. 

The lecturer claimed that with the use of flint there 
originated the earliest commerce in the raw material of a 
handicraft ; and with the development of its manufacture 
into tools and weapons man became as skilled in craftsman-" 
*hip as he ever has been at any later date. 

The Stone Age was worthy of close and loving study if 
we would realise the influence exerted by the discovery of 
•a tractable material upon the progress of our race. 

Major William J. S. Lockyer, who followed, described 

vol. Ln. c 

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the work of the Hill Observatory at Salcombe Regis, 
which he illustrated by the use of photographic slides. 

During the visit of the Association, Rev. W. T. Wellacott 
(vicar) met parties in the Parish Church, where he showed 
the valuable church plate and pointed out various features 
of interest. 

The Totnes Antiquarian Society arranged an exhibition, 
of which Mr. H. R. Watkin kindly took charge. 

On Friday, the 23rd July, a party of about fifty, includ- 
ing the President and Mrs. Windeatt, left in two motor 
char-&-bancs, proceeding via Newton Abbot, Bovey Tracey, 
Manaton, and Postbridge to Two Bridges. Unfortunately 
the weather was inclement, and the party had to forego the 
pleasure of visiting Wistman's Wood and Crockern Tor, as 
was contemplated. After lunch, before setting out to visit 
the Baredown Clapper Bridge and the Inscribed Stones, 
Lieut.-Col. Prowse gave a description of the antiquities 
and other features of interest around Wistman's Wood 
and Crockern Tor, prefaced by a few general remarks. 
He, said : 

Dartmoor consists of a central area, " Dartmoor Forest," 
and a surrounding belt of Commons belonging to the 
parishes contiguous to it. The boundary line of the 
" Forest " is 42 miles long. Its area is about 55,500 acres ; 
and, as that of the Commons is much the same, the two 
together equal 175 square miles, i.e. about one-fourteenth 
the area of Devon, 2534 square miles. Lydford Parish 
(88 square miles), which includes the " Forest," is the 
largest in England. 

The Forest from north to south is 17 miles long : its width 
is 7£ miles. It is divided into four " quarters," so-called, 
which are very irregular in shape. The East and West 
quarters are contiguous for about 4£ miles ; and midway 
in the distance stands, and has for many centuries stood, 
the dwarfed and quaint Wistman's Wood. The northern 
end of this line of contact is where the North, East, and 
West quarters meet in " Horse Hole, 9 ' half a mile N.N.E. of 
Devil's Tor, and the monolith called " Baredown Man" 
The southern end of the line is where the West Dart is 
joined by a small stream, the Cholake ; and here the South 
quarter begins. 

About 1620 the county historian Risdon said there 
were three remarkable things to be seen in the " Forest," 
(1) Crockern Tor,' (2) Wistman's Wood, and (3) Childe's 

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Tomb. If we limit the area to be considered to-day to a 
circle of, roughly, 2£ miles radius around Wistman's 
Wood, the last of Risdon's notable objects is two miles 
beyond it in a S. by E. direction. 

Commencing with the other two, about which he gave 
some historical notes, Col. Prowse mentioned the various 
antiquities in the area in succession, beginning with those 
on the east, and passing round by the north, west, and 
south back to the starting-point. 

References were given to the volumes of our Transactions 
(Vols. XXIII, XXXIII, and XXXVI) in which detailed 
descriptions of the larger groups of antiquities are to be 
found, while the other isolated and scattered ones were 
more particularly mentioned. 

Special allusion was made to three trackways which 
traverse parts of the area described: (1) The Lick Paih r 
which crosses the hillside obliquely above Wistman's Wood, 
between it and Longaford Tor. (2) The Great Central 
Trackway, which passes eastwards from Lower White Tor 
through Postbridge towards Hamildon, and (3) a Trackway, 
or small bank, which apparently begins in the Clitter below 
Sharpitor, and runs thence N.E. through a group of hut 
circles and enclosures below Leedon Tor ; then to another 
group west of " Double Waters," and a third group N.W. 
of Devil's Gully (on the Princetown-Dousland road), 
and so over the lower slopes of North Hessary to the 
Prison enclosures a short distance higher than the large 
granite pit above Princetown station. It cannot, of 
course, now be found and traced over the cultivated 
ground ; but its direction leads straight towards Bare- 
down Clapper Bridge, which is approached from the west 
by a bank or causeway traceable for about two hundred 
and fifty yards. It then probably made for the great 
aboriginal settlement near Postbridge. 

Under somewhat better conditions in the afternoon the 
party inspected the Clapper Bridge, over the Cowsic, and 
Col. Prowse pointed out the inscribed stones adjoining it. 
After tea at Two Bridges a pleasant return journey was 
made by way of Dartmeet, New Bridge, Holne Chase, and 
Ashburton to Totnes. 

Thus ended one of the pleasantest and most instructive 
meetings in the annals of the Association. 

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@foituarp Notices* 

PJjter Gillard Bond. Mr. Bond, who joined the 
Association in 1901, died at Plymouth on the 2nd Septem- 
ber, 1919, after an illness of considerable duration. A 
native of Kingsbridge, and the son of a yeoman, he, while 
still in his teens, left home, and obtained employment 
with a noted firm of chemists in London. Whilst so 
engaged he saved enough money to pay his student's fees 
in order to realize his ambition of becoming a qualified 
veterinary surgeon. At the Royal College of Veterinary 
Surgeons, London, he distinguished himself, being a silver 
medallist in cattle pathology and first Fitzwygram prize- 
man in 1886. In the same year he established himself at 
Plymouth, and founded an extensive practice in South 
Devon and East Cornwall. For many years he had been 
an inspector under the Board of Agriculture. Among 
those who retained his services were successive Earls of 
St. Germans, the late Mr. Charles Trelawny and Mr. W, 
Coryton, and the Corporation of Plymouth. 

For many years he was a keen follower of the Dartmoor 
hounds, under three M.F.H.'s, and was greatly respected 
by them all. In addition to his professional work, he did 
a great deal, and at his own cost, to promote a better class 
of horse-breeding in the district, and for that was warmly 
commended by officials of the Board of Agriculture. He 
was also a member of the Plymouth Institution and a 
frequent lecturer before that Society. 

He leaves a widow, to whom will be extended the sym- 
pathy of a large circle of friends who esteemed her husband 
for his skill and knowledge, sterling integrity, and a never- 
failing geniality and desire to serve. 

Fanny Louise Burnard. Mrs. Robert Burnard, who 
joined the Devonshire Association in 1887, was the eldest 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. S. H. Pearce of Paignton, Devon, 
and was born on the 19th November, 1851. She married, 
6th April, 1871, Mr. Robert Burnard at Wolborough Church, 

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Newton Abbot, and died at Plymouth 17th August, 1919, 
and was buried at Stoke-in-Teignhead. 

Mrs. Burnard was keetoly interested in the Exploration, 
of Dartmoor, and was an active helper of the Rev. S. 
Baring-Gould and of her husband in their labours in that 
direction. She was specially interested, however, in old 
china, glass, lace, and engravings, of each of which sh& 
formed fine collections. 

Mrs. Burnard took an active part in the arrangements 
for the reception and entertainment of the Association 
when that body visited Princetown in 1905, and the success 
of that meeting was greatly due to her efforts. 

Robert Burnard, j.p., f.s.a. Mr. Robert Burnard 
who died on the 15th April, 1920, was the son of the late 
Mr. Charles Frederick Burnard, one of the founders of the 
firm of Burnard, Lack, and Alger, manufacturers of 
chemical and other fertilizers, Mayor of Plymouth in 1881-2 
•and Liberal candidate for St. Ives not long before the 
borough was disfranchised. Mr. Robert Burnard wa» 
associated with his father and his father's partners in the 
business. Eventually the style of the firm was changed 
to Burnard and Alger, Ltd., of which at the time of his 
death he was the senior partner. The business, originally 
located in Sutton Road, was removed to Cattedown during 
the lifetime of Mr. C. F. Burnard, and the waterside 
premises then acquired were later developed by the late 
Mr. W. H. Alger and Mr. R. Burnard for important deep- 
water wharves, with spacious warehouses and modem 
equipment, thereby adding greatly to the accommodation 
of the port. Mr. Burnard was for many years chairman of 
the Cattewater Harbour Commission. 

In politics he took an active part, especially in the 
Tavistock Division, and was a supporter of the Liberal 
party. He was chairman of its divisional association, and 
proved an effective platform speaker, working hard to 
secure the return of the late Mr. Hugh F. Luttrell. Prob- 
ably very few politicians aroused less personal enmity by 
their political activities. In the split over the Home Rule 
Bill he remained loyal to Mr. Gladstone. In all matters, 
public and personal, he kept an unruffled temper, while 
resolutely maintaining his views. 

% Successful as a business man, and one to whom the town 
and port of Plymouth was indebted for the growth and 

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maintenance of trade, he carried the same thoroughness 
into other interests, and especially to the protection of the 
public rights on Dartmoor and the exploration of the 
antiquities of the moorland. Although a lifetime lover of 
the moor, it was not until the year 1887 that he published 
any paper on the subject of its antiquities. In that year 
he read before the Plymouth Institution a communication 
entitled. " Recent Dredging in Cattewater," a subject 
which led him to the consideration of the early miners and 
their works, the result being that in 1888 he contributed a 
paper on " The Track of the Old Men, Dartmoor." Once 
started on this line of research, he pursued it with patience 
and with a happy contempt for the merely speculative. 
This soon earned for him the repute of being one of the 
soundest and best-informed of our local archaeologists, 
especially upon matters prehistoric. In 1891-92 he was 
president of the Plymouth Institution. 

In 1894, dissatisfied with a mere superficial knowledge 
of Dartmoor which had been sufficient for earlier workers, 
■such as the Rev. E. Atkyns Bray and Mr. S. Rowe, he 
decided systematically to excavate the Hut Circles. " The 
Exploration of the Hut Circles in Broadun Ring and 
Broadun," published in the Transactions of the Devon- 
shire Association for that year, gave the first reliable 
account of the Hut Circles. In the same volume the first 
report of the Dartmoor Exploration Committee appeared, 
followed in subsequent years by many further Reports in 
the preparation of which he took a leading part. Grims- 
pound was thoroughly explored and the results described 
in the above-quoted Report. 

With the Rev. S. Baring-Gould, assisted by Mr. George 
French of Postbridge, over one hundred hut-circles, the 
stone rows, and such cairns as had not been rifled by tin- 
workers, were examined, establishing without doubt that 
all pertained to a period long anterior to tin mining on the 
moor, that is to the prehistoric age of flint, when bronze 
^was hardly known, ^and the belief that these stone monu- 
ments, hitherto supposed to be the work of the Druids, 
was without foundation. The next point he studied, also 
in collaboration with the Rev. S. Baring-Gould, was the 
period of the construction and occupation of the camps 
that surround Dartmoor. The Tregear Rounds in Corn- 
wall were similarly explored in company with the Rev. 
S. Baring-Gould, the Rev. J. K. Anderson of Petertavy 

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and Mr. J. D. Enys of Enys ; and again, in 1904, with the 
Rev. S. Baring-Gould, other explorations were made in 
Wales. In Cornwall, the camp explored in St. Kew parish, 
supposed to belong to the Arthurian period, proved to be 
prehistoric and no trace of British occupation was found, 
and as to the Welsh Camps, though the majority were 
prehistoric, there was evidence of later occupation. But 
the camps about Dartmoor proved to be all prehistoric, 
without any traces of British or Saxon occupation, and in 
some,, notably in that on Whit Tor, there were several 
cairns of stones supposed to be raised over the dead. In 
some of the Welsh Camps where similar cairns existed, 
when cleared away they were found to be piles of stones, 
collected as ammunition for defensive purposes, without 
any traces of burial. 

In 1895 he co-operated with the late Mr. Thurstan C. 
Peter in the exploration of Cam Br&, near Redruth, and 
important results followed their efforts. Later, he was 
associated with the excavations near Harlyn Bay, near 
Padstow, in which, however, he did not take a leading part. 
His connection with the Dartmoor Preservation Asso- 
ciation should especially be placed to his credit. His own 
contribution to its publications, " Plundered Dartmoor," 
is as important to those who wish to preserve it for the 
public as are his antiquarian papers to workers in that 
field. He advocated the acquisition of the moor as a 
county park by the Devon County Council. Although he 
failed to realize. that ideal, he was ever on the alert when 
public rights on the moor and its prehistoric relics were 
menaced, as they often were. To the end his interests in 
the moor never slackened, and in August, 1919, from a very • 
' sick bed he wrote a letter, published in the Western Morning 
News, protesting against the spoliation of Dartmoor by 
contemplated schemes of land reclamation and the utiliza- 
tion of its waters at disfiguring electric-power stations. 

A photographer of ability, he published in four volumes 
"Dartmoor Records," with illustrations reproduced by a 
permanent process from his own negatives. The pictures 
are typical of the moor in its many phases, and the books 
hold an assured place in local literature. 

In addition to the Reports of the Dartmoor Exploration 
Committee, Mr. Burnard contributed several papers to the 
Transactions of the Devonshire Association of which the 
following are the principal, viz. : " Dartmoor Stone 

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Implements and Weapons " (XXIX, 378) ; " News from 
the West " (XXI, 210) ; " Notes on Dartmoor Kistvaens '" 
(XXII, 200) ; " The Great Central Trackway— Dartmoor " 
(XXI, 431) ; " The Ancient Population of the Forest of 
Dartmoor " (XXXIX, 198). 

Inl900, Mr. Burnard was elected a Fellow of the Society 
of Antiquaries. For many years he was a member of the 
Teign Naturalists Field Club, an honorary F.S.A. of 
Scotland, and a Justice of the Peace. He joined the 
Devonshire Association in 1887, acted as one of, the 
Honorary General Secretaries in 1908-9, and was President 
in 1911, when the Association met at Dartmouth. t In his 
address he sketched the low conditions of Dartmoor and 
the South of England during the prehistoric period as 
compared with the more advanced civilization of Egypt 
during the same and even earlier times. 

In 1904 Mr. Burnard gave up his home at Hillsborough, 
Plymouth, and for about seven years lived at Huccaby 
House, seven miles from Princetown on the West Dart. 
More recently he lived at Stoke-in-Teignhead, and after- 
wards made Torquay his home. He travelled abroad in 
later years, visiting the Malay Peninsula, and making more 
than one journey to Egypt, the antiquities of which country 
especially interested him. This was evidenced by seven 
lectures which he delivered at the Plymouth Institution, 
including " A Dreamer of Ancient Egypt— Akenaton," given 
in 1917, and "Crafts and Customs of Ancient Egypt" in 1918. 

Mr. Burnard married, 6th April, 1871, Fanny Louise, 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. S. H. Pearce of Paignton, who 
died 17th August, 1919, and leaves four children : Mr. 
Lawrence Burnard, a director of the firm of Burnard and 
Alger, Ltd., and a son-in-law of the Rev. S. Baring-Gould ; 
Major Charles Burnard, d.s.o. ; Mrs. Munday, wife of 
Surgeon-Corn. Munday, c.b., b.n. ; and Mrs. Lake, the 
wife of the Rev. K. A. Lake, rector of Stoke-in-Teignhead. 

By his death the Association loses one of its most 
esteemed and valued members and his friends a much 
loved comrade. To quote the Rev. S. Baring-Gould — an 
opinion shared by all who knew him — " his sweet placable 
temper, his kindliness and courtesy to all, made every one 
who knew him, esteem him highly." 1 

1 For many of the particulars contained in this memoir, the Editor 
is greatly indebted to the Rev. S. Baring-Gould and the Western Morning 
News, and gratefully acknowledges the same. 

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Samuel Grose, m.d., f.r.c.s. Dr. Grose, who became 
a member of the Devonshire Association in 1896, was born 
at Great Torrington in 1837, and after studying for the 
medical profession at St. Thomas's Hospital, London, 
entered the Royal Navy, as Assistant Surgeon, in 1862, 
from which he retired, through ill-health, in 1874, and 
settled in civil practice at Melksham in Wiltshire. In 
1871 he married Mary Cicilia Rossell, who died in June, 

In 1895 he removed to Torquay and joined the Torquay 
Natural History Society, and was a member of the Com- 
mittee of Management till he resigned, on his removal to 
Bishopsteignton, in 1902. While residing in Torquay, 
Dr. Grose was a frequent lecturer and regular attendant 
at the monthly meetings of that Society. He was also' a 
member of the Wiltshire Archaeological Society and of the 
Teign Naturalists Field Club. 

His death, which took place on 13th December, 1919, 
removes a well-known figure from the meetings of the 
Devonshire Association and of the Teign Naturalists Field 
Club, by the members of both of which he was much liked, 
his kindly nature endearing him to all. His loss will be 
greatly felt. 

Rt. Hon. Sir John Henry Kennaway, Bart., m.a., 
p.c. Sir John Kennaway, who joined the Association in 
1872, died on the 7th September, 1919 in his eighty-third 

Late in the eighteenth century Richard .and John 
Kennaway, second and third sons of an Exeter merchant, 
left home for Bengal and were shipwrecked at the mouth 
of the Ganges. Both were saved and entered the service 
of the East India Company, one in a civil and the other in 
a military capacity. John, in 1780, was given a com- 
mission as Captain by General Sir Eyre Coote, and served 
in the Carnatic during the invasion of Hyder Ali, and in 
1788, while aide-de-camp to the Marquis Cornwallis, was 
sent as envoy to the Court of Hyderabad, in which he was 
eminently successful and soon afterwards concluded a 
treaty of alliance with the Nizam against Tippoo Sultan, 
for which services he was created a baronet in 1791, and a 
year later adjusted a definite treaty of peace with Tippoo 

After a long sojourn in India both brothers returned to 

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England. Richard never married, but Sir John married 
and purchased the Escot estate near Ottery St. Mary. 
The original mansion was built by Inigo Jones, and had 
long been the seat of the Yonge family. This Was burnt 
to the ground, and the second baronet, before erecting a 
new house, built the present little Escot Church where the 
family, servants, and tenants worship and lie buried. The 
building of the present mansion began in 1838 — thirty 
years after the fire — and the corner-stone is inscribed to 
the effect that the late Sir John, then a babe in arms, 
laid it. 

Sir John Henry Kennaway, the elder son of the second 
baronet, who married Emily Frances, daughter of Thomas 
Kingscote of Kingscote in Gloucester, was born at Escot 
in 1837, and was educated at Harrow under Dr. Vaughan, 
and at Balliol College,- Oxford, where his room was next 
to Jowett's. He graduated M.A. and was called to the Bar 
at the Inner Temple in 1864 and went on the Western 
Circuit, the leaders of which were Coleridge, Karslake, 
Eongdon, and Kinglake. Subsequently, he went on a tour 
in Greece, the Crimea, and the Holy Land. At the close 
of the Civil War in America he visited that country, the 
outcome of which was his interesting work, entitled On 
Sherman's Track. 

In 1870 Sir John entered Parliament as Conservative 
member for East Devon, and when the Qounty was divided 
into single member constituencies Sir John took the 
Honiton division and Sir William Walrond the Tiverton. 
He retired from Parliament in 1910, having sat there for 
forty years without interruption, having, on the death of 
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, become " father of the 
House of Commons." 

In 1873, on the death of his father, he succeeded to the 
baronetcy. In 1897 he was appointed a Privy Councillor, 
while at King Edward's Coronation he was made a C.B. in 
consideration of his eminent services as a Volunteer. For 
many years he was President of the Church Missionary 
Society, and of the London Society for Promoting Chris- 
tianity among the Jews. 

Sir John married in 1866 Fanny, daughter of Archibald 
F. Arbuthnot, and is succeeded in the baronetcy by his 
only son John, born in April, 1879. 

Sir John was greatly honoured in his own county of 
which he was a Deputy-Lieutenant. To enumerate all the 

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charitable religious and educational institutions which he 
supported would be to name nearly all in Devon. 

The following is a sample of how his praises were sung 
by his adherents at election times : — 

A fine, gert man 
Is our Sir Jan, 

A gert, fine man is he : 
He has long been sent 
Up to Parl-y-ment, 

And he's good enough for we ! 

Neither State nor Church 
Will he leave in the lurch, 

For loyal is our M.P. ; 
He can speak out straight 
In any debate, 

And he's good enough for we ! 

Then let every man 
Vote for our Sir Jan, 

He's quite good enough for we ! 

William Charles Lake, m.d., m.b.c.s., l.s.a. By the 
death of Dr. Lake, on the 8th February, 1920, at the 
advanced age of 94, the Association has lost one of its 
oldest members. 

Dr. Lake was born at Teignmouth on July 9th, 1825, 
being the eldest son of Anthony Proctor Lake, surgeon. 
R.N., and of Elizabeth Kirsopp, both of Northumberland. 
He was educated at Exeter Grammar School under Dr. 
Mills, and could number amongst his schoolfellows Mr. 
J. H. Tozer, Mr. R. W. Templer, and Dr. Robert C. R. 
Jordan, uncle of Mr. W. F. C. Jordan. Dr. Lake followed 
his father's profession, and for a time was his father's pupil, 
and subsequently of the late Dr. Cartwright, of Brimley 
House. He completed his professional education at King's 
College, London, and at the University of St. Andrews, 
where he took his degree of M.D. He practised in Teign- 
mouth as a physician and surgeon for forty-two years, 
being Medical Officer of Health for fourteen years. He was 
one of the pioneers of the old Dispensary in Bitton Street 
and later joined the staff of the Teignmouth Infirmary and 
Dispensary. On the death of Capt. A. G. Paul, Dr. Lake 
was appointed Chairman of the Hospital Management 
Committee, and at the time of his death was consulting 
physician to the Institution. 

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During the cholera epidemic of 1867 Dr. Lake under- 
took the work in connection with the outbreak, and in 
many cases he actually laid out the dead bodies. He was 
presented with a clock and purse by the townspeople for 
his devoted and unselfish work. 

Dr. Lake became a member of the Devonshire Asso- 
ciation in 1871, and contributed, besides many papers on 
meteorology, a " Sketch of the History of Teignmouth " ; 
on the " Frosts of 1855 and 1895 as observed at Teign- 
mouth," and "Notes on the Origin of Teignmouth Streets 
and their Nomenclature." He was also a member of the 
Royal Meteorological Society and supplied meteorological 
observations for close on fifty years. 

He was for many years a sidesman of St. James's Church, 
and had written articles on the Books of the Bible for the 
Parish Magazine. He was chairman and one of the original 
trustees of the Risdon Charity which is distributed annually 
in the vestry of St. James's Church. In politics he was an 
enthusiastic Conservative and frequently presided at 
meetings of the party in the town. 

In the sixties Dr. Lake was a member of the now defunct 
Local Board, and the newspapers of those times bear 
witness of his keen interest in sanitary matters. 

He retired from practice in 1891 and was then the 
recipient of a public presentation. 

Having been born in the middle of the reign of George 
IV — thus having lived under five sovereigns — his reminis- 
cences of the past were most interesting. When at Exeter 
he often saw the mail coach pass over Cowley Bridge for 
London. He had travelled in Brunei's atmospheric rail- 
way, some of the towers of which yet remain. He remem- 
bered when the Tame Brook, which runs through the town, 
was an open stream with bridges for crossing" opposite the 
Royal Library and at the bottom of Orchard Gardens, and 
when the site of the railway station was an old farm, and 
when living in the house in which he was born in the Strand 
he had an uninterrupted view from his residence of the 
Den and the sea, and remembered the then Duchess of 
Clarence riding round the Den. He was one of the oldest 
and most esteemed and respected residents of Teignmouth. 
His affable and kind manner won a place in the hearts 
of rich and poor alike. A sincere Christian he was in 
every sense much beloved, and his loss will be greatly 

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Rev. William Emmanuel Pryke, m.a. The Rev. W. E. 
Pryke, who was Canon and Chancellor of Exeter Cathedral, 
was born in Cambridgeshire, the eldest child of a large 
family and its last survivor. He was educated at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, where he was a foundation scholar 
-and Naden Divinity Student, and ordained to a curacy at 
Stapleford, Cambridge, in 1867. For twenty-one years he 
was Headmaster of Lancaster School, and in 1893 he went 
to Devon as Rector of Marwood. He held the living for 
seven years and that of Ottery St. Mary for eight years, 
being appointed a Canon of Exeter in 1908 and Chancellor 
in 1915. He was a Proctor in Convocation of Canterbury 
irom 1906 till 1918, and was Select Preacher Cambridge 
University in 1873, 1887, and 1912. 

He joined the Devonshire Association as a Life Member 
in 1894. 

Chancellor Pryke was twice married. His first wife, 
Ellen, the eldest daughter of Mr. John Collier, died in 1873, 
having only lived one year after their marriage. In 1883 
he married a second time Harriet Mary, younger daughter 
of Dr. George Adams of Clifton, who, with their only child 
the Rev. W. Maurice Pryke, vicar of Bradninch, survives 

Chancellor Pryke died on the 1st February, 1920, in the 
77th year of his age. 

Herbert George Radford, f.s.a. Mr. Herbert Rad- 
ford, who became a member of the Devonshire Association 
in 1901, was born on the 24th July, 1860, and was the third 
and eldest surviving son of the late Daniel Radford, Esq., 
j.p., of Lydford and Mount Tavy, Tavistock. As a boy 
he was fond of outdoor sports, such as shooting, rowing, 
riding, and driving. His holidays were usually spent at 
Lydford, where he and his pony were f amiliar objects in the 
village, on the moor and in his father's woods. 

He entered his father's office, and Mr. Plowden, f.s.a., 
Secretary of the Meyrick Club — a club for the lovers of 
armour, of which Mr. Herbert Radford together with Sir 
Guy Laking, Messrs. Seymour Lucas, r.a., and Arthur 
Radford were the founders — writing of him says : — 

" When the firm was amalgamated with that of William 
■Cory and Son he became a Director from its inception as 
a Limited Company. He was possessed of great business 
•ability, and his astuteness, sagacity, and enterprise con- 

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tributed in no small degree to the success of this great 
combine ; but he had other interests at heart ; all his life 
he was an intelligent collector of objects of art, for which 
he had an intuitive perception ; he was very rarely at f ault, 
and whether it was armour, old furniture, clocks, or pic- 
tures, his judgment was equally keen and correct. He 
was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in 1902,. 
and became a member of the Archaeological Institute in 
1905. He was an original member of the Meyrick Society. 

" He was a most generous, kindly, and devoted friend,, 
and the writer of these lines, who knew him for nearly 
forty years, can say with confidence that he was one of the 
few men who never had any detractors. Popular with his 
employes and with his business clientele, he was loved and 
esteemed by those with whom he had a closer friendship. 
Socially, he was a most delightful and knowledgeable 
companion with a great sense of humour and a marvellous 
memory, but his humour was never mordant." 

In Mr. Radford's collection of armour was a pair of 
spurs which is thus described in Sir Guy Laking's Record 
of European Armour and Arms through Seven Centuries r 
" These spurs are remarkable examples of their kind, and 
may safely be assigned to the first half of the eleventh 
century " (Vol. I, p. 29). They are believed to be identical 
with those found in a stone coffin in Chardstock Church. 
See Pulman's Book of the Axe (Ed. 1875, p. 567). 

Mr. Radford died after a few days' illness from pneumonia- 
on the 19th March, 1920, at his home, Lested Lodge, Well 
Walk, Hampstead. 

Rev. Joseph Heald Ward, m.a. The Rev. J. H. 
Ward, who joined the Devonshire Association in 1901, 
was the son of Isaac Ward, Esq., of Clifton, near York, and 
was born in 1839. After graduating at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, he travelled on the Continent and did some 
Alpine mountaineering under the guidance of Mr. John 
Barrow of the Royal Society. 

In 1866 he became Curate to the Ven. Archdeacon 
Honey at Baverstoke, near Salisbury ; in 1869 he was 
presented by L6rd Portman to the Rectory of Gussage in 
Dorset, and in 1894 was instituted to the Rectory of 
Silverton in Devon, which living he resigned in 1909 and 
retired to Exmouth, where he died 22nd March, 1920. 

In 1868 he married Laetitia, younger daughter of Mr. 

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William Wyndham, and leaves one son, Francis Wyndham, 
of the Indian Civil Service, and two daughters, the elder of 
whom is married to the Rev. E. S. Chalk, m.a., Rector of 

Among his literary productions are papers on " Herrick " 
and on " Counsellor John Were of Silverton and the Siege 
of Extfter, 1645-6," both printed in the Transactions. 

Charles Henry Wethey. Mr. Wethey who joined the 
Association in 1900 was born at Exeter on 6th July, 1840. 
In 1863 he went to Canada and there obtained a post in 
the Imperial Bank of Canada, at Toronto, from which he 
retired in 1910. Returning to England in 1911 he settled 
at Shaldon, near Teignmouth, where he died on 6th 
February, 1920, after a painful illness extending over four 

Rev. William Wykes-Finch, m.a., j.p. The Rev. W. 
Wykes-Finch of the Monks, Chaddesley Corbett, Wor- 
cester, and of North Wyke, Devon, who joined the Devon- 
shire Association as a Life Member in 1895, was born at 
South Tawton on the 6th January, 1832, and was the son 
of Charles Finch and Sarah Bidgood, and grandson of 
Charles Finch and Mary Wykes, co-heiress of North 
Wyke. He proceeded to St. John's College, Cambridge, 
in October, 1854, and graduated B.A. (senior optim6) in 
1858. Ordained Deacon and Priest in the diocese 
of Chester, he held the cures of Sandbach, 1860-62; of 
Farnham, Dorset, 1862-64; and of Burmington, War- 
wickshire, 1864-80. He married, 27th February, 1862, 
Emily Dudley, daughter of Josiah Perrin, who predeceased 
him on 6th October, 1912, leaving no issue. 

Mr. Wykes-Finch was a Justice of the Peace for 
Worcestershire ; a member of the County Council for 
Worcester from 1894 to 1919 ; of the Kidderminster Board 
of Guardians, and of the Rural District Council, and took 
a keen interest in all matters archaeological, genealogical, 
and heraldic, especially of the West Country. He died 
25th March, 1920. 


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20th July, 1920. 


Last year a gentleman visited Totnes who was very 
much interested in antiquarian pursuits and was extremely 
struck with the many things of interest in this ancient 
Borough, and he told me in conversation that the thing 
which interested him most was " Brutus' Stone " in Fore 
Street, Totnes, and later, in writing to me, spoke of it as 
the most venerable and valuable treasure in Totnes. This 
somewhat surprised me because although I have been 
interested in this Stone, which I have known all my life, 
and upon which Proclamations of Sovereigns are always 
read, I knew its history rested largely upon what has been 
said to be the myth of Geoffrey of Monmouth. But on 
looking further into the matter I certainly came to the 
conclusion that the gentleman, to whom I have referred, 
had a good deal of reason for what he had said. I am, of 
course, aware that the late Mr. R. N. Worth, in a paper 
read before this Association at Totnes in July, 1880, 
entitled The Myth of Brutus the Trojan had, in a note to 
that paper, not read at the Meeting but afterwards 
printed with it in our Transactions, stated that an old 
inhabitant of Totnes had told him that he and his father 
had removed this Stone from a well which they were dig- 
ging about 60 years previous and had deposited it in its 
present position. This I knew, of course, to be quite 
incorrect, because John Prince, the author of Worthies of 
Devon, who was Vicar of Totnes in 1685, and afterwards 
of the adjoining living of Berry Pomeroy, had in his work, 
which was published in 1701, referred to the existence of 
the Stone. In his account of John Row, Sergeant-at-Law, 
one of his Worthies, he says : " Row, John, Sergeant-at- 
Law, was born in Totnes, a sweet and pleasant town, 


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situate on the crest of a hill lying east and weap a mile in 
length upon the ascent of a hill upon the west side of the 
river Dart which proceedeth from Dartmoor and which 
was heretofore navigable up to this towne and still is by 
small boats and barges with the* help of the tide which 
floweth nearly a mile above it," and he adds, " There yet 
remaineth towards the lower end of the town a certain 
rock still called Brute's Stone which tradition here, more 
pleasantly than positively, says that on that Brute first 
put his feet upon when he came ashore/' and in the 
account of the festivities which took place at Totnes in 
1814, after Napoleon had been sent to Elba, the Stone 
was referred to. And Mr. Cotton in his Oraphic and 
Historical Sketch of Totnes, published in 1850, also referred 
to its existence, so it is perfectly clear that the suggestion 
of its being dug out of a well about 1820 was a myth. 

Mr. Cotton says on page 32 of his History of Totnes : 
" Near the Archway is a rock projecting out of the ground 
on which a shop front formerly stood, and it is tradition- 
ally asserted that the Trojan, Brutus, first stepped ashore 
here, and that the sea formerly flowed up to this stone, 
which appears to be of a character of granite, and was 
levelled when the street was altered about 40 years ago. 
Before that period it was about 18 inches high. The 
stone is still visible being about the level of the foot pave- 
ment outside the south wall of a house belonging to John 
Bartlett, Esq., just opposite the Corn Market, and what 
now remains is a superficial surface of about 2 feet in 
length (it is really 2 feet 4 inches long) and 18 inches in 
width, shaped like a kidney bean. It was the custom for 
the Town Clerk to stand upon this stone to read the King's 
Proclamations. (I myself as Town Clerk stood upon it 
and read the Proclamations of King Edward VII, and my 
son, in a similar capacity, that of George V.) It is to be 
greatly lamented that a relic of such antiquity should 
have been altered or lessened, but perhaps there was 
absolute necessity for it. Formerly there were palisades 
outside Mr. Bartlett's house, but when these and other 
palisades in the town were removed in order to widen the 
street, if the Stone had not been cut down to the level of 
the pavement it would have presented a serious obstruo 
tion to the passengers," and he adds in a note : " For this 
and much other information I am indebted to James 
Cornish, Esq., of Blackhall, who kindly allowed me te 

VOL. Ln. D 

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extract from an MS. History of Totnes drawn up by his 
father." Mr. Cornish was M.P. for Totnes in 1832. 

I therefore propose to call your attention to this 
interesting stone in the hope that it may lead to discus- 
sions amongst persons interested in such a subject. It is 
situated outside the East Gate in the pavement outside 
No. 51 Fore Street. 

As regards Devon, there is a similar stone at Barnstaple^ 
at Bovey Tracey, also in Cornwall at St. Austell, and at 
Kingston-on-Thames, and Darlington, and last, but not 
least, London Stone, and there is, of course, the Corona- 
tion Stone in Westminster Abbey. 

Sir Lawrence Gomme in his Governance of London, 1907, 
goes very fully into the history of London Stone. He says 
on page 83 : " There is one other fact of importance and 
this is the position of London Stone at the western point 
of this inner area. Much has been written about the 
origin of London Stone, and it has always started from the 
fact that it was in the middle of Roman London. I am 
inclined to look at it from its position on the western 
extremity of the first Roman London. If it indicated ta 
Roman Londoners of the second city, its later history 
would be largely accounted for. Its topographical posi- 
tion is the first help to such an indication, and when we 
have added the undoubted sacred character attributed 
to it, throughout all later history, and of the principal 
features of which I shall have much to say presently, the 
conclusion, will, I think, be justified that London Stone 
represents the sentiment of Roman Londoners for the 
early city and camp which was enclosed in Lundinum." 
On page 149, he continues : " Other subjects of municipal 
internal polity claim attention at this juncture. At the 
election of chief magistrate in Teutonic communities many 
curious and significant customs were observed, chiefly in 
connection with the old religion. In early days, when a 
village was first established, a stone was set up. To this 
stone the head man of the village made an offering once a 
year. Of the many traces of this custom in England I will 
not speak here, but of its survival as a London municipal 
custom there exists some curious evidence accidentally 
preserved, and its relation to London Stone. Hollingshead 
tells us that when Cade in 1450 forced his way into London 
he first of all proceeded to London Stone, and, having 
struck his sword upon it, said : * Now is Mortimer (i.e. 

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Cade) Lord of this city.' Pennant in 1793 was the first to 
note that this act was something more than meaningless 
nonsense, but it was reserved for Mr. Coote to put it in 
its true place as a fragment of municipal folk-lore. He 
points out that Hollingshead attached a meaning to it, 
and that the crowd of Londoners who witnessed it must 
have attached a meaning to it. Well, what was that 
meaning ? It was almost lost to us in London municipal 
custom. We find that London Stone entered into muni- 
cipal legal procedure, as when a defendant in the Lord 
Mayor's Court had to be summoned from that spot, and 
proclamations and other important business of the like 
nature took place there ; but there is no direct clue to the 
action of Cade and its consequent association of London 
Stone with an archaic Teutonic custom. Yet if we turn 
to a parallel municipal custom elsewhere we shall find the 
clue we are in search of. On the Mayor's Day, at Bovey 
Tracey, the Mayor used to ride round the cross-stone and 
strike it with a stick. This significant action proclaimed 
the authority of the Mayor of Bovey, and it is not difficult 
to translate this curious parallel into the explanation 
needed to solve the old municipal custom at London 
Stone. But it will be noted that while at Bovey Tracey 
the custom obtains almost the force of municipal law, in 
London it has sank so long in its scale of importance as 
only to have been rescued from oblivion by the record 
of the acts of a rebel. I can refer back at this point to what 
has already been said about the position of London Stone 
in relation to the earlier Roman London. If it was held 
in some degree of veneration by the citizens of Roman 
London when the first Anglo-Saxons entered into London 
to claim her alliance in the struggle they were engaged in 
against a common enemy, there is nothing in Anglo-Saxon 
thought to prevent that degree of reverence being sus- 
tained, and when the Anglo-Saxon kings claimed London 
as part of their state organization, and Anglo-Saxon 
citizens of London entered into her new life, the endow- 
ment of London Stone with a new sacredness, a sacred- 
ness derived from ancient Teutonic rite and ceremony, 
would naturally follow. This, it seems to me, is the true 
position of London Stone in London History, and it not 
only reflects back to the earliest Roman origin of London, 
but contains the newer element of Saxon life, the two 
conditions being thus brought into definite juxtaposition. 

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I have another remarkable custom to mention in connection 
with this Stone worship, if it may be so designated. In 
the Totnes Times of 13th May, 1882, is an account of the 
-customs adopted on Mayor's Monday at Bovey Tracey, 
which gives us the additional piece of information, that 
young men were induced to kiss the magic stone, pledging 
allegiance in upholding ancient rights and privileges. In 
Dublin the custom of kissing the lucky stone was long 
kept up." 

The statement in the Totnes Times was that of May 
13th, 1882, and was as follows : " Mayor's Monday was 
duly observed at Bovey Tracey. The Freeholders, accom- 
panied by Mr. S. Hurrell, of Dartmouth (Mayor-elect), 
contented themselves with merely driving round the out- 
skirts of the parish, inducing ' colts ' to kiss the magic 
stone and pledging allegiance in upholding the ancient 
rights and privileges." 

" Edinburgh, too, has its stone custom, though it is not 
identified with London Stone." 

As to Edinburgh I applied to the present Lord Provost 
and had a reply which related to the Market Cross of that 
city with which there was no information as to any 
particular Stone, but as to the Cross, said it dated from 
1400 and the vicissitudes through which it had passed up to 
its restoration by the late Mr. Gladstone which took place in 
1885, when he was M.P. for Midlothian. The foundation- 
stones which may have been the original Edinburgh Stone are 
out of white rock f romHailer Quarry. The Cross is now used 
by the Lyon-King-at-Arms for announcing Proclamations. 

" In Bagford's letter to Hearne there is related how the 
porters at Billingsgate * used civilly to entreat and desire 
«very man that pass that way to salute a post that stood 
there in a vacant space. If he quietly submitted to kiss 
the same, and paid down 6d., then they gave a name, and 
chose someone of the gang to be his god-father.' Now in 
these curious relics of old London life we have stumbled 
upon a set of facts altogether outside the municipal 
formularities of Roman London. That they are hidden 
among the popular customs, as distinct from municipal 
life, proclaims that they have been ousted from their 
official place by a power that we must recognize to be 
Roman, but that they exist at all shows that they owe 
their origin to a power which we must recognize as 
extremely archaic, and therefore Teutonic." 


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It would appear from what Sir Lawrence Gomme haa 
said that his idea was that the chieftains in early times 
would have outside their particular tent or residence a^ 
Stone from which they made proclamations to the tribe, 
and that Stones were used for this purpose in different 
parts of England which originated from that custom. 
With reference to London Stone in Notes and Queries there 
is a Note with regard to London Stone. " The Stone was 
probably brought from Tarain, Ireland (it is the same 
geological character as Stonehenge), it was a milliarum 
from which the Romans measured their mileage. It was 
also the altar of the temple Diana on which the old British 
kings took the oaths on their accession, laying their hands 
on it. Until they had done so they were only kings pre- 
sumptive. Tradition also declares that it was brought 
from Troy by Brutus, and laid down by his own hand as 
the altar stone of the Diana temple, the foundation-stone 
of London and its palladium. So long as the stone of Brutus 
is safe, so long will London flourish ; it is a very famous 

So there is a tradition that London Stone was placed in 
position by Brutus, and it is certainly a coincidence that 
Totnes Stone has always been known as Brutus' Stone. 

Further enquiry into the question has led me to believe 
that in the case of the Brutus Stone at Totnes, "and several 
stones of similar character which are found in different parts 
of Devon and other counties there is more than at first 
sight appears, and much of very great interest. 

Then, again, there is the Stone which forms the support 
of the seat of the Coronation Chair in Westminster Abbey. 
It is a flat stone nearly square which formerly, according 
to Mr. Buchanan, stood in Argyleshire, and it is said Bong 
Kenneth in the ninth century transferred it to Scone and 
then enclosed it in a wooden chair. It has been said that 
it is the identical stone which Jacob used as a pillow. It 
it also said that it was the ancient inauguration Stone of 
the Kings of Ireland, and brought from Ireland by Fergus, 
the son of Eric, who led the Walreads to the shores of 
Argyleshire. Its virtues are preserved in the verse : 

" Unless the fates are faithless found, 
And prophets' voice be vain, 
Where'er this monument be found, 
The Scottish race shall reign." 

Sir Walter Scott refers to the legend : The stone was- 


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removed from Scone to Westminster, where it now is, 
by Edward I, and an antiquarian has described it as 
u the ancientist respected monument in the world." Its 
antiquity is undoubted, though questionable whether it be 
Jacob's pillow, or the stone on which the Kings of Ireland 
were inaugurated on the hill of Tara. The history of its 
removal from Scone by Edward I admits of no doubt, a 
record exists of the expenses attending its removal, and 
this is good evidence of the reverence which attached to 
this rude seat of the ancient Kings of Scotland who, 
standing on it in the sight of assembled thousands, had 
sworn to reverence the laws and to do justice to the 

From information which I have been able to glean it 
would appear that the" Coronation Stone at Kingston-on- 
Thames is of very similar character to London Stone and 
Totnes Stone. This stone which certain Saxon kings are 
supposed to have used during the ceremony of the corona- 
tion was set up in front of Clattern House, near the market- 
place, Kingston-on-Thames, on 19th September, 1850, 
And placed within an ornamental iron rail, an imitation 
of Saxon work. Saxon kings said to' be crowned at King- 
ston are : 

Edward the Elder 

. 901 

Athelstan . 

. 925 

Edmund . 

. 940 


. 946 

Edwin . 

. 955 

Edward the Martyr . 

. 975 

Ethelred . 

. 979 

Coins of each reign are inserted in the base of the stone. 
A commemorative medal was struck at the time of the 
inauguration of the stone, and a silver copy is to be seen 
^tt the Public Library, Fairfield. It should be noted that 
during the reign of Ethelred there were 31 coins minted 
at Totnes, illustrations of which are to be found in Mr. 
Watkin's Totnes Priory and Medieval Town, 

There is a similar stone at Darlington, Durham, and in 
-connection with that there is an old Nursery Rhyme : 

" In Darn ton town there is a stane, 
And strange it is to tell, 
That it turns nine times round about, 
When it hears the clock strike twelve/ 1 

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This stone is a huge boulder 6f Shap granite, and is said 
to be a relic of the great Ice Age, and that it was left where 
it now stands when the ice melted and the waters which 
covered the greater part of Britain at that time subsided. 
One of the most interesting features about it is that like 
the Totnes Stone it is not a rock belonging to the district, 
and must have travelled from as far as Shap, in West- 
morland, 50 miles away. The boulder is what is called 
erratic, of which there are many scattered over the Tees 
Valley. The old houses outside which it stood once 
formed the northern boundary of the Borough of Darling- 
ton, and were known as Darlington House, and it is of 
interest that it was almost opposite the then residence of 
Edward Pease, where he had the memorable interview 
with George Stephenson, which resulted in the birth of 
the world's great railway system. The old cottages have 
.since given place to the Technical College. The stone is 
known as Buhner Stone, but appears only to have received 
that name about a century ago from the Borough Crier, 
old Willie Buhner, from which he evidently made all the 
Proclamations, and it is said that he would mount the old 
stone and, surrounded by crowds of eager listeners, read 
-about Napoleon who was rushing through Europe fighting, 
killing, and conquering wherever he went. 

In Totnes, at that time, the news of the Napoleonic 
wars was announced at the Church Walk, just outside 
Totnes Church, the two members for the Borough sending 
a, London newspaper each week, and one of those who used 
to read the news to an assembled crowd was the father of 
a, celebrated Totnes man, William Brockedon, the painter, 
writer, and inventor. 

The Darlington boulder was also known as Battling 
stone from the fact that the weavers of the town used to 
beat their flax upon it. A writer, Mr. Boyde, Director of 
Education, Darlington, says : " Strange as it may appear 
this wonderful relic was once in danger of destruction for 
certain overseers were anxious to thrust it out of the way ; 
happily their design was frustrated by the Stone being 
claimed as part of the property on which the adjoining 
house stood. The men and women of Darlington have 
reason to look upon Buhner's Stone with pride and respect 
and they should guard it with great care." 

The Totnes Stone, as Mr. Cotton pointed out, was 
originally much larger than it is now. Its being cut down 

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is much to be regretted. It would have been far better, 
if, like the Darlington Stone, it had remained some feet 
above the pavement. 

As no doubt members of this Association are aware there 
is a similar stone of great interest known as the Mengu or 
Menagu. This stone formerly lay flat in the south end of 
Menacuddle Street, St. Austell, and over it all the traffic 
of the street passed, as it was in the middle of the roadway. 
It is of dark appearance and was reputed to be of the stone 
• from North Cornwall known as Catacleuse. In a Londoner's 
Walk to the Land's End it is said : " Enquire for anything 
remarkable in the town and you will hardly fail to be told 
of the Mengu Stone." It is considered to be actually a 
boundary stone where the Manors of Trenance, St. Austell 
(or St. Austell Prior), Tewington, and Treverbyn Courtenay 
met. Its early history is enveloped in the clouds of mystery. 
The legends are : 

(1) A woman accused of being a witch was burned alive 


(2) Declarations of War, Proclamations of Peace, and 

public notices were formerly read here. 

(3) Unclaimed cattle were impounded and sold. 

It has always been called the Stone of Proclamation. 
It was broken up when some drains were being laid in 1892, 
and then found not to be a Catacleuse stone, but the 
ordinary stone of black surface granite on the Downs of 
the Manor of Trevelyn. It was then placed about 10 feet 
from its original site in the roadway to a spot in the pave- 
ment, and an inscription put above it on the house with 
its name, by the late Mr. Edmund Carlyon. 

The Mengu some think means : " The chief stone." 
Mr. H. Sid Hancock of St. Austell, who kindly furnished 
me with this information, says : "I can remember my 
father saying that he remembered (that was about 70 years 
ago) that notices were read from the spot. It is in the 
centre of the town not far from the Church Tower and 
very near where the old market-place stood." 

Barnstaple Stone is a stone table standing fenced about 
in front of Queen Anne's Walk. It is circular and of small 
diameter and cut into the thick circumference are the 
names of " Richard Ferris " and some other Merchants. 
This is said to have been the " exchange " table that did 
duty in the money transactions in the Barum Merchants 

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Exchange for centuries. In Chanter and Wainwright's? 
Barnstaple Records, 1900, Vol. 2, p. 26, is the following : 
" Many other features connected with the old Hall of St. 
Nicholas tend to associate it with early trade of the town. 
Its situation was at the west of Watergate and close to it 
was the Merchants' Walk or Exchange which existed from 
an unknown early date, and was only known by that name 
until after it was restored or rebuilt in 1714, and decorated 
with a statue of Queen Anne when its name was changed 
to Queen Anne's Walk. And built in against the west wall 
of the Hall was a large flat slab on a pedestal about 3 feet 
high, traditionally called the tome stone or town stone 
supposed to have been used as a pay table or for jotting 
down reckonings and which was only removed in 1826 : 
so late as 1670 the grand inquest made a presentment that 
this stone was out of repair. ' item, prest. oppidum 


Fifty-one years ago, when the Association first met at 
Dartmouth, 1869, the Rev. R. Kirwan, m.a., Rector of 
Gittisham, read a paper on the Origin and Appropriation 
of Stonehenge, and in it he says, " rude memorial stones, 
of which the associations of venerable tradition have 
perished with their rearers, still survive in all parts of the 
world as the enduring literature of an unlettered people." 
He adds : " I have said that these primeval memorials 
have outlived the traditions of their builders. While no 
hieroglyphic carved upon their surface furnishes us with a 
clue to their long-forgotten origin or purpose, and yet we 
are not to regard them as altogether silent and meaning- 
less memorials of an older generation." We can furnish 
a probable answer to the question : " What mean ye by 
these stones ? " It is worthy of remark that remains of 
the class under consideration are frequently alluded to in 
the Old Testament. The history of the Jewish people 
proves that the rude monolith may preserve the memory 
of the event which it was intended to commemorate, and 
be faithful to the purpose for which it was set up. The 
oldest written notice of the monolith is that raised by 
Jacob after his dream : " Jacob rose up early in the 
morning and took the stone he had put for his pillow, and 
set it up for a pillar and poured oil on the top of it " (Gen. 
xxviii. 18). Again we read : "Joshua took a great stone, 
and set it up there under an oak, that was by the sanctuary 

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of the Lord. And Joshua said unto all the people, Behold 
this stone shall be a witness unto us ; for it hath heard all 
the words of the Lord which he spake unto us ; it shall 
therefore be a witness unto you, lest ye deny your God." 

In January, 1877, a review appeared in the Western 
Morning News of a book which had been issued by Mr. 
Thomas Kerslake of Bristol, a well-known antiquarian and 
publisher of that city, entitled A Primeval British Metro- 
polis, in which he attempted to prove the incorrectness of 
Geoffrey of Monmouth's statement that Vespasian, a.d. 
47, landed on the Totnes shore and marched to besiege 
Kairpen-Huelgoit, which Geoffrey adds is called Exeter, 
and asserted that it was not Exeter at all, and that 
Vespasian did not land at Totnes shore, but at Talnas, 

I ventured on reading the review to write to the Editor 
of the Western Morning News a letter which he published 
taking up the question raised by Mr. Kerslake and com- 
batting it. 

He had referred in his book to the fact of the words 
littus (a shore) and trieth (a sandy beach) being used in 
connection with Totnes situated on the banks of the Dart 
and that it could not have been Totnes in Devon, but 
Talnas, Christchurch, the mouth of the Stour, and could 
not apply to such a place as Totnes at all. 

In an article in Macmillan's Magazine in January, 1888, 
on Sir Stafford Northcote, by Lord Coleridge, it was 
pointed out that classics formed the occasion for a pleasant 
controversy between the young Northcote and the aged 
Wellesley, in which, as was natural, the larger reading of 
the old Marquis was able to defend with success the classical 
authority of the Latin word which the young Oxford man 
had ventured to question, and a note said that : " The 
word was littus, which Sir Stafford Northcote maintained 
to be applied to the Sea-shore alone, whereas Lord Wellesley 
had used it of a river-bank for which kind of shore it was 
contended ' ripa ' was the proper expression." Wellesley 
met and silenced the contention by the authority of 
Horace and Virgil. 

John Prince in his account in the Worthies of John 
Row of Totnes to which I have referred, also says of 
Totnes : " Of so great consideration was it heretofore, 
that the shore adjoining was thereof called ' Totonesium 
Littus.' " 

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Mr. Kerslake also referred to Brutus Stone and said : 
" Since the carboniferous era it has hardened into lime- 

In my letter I pointed out that it happened, however, 
to be a large granite pebble, with its corners well rubbed 
off on its journey from Dartmoor to Totnes, and as to the 
distance from the then level of the Dart, had he been in 
Totnes a fortnight previously he would not have thought 
it so impossible for the river to reach the spot, and I may 
say, in proof of this, that on the 15th February, 1900, 
there was an extraordinary flood, and the water of the 
Dart went up to 17 Fore Street. 

I sent Mr. Kerslake a copy of the Western Morning News 
with the letter I had written marked, and he wrote me as 
follows : " Returning home from a long absence I find a 
No. of the Western Morning News with a letter from you 
marked for my attention. I am much obliged for the 
attention you have given to my pamphlet. Your vindica- 
tion of the archaic claims of Totnes are evidently the result 
of a laudable patriotism and fairly stated. It was as you 
suspect from memory that I quoted the stone with the 
footprint of Brutus, and as it is of granite and not of lime- 
stone the advent of the patriarch must be still further 
protracted and your parallel of the late inundation with 
one which must have happened when he arrived, implies 
that there were local floods before the Noachic universal 

To this I replied that on the stone in question there 
was not, nor as far as I am aware, was ever, a footprint ; 
there was simply a tradition that on this stone Brutus 
placed his foot in landing, so there was no necessity to 
place the landing prior to the Deluge. I went on to suggest 
that should he at any time be visiting Totnes I should be 
happy, notwithstanding his attempts to upset some of its 
archaic claims, to show him the stone in question, and what 
perhaps might interest him more our valuable muniments, 
charters, etc., which date from 1260. Mr. Kerslake was a 
prominent member of the Somerset Archaeological and 
Natural History Society, but his theory was not accepted 
by his Association with whom he had a good deal of con- 
troversy, and the Athenceum of April, 1877, said with 
regard to his work : " There are obvious defects in the 
way of Mr. Kerslake's theory, the main one being the 
absence of evidence hitherto that the Britons dwelt in 

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large cities at all ; the vast extent attributed to the 
alleged metropolis was also puzzling, as the want of the 
usual traces of old abodes of men, such as markets, and 
fires, remains of stone structures, flint and bronze imple- 
ments and weapons of war." 

It may be argued that if these stones were general 
throughout Great Britain, how comes it so few remain ? 
May it not be that when Christianity became general the 
Cross of the town was substituted for the stone of pagan 
days, and was sometimes even erected upon it ? At Win- 
chester the proclamations are made at the City Cross, 
variously styled " The Preaching Cross," or the " Market 
or Butter Cross." 

Brutus' landing at Totnes may be a myth, Vespasian 
may not have landed there, but I am strongly of opinion 
that records like those of Geoffrey of Monmouth and 
others are founded on fact, and that there is a great deal 
more in them than we think. Might it not be that a tribe 
settled in this part of Devon and the old granite boulder 
we call Brutus' Stone was the place from which the Head 
of the Tribe made his proclamations ? 

Some years ago I wrote to a leading net salmon fisher- 
man of Stoke Gabriel on the Dart asking to what he attri- 
buted the shortage of salmon for some years previous, and 
his reply was to the effect that it had always been so, 
good years and bad years, and he added : " Skipper Davis 
said so who lived here 200 years ago." Of course I knew 
Skipper Davis meant John Davis, the famous navigator, 
who gave his name to " Davis Straits," and who was born 
at Sandridge, Stoke Gabriel. My informant was only 150 
years out in his date, but that it must have come down 
from generation to generation by oral tradition only shows 
that what Skipper Davis said 350 years ago has been pre- 
served, and many similar cases might be quoted, proving the 
value of oral tradition. 

Miss L. Winstanley of University College, Aberystwith, 
writing in the Literary Supplement to The Times stated 
she and her colleague, Dr. ileure, considered there was a 
basis for the traditions of Geoffrey of Monmouth and the 
places where Geoffrey placed colonies of Trojans, and that 
one of the colonies was placed at Totnes, she says : " Par- 
ticularly interesting to Englishmen is the fact that the 
great group of Devon sailors — Raleigh, Drake, Grenville, 
and the rest — is associated with a colony of such 

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maritime Armenoids which is also one of Geoffrey's Trojan 

May Totnes people always carefully preserve their vener- 
able and valuable treasure of past days, take the greatest 
care of it, and endeavour to unravel the traditions which 
surround it, and may there never come a time when the 
Sovereign of Great Britain shall not be proclaimed in this 
ancient and loyal Borough from it, in the presence of a 
crowd of loyal and devoted subjects. 


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Thirty-third Report of the Committee — consisting of Mr. 
J. 8. Amery, Mr. R. Pearse Chope, Mr. C. H. Laycock, 
Rev. J. F. Chanter, Rev. G. D. Melhuish, Rev. 0. J. 
Reichel, Miss C. E. Larter, and Mrs. Rose-Troup ; 
Mr. C. H. Laycock and Rev. 0. J. Reichel being Joint 
Secretaries — for the purpose of noting and recording the 
existing use of any Verbal Provincialisms in Devonshire 
in either written or spoken language, not included in the 
lists already published in the Transactions of the 

Edited by Charles H. Laycock. 
(Read at Totnes, 21st July, 1920.) 

In this, the Thirty-third Report of your Committee, & 
certain number of contributions will be found to which 
are appended the words " Whitstone MS." A few words 
in explanation of this will not be out of place by way of 

In the spring of 1918 Mr. Burnet Morris informed me 
that he had recently seen a valuable list of Devonshire 
Provincialisms in a manuscript book at Whitstone Rectory, 
near Exeter. I wrote to the then Rector, the Rev. Canon 
Hodgins (died 1919), asking him for permission to see this 
MS., from whom I received a most kind and courteous 
reply, at the same time enclosing the MS., and giving me 
permission to take, and publish, what extracts I liked 
from it. 

The volume is entitled "The Records of Whitstone,. 
Devon. Collected by the Rev. Charles Brown, Curate and 
Rector of Whitstone, from November, 1807, to October , 
1856. And continued by his son, the Rev. Wilse Brown, 
Rector from 1856." 


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On the fly-leaf is the following information : " The 
original MS. volume containing these Records is in the 
Library of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. The present 
copy was made by the Rev. Wilse Brown, Rector, in 1872." 

The whole volume is most interesting. It contains the 
Parish Register, Church-wardens' Accounts, and other in- 
formation relating to the parish. On pp. 46-59 of the 
MS. is a list of provincial words and sayings in use at 
Whitstone, headed " Parochial Expressions." Of this list 
I made a verbatim transcript. It is a valuable record of 
Devonshire Provincialisms in use during the first half of 
the nineteenth century, in that the Compiler of it got his 
information directly from native lips and not from pub- 
lished dialect dictionaries and glossaries. Some of the 
etymologies which he suggests are quite fallacious, though 
others are reasonable. But in judging him on this score, 
it should be borne in mind that he compiled his list in the 
days before much study had been given to the subject of 
etymology, before the works of our great Philologists and 
Etymologists of the latter half of the nineteenth century, 
e.g. Furnivall, Skeat, Sweet, A. J. Ellis, etc. etc., had 
appeared. But perhaps the most interesting feature is 
the large number of quotations from English authors of 
all ages which the compiler gives, in order to show the 
survival in the spoken dialect of words which were once 
common in the literary language, but which are now 
obsolete, or very rarely used. 

For the sake of these quotations alone, I was tempted to 
offer the complete list, annotated, for publication by your 
Committee. But on referring it to the other members of 
your Committee, they all agreed that it was too long to 
print in toto at the present time of enforced economy of 
space. And, seeing that about two-thirds of the words 
contained in it had already been recorded in previous 
Reports, they advised that only those words, which had 
not already been adequately dealt with, should be included 
in future Reports, which course I have adopted. Should 
any member, however, who is interested in the subject, 
care to see the complete list, I shall be pleased to send it 
to him or her for perusal. Mr. R. Pearse Chope has been 
kind enough to add some interesting notes to it. — Ed. 

The Rules and Regulations of the Committee, together 
with a complete Index of all the words contained in Reports 
1-28 inclusive, were printed with the Twenty-eighth Report 

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in 1915, Vol. XLVII, p. 94. But the Editor regrets that he 
has no more spare copies left. 


Each provincialism is placed within inverted commas, 
And the whole contribution ends with the initials of the 
observer. All remarks following the initials are Editorial. 
The full address of each contributor is given below, and it 
must be understood that he or she only is responsible for 
the statements bearing his or her initials. 


J. J. A. = J. J. Alexander, Grammar School, Tavi- 

R. P. C. =R. Pearse Chope, 30 Blythwood Road, 
Crouch Hill, N. 4. 

V. C. =Miss Viola Cramp, 28 Ladbroke Grove, 

London, W. 

G. M. D. =George M. Doe, Enfield, Great Torrington. 

T. J. J. =T. J. Joce, 3 Manor Crescent, Newton 

C. E. L. =Miss C. E. Larter, 2 Summerland Terrace, 
St. Marychurch. 

C. H. L. =Charles H. Laycock, Cross Street, Moreton- 

H. J. L. =Harford J. Lowe, Kotri, Chelston, Tor- 

O. J. R. =Rev. Oswald J. Reichel, A la Ronde, 

R. A. S. =R. A. Skelt, Uffculme, Cullompton. 

A. J. P. S. =A. J. P. Skinner, Colyton. 

H. R. W. =Hugh R. Watkin, Chelston Hall, Torquay. 

H. B. S. W.=H. B. S. Woodhouse, 7 St. Lawrence Road, 

" A-broad. Of a man who had evidently grown wider 
•across the back : * Aw, he's gone a-broad, sure 'nuff.' 
Here the a is clearly not a=on or at, as in aboard, asleep, 
abed, ashore, etc., but the rhythmic or euphonic connect- 
ing sound. T. J. J." 

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I do not agree with this view. Abroad is one of the 
commonest of our dialect terms. In the literary language 
its meaning is confined to being out of doors or away from 
home, but in the dialect, in addition to this, it is commonly 
used to imply in pieces, asunder. When men and women 
begin to grow stouter and lose their youthful figures, as 
frequently happens in middle life, the usual expression is 
" he," or " her's vallin' abroad," meaning he is going to 

I should say that the a in abroad certainly is the prefix 
«=on, and is analogous to afoot, asleep, etc. 

" ALL-vooR=the hollow left in ploughing the last two 
ranks in a field. Used by W. Lake of Withycombe Ralegh. 
O. J. R." 

The usual term. See 7th Report, Vol. XVI, p. 95 et seq. 9 
where these ploughing terms are fully explained. 

"BY-vooR=the first two ranks in ploughing a field. 
See ' All-voor.' 0. J. R." 

" Beat (usually pronounced bait) = field refuse. Synony- 
mous with stroil. * They'm burnin' bait in that-there 
field.' Torrington, 1917. G. M. D." 

Beat and stroyl are not usually synonymous terms, 
though both are burnt in order to enrich the land. Beat 
or bait is the actual turf pared off the ground with a biddix 
or other implement, when a meadow or lay-field is broken 
up for pasturage after having been down to grass for many 
years. See 23rd Report, Vol. XLII, p. 67. Also Mr. R. 
Pearse Chope's valuable paper on Old Farm Implements, 
Vol. L., p. 270, where the operation is fully described. 

The term stroyl is usually applied to the roots of couch- 
grass in land which is tilled annually ; it being ploughed 
up, dragged, chain-harrowed, and finally gathered up into 
heaps and burned. 

" Belong to use. A man of past middle-age, born on 

the moor, said : ' Us don't belong ta use dogs wi' cows/ 

When a dog was rounding up some dawdling milking-kine. 

Qy. What part of speech is ' belong ' ? T. J. J." 

This peculiar use of the verb to belong is very common 

in Devon. It implies, to be accustomed to use, or to be 


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in the habit of using, etc. For a somewhat similar use of 
the word, see 20th Report, Vol. XXXVII, p. 125. 

It is also used peculiarly in the sense of to own or 
possess ; the property and its possessor being transposed, 
e.g. instead of saying " Does that house belong to you ? " 
a Devonian would say, " Do yii b'long that-there 'ouze ? " 
See also West. Som. Word-book. 

" BiLLERS=the Cow-parsnip and allied plants. Possibly 
a corruption of * Umbelliferce.' 

An old farmer, at an ordinary one market day, pointing 
to a glass of celery, said : * Pass me zome more o' they 
bitters ta ait wi' my chaize.' Torrington. G. M. D." 

See Billery, 11th Report, Vol. XXI, p. 87. 

It is more likely that the word is of Celtic origin. Cp. 
Gael. Biolaire, water-cresses ; and Cornish Beler. 

See Eng. Dial. Diet. s.v. Bilders. 

"BLOB=flower. Said of the Rhubarb flower: ' Isn't 
itagurtbigWofc!' C. E. L." 

Blob implies a small compact mass, or lump, of anything* 
Not long ago I heard the term applied to clotted cream. 
While having tea at a farm-house, one of the guests ex- 
claimed to the hostess ; " Oh, wat a gurt blob o* craim 
yue've a-putt een my tay ! " 

One of the local names of the Marsh Marigold (CaUha 
palustris) is Water-blobs. 

" Coffin. Old use of the word. In a lecture on ' Life 
in the 14th Century/ written by the late Mr. P. Q. Karkeek 
some 25 years ago, I came across the following : — 

* Sometimes fish was baked in coffins of paste at the sea- 
side, and so sent inland, and by this means its staleness. 
was part disguised and it would bear a longer transit.' 

Again, to a quotation from Chaucer, Franlclyn's House : 

i Without a bake mete was never his house.' 

The following is given as an explanation : * That is, 
meat baked in pies or cojfyns.' H. J. L." 

N. E. D. has Coffin, a mould of paste for a pie, the crust 
of a pie. Also a pie-dish or mould. Obs. 
" Of the paste a cojfen I will reare." 

Shakes., Tit. A., V, ii, 189. 

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" The Coffin of our Christmas Pies in shape long, is in 
imitation of the Cratch." 

Selden, Table-talk (1654), 33. 

" Season your lamb with pepper, salt ... so put it into 
your coffin." 

E. Smith, Complete Housewife (1750), 157. 

"CRiB=lunch. A snack, or slight repast midway 
between two important meals. Usually applied to the 
slices of bread, or the pasty, consumed by a workman, 
about 9 a.m. which is known as ' crib-time.' * Us reck'ns 
ta 'ave a quarter hour crib-time,' said by a Tavistock 
labourer, aged 50. J. J. A." 

This use of the word crib is quite common in Devon and 
Cornwall. As a verb, it implies, to take a very small 
meal, to eat sparingly. See Chope's Dial. ofHartland, p, 38. 

Crib is also the term for the movable rack, used to hold 
hay or str&w, from which sheep and cattle are fed when 
loose in the field or farm-yard. And I have heard it used 
for the rack fixed at the head of cow-shippens above the 
manger, which serves the same purpose. Also pronounced 
crvb (q.v.). 

"CRUB=a crust, or a morsel of bread. Only last 
Christmas-tide, a farmer's son refused, in my presence, a 
very tempting dish of goose and apple-sauce, saying : * I 
only jist wants a crvb o' burd 'n chaize, thank'ee.' 1919. 
C. H. L." 

This word is probably merely a variant of Crib (q.v.), 
though in meaning they are not quite synonymous. But 
short u and short i are interchangeable vowel-sounds in 
our dialect. 

" Crucky DOWN=to crouch down. Maid, at Torquay, 
in describing a game of hide-and-seek, said : ' We'd be 
cruckin' down behind zomething ready to rin away.' In 
the game ' Ring o' Roses,' she said they always say for the 
last line ' all crucky down ' for the more usual * all fall 
down.' C. E. L." 

See 32nd Report, Vol. LI, p. 68. 

" Every whip an' SNAP=every so often. A carter of 
Colyton used this expression. A. J. P. S." 


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The most usual term is " every whip's-while," but I 
have also heard " Every whip an* turn," " Every 
whip an' trip," and "Every trip an' turn." While yet 
another variant is recorded in the 11th Report, Vol. XXI, 
p. 92. 

The metaphor is no doubt taken from the carter. It 
implies that a certain thing happens at fairly regular 
intervals, as between one snap of a carter's whip and the 
next. While " Every trip an' turn " implies the interval 
between the removal of the "trip-stick " in order to dis- 
charge the load, and the turning of the cart to receive a 
fresh load. 

" FEEDED=fed. ' They feeded us biitiful.' Man aged 
60. C. E. L." 

The weak past tense, still the commonest form in our 
dialect ; though, with the spread of elementary educa- 
tion, more and more strong past tenses are heard, but 
usually with the termination of the weak added, e.g. tear 
— fared, wear — wored, etc. 

See 5th Report, Vol. XIV, p. 139. 

" Flittereens= small pieces. Man, aged 30, at Bovey 
Tracey, in describing the destruction of a motor-lorry, 
which he had been driving in France during the late war, 
said : * A shell come an' knack'd en aul ta fliUerems.^ 
Oct., 1919. C. H. L." 

This is one of the Devonshire equivalents of the more 
general smithereens, though the latter is also frequently 
heard. Another common equivalent is shivereens. 

Shivers and flitters are both common in our dialect for 
atoms, fragments ; and the termination -eens seems to 
add intensive force and to imply still smaller fragments. 
The two words, however, are not always quite synony- 
mous. Shivers more usually implies splinters or chips of 
wood, stone, or metal ; while flitters is used in connection 
with cloth or other textile fabric, or paper. A man said 
to me, with reference to the destruction of a statue of the 
Kaiser : " They tiik an' scat en aul ta shivers." While a 
small girl, whose dress had been sadly torn in a " scrap " 
she had had with another child, said tearfully : " Er've 
a-bin an' braukt my vrock aul ta flitters." 

" Frail =hungry. ' Us did begin to veel a bit frail by 

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'alf-pas'-vive.' Meaning hungry, wanting their tea. Man 
aged 60. C. E. L." 

It more usually means weak, in delicate health. See 
4th Report, Vol. XIII, p. 89. 

In the above example it implies feebleness from want 
of food. 

" GivED=gave. 'The man gived en ,a glide kick/ 
Torrington. G. M. D." 

One more instance of the retention in dialect of the 
weak past tense, in preference to the strong of literary 
English. See Feeded. 

" Goyles. * The wind goyles aroun' that corner.' 
C. E. L." 

Possibly a local pronunciation of gale, i.e. "the wind 
gales," or blows a gale. We are very fond of coining verbs 
from nouns in this dialect, e.g. we say, " I glimps'd en " 
for " I caught a glimpse of him." 

" Having ON=playing on anyone's credulity. 
' Susan says you have told her you are going to be 
married, Ann ! ' 

" Oh, I was 'avin' Susan on.' 

C. E. L." 
Common semi-slang expression. 

" He am up (pron. aim aup) =to save, lay by. A Hart- 
land farmer, age about 45, writes to me, asking for more 
grass-land for his bullocks and colts : ' I have not got 
much room when the hay crop is aimed up — the sheep 
runs over most of the grass land home ' (i.e. on the home 

The Eng. Dial. Diet, suggests that this represents an 
O.E. hoeman, to lay up at home, derivative of ham, home. 
However it seems more likely to be a variant of hain, 
which has apparently the same meaning, but is derived 
from Norwegian dialect, hegna, to fence in, enclose. 


" Hikey (long i)=proud, * set up.' * 'Er'll be prapper 
hikey in 'er new cloase.' C. E. L." 

The word is really Ikey, but being emphatic is aspirated. 

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It is probably an importation, though now in common use 
among dialect speakers. 

" Items =fidgets. ' He's villi o' items. 9 Meaning he is 
very fidgety about things. A common expression here in 
Torrington. G. M. D." 

Full of fads and fancies. Common. 

See 10th Report, Vol. XIX, p. 72, where the word is 
used in a slightly different sense. 

" Kerned. The grain is well kern'd. Corrupted from 

* An ill kerned or saved harvest.' Carew. 

Whitstone MS. per C. H. L." 

To kern means to ripen, set, form seed. It is used not 
only of grain, but also of fruit, etc., e.g. " The apple-trees 
be kernin' well this year," i.e. the fruit has set well and 
there is promise of a good crop. 

Both this word and our literary " kernel " are from the 
same root as " corn." 

A.-S. corn, grain. 

" Littles = small instalments. 'You must take the 
money I owe you by littles. 9 In a letter by a defendant in 
the Torrington County Court. G. M. D." 

" Lurk = to take a spell of play. A man, born on the 
edge of Dartmoor, said of his daughter, who kept house 
for him, and who liked now and then a spell of play : 
* Her'll goo on workin' alright vor a glide bit, an' then 
her'll lurk.' T.J.J." 

Lurky means lazy. See 3rd Report, Vol. XI, p. 136. 
As a verb, to lurk implies to slink off. 

" Than home they lerk'd, and drapt their furs 
And tails between their legs, leek curs." 

Peter Pindar, Royal Visit to Exeter. 

With this meaning, it is purely dialectal, but the word 
is no doubt the same as the literary lurk, to lie in wait. 
M. E. lurken. Of Scand. origin. 

" Mommet. See 32nd Report, Vol. LI, p. 72. I have 

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received the following note of correction from the con- 
tributor : — 

• ' The Tiverton Gazette omitted some words in my letter. 
The bracket before " even an actor " should be omitted ; 
a semicolon should come after "actor," and then: "and 
so of a doll." The following quotation from Henry IV 
would then correctly refer to dolls, and not to actors, as it 
now appears to.' Francis Herring. M. T. F." 

" NossET=a nicety, luxury. Old woman, at Clayhidon, 
on being informed that she was eligible for the Old Age 
Pension, exclaimed : ' Oh ! now I shall be able to buy 
mezel' ever zo many little nossets.' R. A. S." 

Eng. Dial. Diet, has Nosset, a dainty dish suitable for an 
invalid. Som. Dev. 

" Outward. An outward man, i.e. an irregular man. 
Outward — corporeal, carnal, not spiritual, Johnson. Whit- 
stone MS. per C. H. L." 

Eng. Dial. Diet, gives Outward, dissipated, irregular in 
conduct, wild, spendthrift. Som. and other counties. But 
it does not appear to have been previously recorded in 
Devon. The adv. Outwardly is also used in the same 
sense, e.g. " He's outwardly given." 

" Paunch. ' Tha pegs 'ad paunch'd up a wet place in 
the mangel camp.' I heard this word in frequent use while 
staying in North, Devon. 1919. H. W. per R. P. C." 

A variant of poach. See 4th Report, Vol. XIII, p. 91. 
In the above example, the word camp is unusual in Devon 
for a mangel pit. The usual word being cave, pronounced 

" Pook, v. To pook the hay, i.e. put it in hay-cocks. 
From to poke, or to pucker. Whitstone MS. per C. H. L." 

In South Devon this word is always pronounced puke, 
but in I^orth Devon R. P. C. says that poke is the usual 

" Prisal (long i)=purchase. 

Plate-layer, adjusting line for timber- wagons near Mam- 
head, moved his lever, as he said, ' to get a better prisal.' 
April, 1919. T. J. J." 

A subst. formed from the verb to prize, i.e. to lift up, or 

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force open by means of a lever. A lever or fulcrum is 
usually spoken of as a prize in Devon. See 1st Report, 
Vol. IX, p. 137. 

Fr. prise, a grasp. Orig. fern, of pris, pp. of prendre, 
Skeat. , 

" Ptjgge:n-end = gable-end. I was recently asked by a 
young man from Hartland the meaning of ' the puggen- 
end of a house,' because he had lately heard an old man 
say that he put up a linhay at the puggen-end of his house. 
On making inquiry, I elicited the following information : 
The speaker was an old farmer, over 70, formerly a car- 
penter, now living at Hartland, but a native of Berry- 
narbor. His son said that he had often heard his father 
describe an overgrown clumsy man as ' 'avin' a a-s on en 
like tha puggen-end uv a church.' 

Now this term is found in Mrs. Palmer's Devonshire 
Dialogue (Edn. of 1839, p. 6), but I don't think I ever 
heard it, although its meaning was well known to dialect 
speakers to whom I mentioned it. R. P. C." 

The common term in many parts of Devon for the 
gable-end of a house is the " pointing-end " (pronounced 
pwointin-een). And I fancy puggen may be a variant or 
corruption of pointing. The g may be a survival of the 
old French poingt or poinct (Lat. punctum) which we still 
preserve in the literary poignant and pungent, which Skeat 
says is from the root pug. 

On the other hand, R. P. C. writes : " H the speaker's 
simile, which I have quoted, is at all correct, jmggen can 
hardly mean pointed, but rather the contrary, perhaps 
puggy or podgy. Thatched gable-ends (to which puggen 
no doubt relates) are generally rounded rather than 
pointed, but I have never seen a thatched church. The 
term church seems to be used to indicate size-huge- 

To this I would remark that, though in most parts of 
Devon the gable-ends of thatched houses are more or less 
rounded, in North-east Devon and West Somerset they 
are very sharply pointed, the ridge of the thatched roof 
being terminated at either end like the bow of a ship. 
Also that, though I have never seen a thatched church, I 
have heard that certain churches were formerly thatched, 
and some chapels are so to this day. 

Mr. Rhys Jenkins thinks it may be connected with 

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pugging (from pug, to punch or poke), and that it would 
denote the end of the house exposed to the weather. 

In some localities the gable-end is known as the pine- 
end or pinion (Fr. pignon, a gable). 

But whatever may be its etymology, it is most interest- 
ing to find the term still in use in our dialect, which the 
Eng. Dial. Diet, quotes as obsolete. 

" Quarry =a square of glass. French quarre. Whit- 
stone MS. per C. H. L." 

The more usual form of the word is quarrel, pronounced 
quarrid. Old Fr. quarrel, Mod. Fr. carreau, a small square. 
But the word is equally often applied to the small diamond- 
shaped panes found in old-fashioned windows. 

" Quirk = to breathe heavily as in pain, to groan. A 
quirk — a quick stroke, sharp fit. Johnson. 

* I've felt so many quirks of joy and grief/ Shakespeare. 

W hitstone MS. per C. H. L." 
See 27th Report, Vol. XLVI, p. 89. 

" Racks, subst. ' Her's 'ad racks of pain.' Meaning 
she has been racked with pain. C. E. L." 

The West-countryman is very fond of coining substan- 
tives from verbs and vice versa. Many examples of this 
will be found in former Reports. See Glimpsed, Jewel, in 
Index, Vol. XLVEI, p. 104 et seq. 

" Sleb. In the plans and particulars of a Devonshire 
estate, for sale at Southmolton on 3rd July, 1919, in the 
case of one farm, the contents of the farm-house are given 
as : Kitchen, Dining-room, Pantry, Wash-house with 
furnace, Slee with pump, and six Bedrooms. 

What is a Slee ? 

Is it the same as mentioned in 18th Report, Vol. XXXII, 
p. 68, as She- or Slay-roof ? H. B. S. W." 

Yes. Slee, or slay as it is sometimes pronounced, is a 
common term in Devon for a sloping or lean-to roof. 

R. P. C. writes : " Slee is quite the usual word for a 
small house built up against another and having a lean-to 
roof. It is generally what is known as a back-ouze in 
cottages, and may be entered either directly from the 
cottage itself or from the outside. It forms the scullery 

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or wash-up place, and often contains the pump. The term 
Slee-roof is applied more generally to any single or lean-to 

Possibly connected with slope. 

" SLOTTER=muddy slush. * I never zeed zo much 
slotter in the streets avore.' Said by the Town Scavenger 
of Great Torrington. 1917. G. M. D." 

" Slotter y== sloppy or sloughy. 'The roads be slot- 
tery.' W hitstone MS. per C. H. L." 

See Slotter, also in 16th Report, Vol. XXIX, p. 62, of 
which the above is the adj. It implies that the roads are 
wet and dirty. As a verb, to slotter means to carelessly 
spill or splash any liquid, to eat or drink in a slovenly 
manner so as to spill one's food on the table. 

Sometimes pronounced slatter, and closely allied to slat 
=to dash or throw about. See 22nd Report, Vol. XLI, 
p. 80. 

" Summer, verb = to pasture cattle in the open during 
the summer. A Hartland farmer, age about 45, writes to 
me : * The moor is all right to summer big bullocks und 
colts.' R. P. C." 

Common term. So we have " Summering-ground," i.e. 
pasture kept for summer feeding. 

See Eng. Dial. Diet. 

66 Terrified =troubled, or made muddy. * 'Er can't 
git no water vrom the pump 's marnin', they bwoys 'ave 
been an' turrified the spout.' V. C." 

This is a metaphorical use of the common term " to 
terrify," which in Devon means to irritate or annoy, 
rather than to frighten. While " frightened " means simply 

See 24th Report, Vol. XLIII, p. 91. 

" VEYGE=the dash to give a blow, technically termed 
a ' feint.' Used at Littleham by a man now dead. ' I 
stept back to get a veyge at en.' O. J. R." 

See Venge, 25th Report, Vol. XLIV, p. 81. Also 31st 
Report, Vol. L, p. 185. Veyge is, however, the more usual 
pronunciation. See Vege in Eng. Dial. Diet. 

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" When up 'a rak'd, all to wance, and vetch'd a vege to 
thicka plashet." 

Mrs. Palmer, Devon. Dial, (Edn., 1839), p. 4. 

" Vetch a vaige, Jack, 'vore's jump." 

Pulman, Rustic Sketches (Edn., 1871), p. 153. 

" Vleet, vleyt. Some large stones had been thrown 
down to let the water vleyt away. North Devon, 1919. 
H. W. per R. P. C." 

Fleet (pronounced vlait) means to drain, lit. to flow 
<away. So, of clothes which have been washed, to drip in 
process of drying. As an adj. fleet means exposed, un- 
sheltered, the exact opposite of lew. 

A.-S. fleoty an estuary. 

" VooRSLip=the piece of iron under the plough, to 
which the ploughshare is fixed. Literally the furrow-slip. 
O. J. R." 

"WENT=gone. 'Us cud 'ave went drii the winter.' 
Said by a Torrington woman. G. M. D." 

This use is invariable. 

See 18th Report, Vol. XXXII, p. 70, which contains a 
valuable note by Mr. Elworthy. 

" Zapy (long a)=sappy. ' That-there wood 's vurry 
zdpy.' Said by a Torrington carpenter, 1917. G. M. D." 

Sap is always pronounced zape, or rather zedp in the true 

Sayings : — 

" (1) Bill : ' Zims to me, Sam, you'm 'feard o' work.' 
Sam : ' Noo, Bill, I ban't 'feard o' work, I can always 
lay down an' sleep 'longzide o't.' J. J. A." 

" (2) Common saying at Colyton : — 
6 It's a fine morning ! ' 

' Yes, fine 'nuff to split 'alf-a-crown.' Or sometimes 
* to split a sovereign.' A. J. P. S." 

" (3) On my chancing to refer to a recently married 
lady by her maiden name, the maid to whom I was speak- 

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ing remarked : ' 'Er'd be vex'd if 'er yeard 'e call 'er 
Miss T., 'er've a-paid vor 'er name.' 

* How paid for it ? ' I asked, struck by the oddity of 
this reason for using her wedded appellation. 

' Why, when 'er was married o' cou'se. " Yii pays to 
be born into the world, yii pays to be married in the 
world, an' yii pays to be putt out o' the world " is the 
zayin'.' C. E. L." 

" (4) A woman, condemning, another who took meals 
too close on one another, gave as a reason against the 
practice : — 

* Us didn' ought to keep our indigestion workin'.' 

This was not a mere slip. For again and again she 
referred to the action of ' our indigestion ' when she 
manifestly meant digestion. C. E. L." 

" (5) ' If he tells on 'er, 'er zays 'er'll bust the roost 9 
This was said of a woman who had stolen some goods by 
the aid of a confederate. This threat ensured her acquittal 
on trial. Her fellow-criminal refused to give evidence 
that would have established her guilt, lest she should 
reveal his condoning of the theft in the works where he 
was foreman. C. E. L." 

" (6) Woman, at Manaton, as she tossed the ' new- 
come ' butter on the board : * It's all work in theas wordle.* 
After a pause, ' Wat it 'ull be in the next, / doan't knaw ! ' 
C. E. L." 

" (7) Whilst gathering some dock leaves, to put for 
coolness on a basket of primroses, a lady was overtaken 
by two country-women, whom, as they passed on, she 
heard to comment thus : ' Docks ! ' in tones of great con- 
tempt. ' But there ; 'er comes vrom a town wur they 
doan' knaw nort.' Not even docks ! C. E. L." 

" (8) ' I'm not so green as I'm cabbaged-faced.' Maid, 
at Torquay." 

" (9) * Her gives me the pip,' i.e. she makes me sick 
(with disgust). Maid. C. E. L." 

" (10) By a farmer's wife, when chiding the cow-boy 
for being slow : ' Lor ! yii be like a duck afore day ! ' 
H. R. W." 

" Avore day " is a common expression for early dawn, 

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before sunrise. A person who fusses about without doing 
anything particular is said to be " just like a ole 'ain (hen) 
avore day." 

" (11) Remark by Councillor at meeting of the Totnes 
Rural District Council, as reported : ' The Parish Council 
were like a bunch of chicken, they could not do anything.' 

Extract from The Totnes Times and Devon News, 25th 
Oct., 1919. H. R. W." 


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Thirty-ninth Report of the Committee — consisting of the 
Rev. 8. Baring-Gould, the late Mr. R. Burnard, Rev. 
J. F. Chanter, and Mr. R. Hansford Worth (Secretary) 
— appointed to collect and record facts r dating to Barrows 
in Devonshire, and to take steps, where possible, for their 

Edited by R. Hansfokd Wokth, Secretary of the Committee. 
(Read at Totnes, 21st July, 1920.) 

Your Committee has this year sustained a great loss in 
the death of Mr. Robert Burnard, f.s.a. Patient, thorough 
and skilful, a pioneer in certain branches of local archaeo- 
logy, he brought to the work of the Committee exceptional 
assistance and to his colleagues the pleasure of association 
with a charming personality. His contributions to our 
Reports were many and important ; his advice must long 
be irreplaceable. Mr. Burnard's work for the Association 
will find more adequate record elsewhere, but we cannot 
close this brief reference to its value without an expression 
of sincere grief that it is ended. 


A kistvaen, hitherto unmapped and unrecorded, is to be 
found a little to the north of Vixen Tor, not far from the 
enclosure wall. The six-inch quarter sheet on which it 
should be marked is, Devonshire, CVI, N.W. ; and its 
position, long. 4° 3' 27£", lat. 50° 33 7 2". 

The east side and the south end of the kist lean 
inwards, and the north end is slightly defective. The 
original internal dimensions would, however, appear -to 
have been about 4 ft. by 1 ft. 9 in. One side stone is 5 feet 
in length, and the other is over 4 ft. 10 ins. in length. The 

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/<?/?. Z.*- J'- 27'/% 
/at. SO m -33'-Z" 

KH-WORTH, 191©- 

jScarfc /S/zcA fo /foot. 

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present depth below the top of the side stones is 13 inches, 
but excavation would probably show the original depth to 
be at least twice this. 

The cover stone, or a part of it, for it seems to have 
been in two parts, leans against the south corner of the 

The direction of length is N. 27° 20' W., and consistent 
with the usual orientation in that it lies within the N.W. 
quadrant. (See plan.) 

Although unrecorded, this kistvaen was known to the 
Rev. H. H. Breton. 


There is on the northern slope of Barn Hill, not far from 
the third milestone from Tavistock on the Tavistock- 
Princetown road, a barrow which has hitherto escaped 
record. It has a diameter of 30 feet and lies in long. 
4° 4' 32" and lat. 50° 23' 20|". The Sheet number of the 
six-inch Ordnance Survey is, Devon, CVI, N.W. 

One hundred and twenty feet to the west of this barrow 
is a bank, the direction of which is N. 6° 40' E. Through 
this bank certain stones stand up, which may be the stones 
of a row, and two large stones standing with their length 
athwart the bank may perhaps be the sides of a ruined 
kistvaen. To definitely ascertain the nature of these re- 
mains excavation is needed. 


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Eleventh Repobt of the Committee — consisting of Mr. 
Maocwell Adams, Mr. J. 8. Amery, Mr. T. Cann 
Hughes, Miss Creswdl, Mr. A. L. Radford, Mr. Har- 
bottle Reed, Major O. E. Windeatt, and the Rev. J. F. 
Chanter (Hon. Secretary). 

Edited by the Rev. J. F. Chantek, m.a., f.s.a. 
(Read at Totnes, 21st July, 1920.) 

For the Eleventh Report, the Committee present an 
account of the plate in the Rural Deaneries of Cadbury 
and Kenn, all of which has been inspected by the Rev. 
J. F. Chanter since the last report, which will complete 
the Archdeaconry of Exeter, and as the whole of Barn- 
staple Archdeaconry has been completed there remains 
now only part of the Archdeaconry of Totnes to complete 
the work of this Committee. The Rural Deanery of Totnes 
has been already printed ; three other of its deaneries are 
nearly ready ; and the Hon. Secretary trusts that he may 
be enabled to finish the work he undertook more than a 
dozen years ago, which, involving a personal visit to every 
parish in the county, has proved more arduous than he 
anticipated when he undertook it. 


This Deanery comprises twenty-three parishes, stretch- 
ing from the Taw and the edge of Dartmoor to the Exe ; 
all are rural with the exception of the small town of 
Crediton. The Church Plate might be summed up as 
fairly average, and though I have not such a tale of theft, 
fire, and alienation to unfold as in the adjoining Deaneries 
of Tiverton and Collumpton, yet it has not been entirely 
^exempt from such troubles, for Newton S. Cyres lost all 
its plate by theft, and the Elizabethan chalices that were 

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at Crediton as late as 1880 have now entirely disappeared, 
and there appears to be no note of how or why in its 
records. In them we read, April 5th, 1577 : " Remember 
that upon this day Mr. Gylbert Davy brought a fayr. cup. 
for the Holy Communion " (noted by Miss B. P. Creswell) ; 
and in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries for 
1883 there is a note of an Elizabethan cup with the date 
1590 and the marks C. ESTON. and N, but to-day the 
oldest chalice is 1872. The parishes of Colebrooke, Ken- 
nerleigh, Poughill, and Woolsery have only chalices of the 
middle nineteenth century ; but in some of them they 
merely replaced pewter ones. There is a fine complete set 
of pewter vessels still at Woolsery. 

The one outstanding piece of interest in this Deanery is 
a beautiful covered beaker used as a chalice at Upton 
Hellions ; it was given to the parish by Sir John and Lady 
Davie in 1770, but is of far earlier date. Sir Charles 
Jackson, f.s.a., author of the two great standard works of 
silver, The History of English Plate and English Goldsmiths 
and their Marks, to whom I submitted a photograph, dates 
it as being between 1600 and 1650 (I had thought it a bit 
earlier), and that it is probably Flemish work. It is parcel- 
gilt, standing on a foot with cable border resting on three 
lions sejant regardant ; above this is a deep moulding. 
The gilt bowl is ornamented with repousse work showing 
the flight into Egypt and other scenes in the life of the 
B. V. Mary. Its upper and lower portions have bands of 
pierced work showing gilt surface beneath. The cover also 
is parcel-gilt, ornamented with a band of acanthus leaves, 
above which is a band of pierced work, and has as a finial 
the figure of a griffin. I am glad to be able to give an 
illustration of this remarkable piece. 

Elizabethan cups are found at Bramf ord Speke, Cadbury, 
Down S. Mary, ^Sandford, Shobrooke Spreyton, Stockleigh 
Pomeroy, and Thoverton. All of them are by Exeter 
makers : six by John Jones, one by Ralph Herman, and 
one by C. Eston. Three chalices are of the seventeenth 
century ; that at Bow is quite Elizabethan in style, is 
dated 1640, and is by a London maker. At Stockleigh 
English there is a baluster stem cup, date 1638 ; and at 
Shobrooke we have, in addition to the Elizabethan chalice, 
one given by Bishop Trelawney ; none of the others call 
for any comment. The patens, apart from chalice cases, 
^re of little interest except that at Crediton, which is dated 


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1665 and is the earliest example in the Diocese of the large 
patens on stands, imitated from covers, which came 
into general use at the beginning of the eighteenth 

Flagons are found in the majority. Except for quite 
modern ones, they are all tankards. The oldest are a mas- 
sive pair at Crediton which bear the London hall-marks 
for 1665. Alms dishes are of little interest. At Thoverton 
there is a seventeenth-century plate. In the early eight- 
eenth century silver bowls became the fashion, obeying the 
rubric which prescribed " a decent bason." There is a good 
pair of these at Crediton by Thomas Blake of Exeter. 
Spoons are found in a few parishes ; the best is a sixteenth- 
century apostle spoon at Thoverton. Domestic plate is 
uncommon, only a few waiters ; and armorials are found at 
Shobrooke and Thoverton. It is surprising to find in this 
Deanery so little Exeter-made plate later than the Eliza- 
bethan Age. 

There is one peculiarity in the Elizabethan chalice at 
Thoverton that I should have mentioned at some period : 
the stem just below the knop and the foot was broken off 
from the rest, and its place has been supplied by the cover 
adapted for the purpose. Does this tell of some struggle 
for its possession between the custodian and a thief or 
looter in the Civil War ? The church retained the upper 
part and cover, but the thief or looter made off with the 

All parishes in this Deanery were visited in the autumn 
of 1919 or spring of 1920. 

J. F. Chanter. 


Chalice. — A massive cup in the Elizabethan style, but 
dating from 1640 ; possibly a reproduction of an earlier 
one, 7 J in. high ; bowl is bell-shaped, 4£ in. diameter, 3| in. 
deep, with two bands of interlacing strapwork and ara- 
besques, each £ in. wide ; the upper, near the lip, has trefoil 
pendants ; the lower one is plain. The stem has a good 
boss ornamented with hit-and-miss work ; foot with orna- 
mentation in late Elizabethan style is 4£ in. diameter. 
Weight, 13 oz. 9 dwt. 

Marks : D G with anchor between and London hall- 
marks for 1640. 

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Cover to fit, 5 J in. diameter, lj in. high, with band of 
arabesque ornamentation. Weight : 5 oz. 5 dwt. 

Marks : as on chalice. Total weight, 18 oz. 14 dt. 

Patens. — A. Cover to chalice (see above). 

B. Plain on stand, 5f in. diameter, 1J in. high. 

Inscription : " Nemyt Tracy. Ex Dono Johan Gould. 

No marks. Weight, 4 oz. 2 dwt. 

Flagon. — A domed lid tankard. 10£ in. high, 8J in. to 
lid, 4 in. diameter at lid, 6 in. at foot. On handle is date 

Marks : I> E arid Exeter hall-marks for 1735. Weight, 
29 oz. 8 dwt. 

Alms Dishes. — A. Plate. 7 in. diameter. 

B. Brass. 


Chalices. — A. Elizabethan Exeter type. 172 mm. high ; 
bowl conical, 87 mm. diameter, 93 mm. deep, with band of 
interlacing strap work and arabesque ornamentation, 20 mm. 
broad, and four trefoil-ending pendants and lineal orna- 
mentation at junction with stem ; usual type of stem, 
with knop and fillets ; foot 82 mm. in diameter ; has lineal 

Mark : R H in square, indented at the base ; probably 
the mark of Ralph Hermann, of Exeter, or possibly 
Richard Hilliard. 

Cover to fit. 93 mm. in diameter and 25 mm. high ; is 
quite plain except for Tudor rose surrounded by an orna- 
mentation of basket-work on the button. 

No marks. 

B. A replica in many respects, but perfectly plain, of 
chalice A. 170 mm. high ; bowl is conical, 85 mm. dia- 
meter and 92 mm. deep ; stem with small knop ; foot 
82 mm. diameter. 

Inscription : " Dedicated to the service of God for the 
Holy Communion of the Lord's Supper, by George Cor- 
nelius Gorham, B.D. Instituted to the Vicarage Aug. 6, 
1850. Used for the first Communion after reopening the 
new Church 10 March on Easter Sunday, 27 March, 1853." 
And on bowl : " In whom we have redemption through 
His blood. The forgiveness of sins. Ephesians, Chapter 1, 
verse 7," with cross and crown. 


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Patens. — Cover to chalice A, see above. 

B. A waiter, with shell and scroll border. 181 mm. 
diameter, 27 mm. high, standing on three legs. 

Weight : 18 oz. 17 dwt. 

Inscription : " The gift of John Veysey. 1798." 
Marks : R R (Robert Rew ?), and London hall-marks 
for 1750. 

C. A square waiter with corners rounded off by a bifoil 
on four legs, decorated at corners. 145 mm. across and 
17 mm. high. 

Marks : T C. (Thomas Coffin), and Exeter hall-marks 
for 1733. 

Inscription : " The gift of William Downman, Esq. 

Flagon. — A domed-lid tankard. 225 mm. high, 185 
mm. to lid ; 84 mm. diameter at lid, 120 mm. at 

Inscription : " The gift of Mary Oliver widow relict of 
Mr. Benjamin Oliver, late of Cowley Gen tm . 1735." 

Marks : J. S. (James Strang), and Exeter hall-marks for 

Alms Dish. — A good embossed brass dish. 384 mm. 
diameter. On the rim engraved : " Do all to the Glory 
of God," and in the centre the Sacred Monogram. 


Chalice. — Elizabethan, Exeter type, with cover com- 
plete. 7J in. high ; bowl conical, 3f in. diameter, 3| in. 
deep, with usual concave lip and band of interlacing strap- 
work and arabesques round centre, and tongue-work at 
junction with stem, which has small knop and fillets at 
top and bottom ornamented with hatching ; foot 3J in. 
diameter, ornamented with tongue-work. 

Mark: EST ON in oblong. Weight, 11 oz. 9 dwt. 
with cover. 

Cover to fit, 3| in. diameter, 1 in. high ; quite plain 
except for tongue- work on button and inscription : "In 
the year of our Lord God 1582." 

Marks : (i.) C ; (ii.) ESTON. Weight, 2 oz. 8 dwt. 

Patens. — A. Cover to chalice, see above. 

B. Modern mediaeval style gilt, 6f in. diameter, with 
hexagonal depression, and Agnus Dei in centre round 

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rim engraved : " Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata mundi 
miserere nobis.' ' 

Marks : I J. K. and London hall-marks for 1846. 

C. Pewter on stand. 9| in. diameter, 2 in. high. 

Flagon, — A. Victorian tankard with cross on lid. 12| in. 
high. Weight, 15 oz. 10 dwt. 

Mark : R H (R. Hennell), and London hall-marks. 

B. A pewter tankard. 14J in. high, 4J in. diameter 
at lid. 

Alms Dish. — A silver-gilt embossed dish. 8J in. dia- 
meter, 1 in. high, with Adoration of Magi and inscrip- 
tion : 

" Benedic anima mea Domino et noli oblivisce retributiam 

Marks : as on paten B. 

cheriton rrrzpAiNE. 

Chalice. — A large plain baluster-stem cup. 10J in. high ; 
bowl 4J in. diameter, 5| in. deep ; foot, 4J in. diameter. 

Marks : E G and London hafi-marks for 1768. 

Weight : 19 oz. 3 dwt. 

Paten. — On stand, with later engraving, 5| in. diameter, 
If in. high. 

Marks : as on chalice. Weight, 8 oz. 8 dwt. 

Flagon. — A domed-lid tankard. 12 J in. high, lOf in. to 
lid, 4| in. diameter at lid, 7 J in. at base. 

Marks : as on chalice. Weight, 51 oz. 19 dwt. 

Alms Dish. — 9 J in. diameter, with fluted edge. Plated. 


Chalice. — Georgian style. 7 in. high ; bowl conical, 
3f in. diameter, 3£ in. deep ; stem with small knop ; foot, 
3f in. diameter. 

Inscription : " R Freke A. M. late Rector of this parish. 

Marks : H B (Hester-Bateman), and London hall-marks 
for 1785. Weight, 8 oz. 

Paten. — Plain, on stand. 5 J in. diameter, If in. 

Inscription : "DD Henricus Allwright Hughes M.A." 

Marks : CD and London hall-marks for 1802. Weight, 
6 oz. 

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Chalices. — A. Georgian style. 8£ in. high ; bowl with 
sacred monogram, 3| in. diameter, 3f in. deep ; stem with 
slight knop ; foot, 3| in. diameter. 

Inscription : " Colebrook, Devon, the gift of John Silli- 
fant of Combe. A.D. 1848. Christmas." 

Marks : E J. B. W. (E. J. and W. Barnard), and London 
hall-marks for 1848. Weight, 10 oz. 4 dwt. 

B. Duplicate of A. 

Marks : same. 

Patens. — A. On stand. 7tV in. diameter, 2 in. high. 

Marks and inscription : as on chalices. Weight, 9 oz. 
15 dwt. 

B. Plain. 4 J in. diameter. Electro-plate. 

Flagon. — Victorian type tankard. 13 in. high, 10 J in. to 
lid, 3£ in. diameter at lid, 5£ in. at base. 

Marks and inscription : as on chalice. Weight, 30 oz. 
12 dwt. 


Chalices. — A. Modern mediaeval style. 200 mm. high ; 
bowl conical, 99 mm. diameter, 71 mm. deep, with band 
19 mm. wide round centre, engraved " Calicem salutaris 
accepiam et nomen domini invocabo " ; stem hexagonal, 
with boss ; foot with white sapphire and sacred monogram 
in circle in front compartment ; base sexfoil, 124 mm. 

Marks : S S (Stephen Smith), and London hall-marks 
for 1872. 

B. Replica of A, but without sapphire. 

Marks : same. 

Patens. — A. On stand. 244 mm. diameter, 53 mm. high ; 
foot, 103 mm. diameter. 

Inscription : " The gift of Mrs. Snow of Westwood 
25 March 1666." 

Mark : A mullet over an escallop. Weight, 19 oz. 

B. Replica of A. Mark and Inscription, the same. 

C. Modern mediaeval style, with cross in quatrefoil. 
137 mm. diameter. 

Marks : T T & Co. and Birmingham hall-marks for 1871. 

Flagon. — A. A large massive tankard with flat lid. 
309 mm. high, 274 mm. to lid, 135 mm. diameter at lid, 
215 mm. at base. Weight, 73 oz. 

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Inscription : as on patens A and B. 
Marks : A mullet over an escallop and London hall- 
marks for 1665. 

B. A replica of A. Marks and inscription the same, but 
weight is 70 oz. 10 dwt. 

C. Silver-and-glass cruet. 228 mm. high. 
Marks : HFW and London hall-marks for 1880. 

D. Glass, with silver stopper. London hall-marks for 

Alms Dishes, — A. A decent bason. 222 mm. diameter, 
74 mm. high. 

Inscription : " The gift of some of the Communicants to 
the Church at Crediton." 

Marks : T B (Thomas Blake) and Exeter hall-marks for 
1747. Weight, 16 oz. 

B. Replica. Marks and inscription the same, but weight 
15 oz. 

C. A large salver on foot. 398 mm. diameter, 88 mm. high. 
Inscription : " In the year 1629 Mr John Conesby gave 

a Bole to the Chancell of Crediton weighing 13 ounces 
which another gift having made useless is now included in 
this bason. 1673." 

Marks : W W between mullets and pellets, and London 
hall-marks for 1673. Weight, 46 oz. 10 dwt. 

Spoon. — A table spoon with double drop, the bowl of 
which has been pierced in shape of cross, and sacred mono- 
gram. 20i mm. long. 

Marks : I F (John Fawdery) and London hall-marks for 

s. luke's, posbtjry. 

A chalice, two patens, all of 1836, and a pewter alms dish. 


Chalices. — A. Elizabethan ; a good dwarf example of 
the work of J. Jones, of Exeter, but without the usual 
Exeter lip. 5J in. high ; bowl bell shaped, 3 in. diameter, 
2J in. deep, with band of arabesque foliage J in. wide round 
centre ; stem with small knop ; foot, 2J in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) I ; (ii.) IONS; (iii.) Exeter town mark. 

Weight of chalice : 3 oz. 17 dwt. ; of cover, 1 oz. 16 dwt. 

Cover to fit, with narrow band of arabesque work. 1J in. 
high, 3£ in. diameter, and has had a smaller paten gilt- 
fitted into it which hides marks ; but on button is the 
date 1577. 

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B. Modern mediaeval style, parcel-gilt. 8£ in. high ; 
bowl, 4| in. diameter, 3 in. deep ; hexagonal stem, with 
plain boss ; and sexfoil foot with sacred monogram. 

Inscription : " Deo et ecclesiae Scte Mariae de Down. In 
Memoriam Mariae Radford quae obiit XV die Decembris 

Marks : I K and London hall-marks for 1854. Weight, 
16 oz. 8 dwt. 

Patens. — A. Cover to chalice A. See above. 

B. Modern mediaeval style, parcel-gilt. 6f in. diameter ; 
made from an old Exeter plate worked up. 

Inscription round hexagonal depression with sacred 
monogram : " Lord, evermore give us this bread." 

Marks : I F (name not traced) and Exeter hall-marks 
for 1741. 

Flagons. — A. Modern mediaeval style, parcel-gilt. 11 J in. 
high, 10J in. to lid,. 2 in. diameter at lid, 4 in. at foot ; 
round belly engraved " Glory be to Thee, God." 

Inscription and marks : as on chalice B. 

B. Pair of cruets ; one glass and silver, one plain glass. 

Alms Dish. — Brass. 10J in. diameter, with inscription 
as on chalice B. 

Baptismal Shell with cross handle. 


Chalice. — Georgian style. 6 in. high ; bowl,. 3 J in. dia- 
meter, 3 in. deep ; foot, 3£ in. diameter. 

Inscription: " Hittisleigh Parish, 1739." 

Marks indistinct. Weight, 7 oz. 10 dwt. 

Patens. — A. On stand. 8 in. diameter, 2J in. high. 

Inscription : " Hittisleigh. E. Dono. W. Ponsford, 
' Curate 1844." Weight, 10 oz. 9 dwt. 

B. Plain. 4 J in. diameter. Plated. 


Chalice. — Georgian style. 8J in. high ; bowl bell shaped 
with marked lip, 4£ in. diajneter, 4| in. deep ; stem with 
slight knop ; foot, 3f in. diameter. 

Inscription : " Parish of Kennerleigh, 1834." 4 

Marks : E E J. W. B (Messrs. Barnard) and London 
hall-marks for 1833. 

Paten. — A small salver on three feet. 7 in. diameter. 

Marks and inscription : as on chalice. 

Alms Dish. — A plate. 7 in. diameter. 

Digitized by 



Marks and inscription : as on chalice. 

Also a good set of pewter vessels, consisting of a chalice 
7 in. high ; bowl, 3J in. diameter, 3J in. deep ; a paten 
on stand, 9 in. diameter, 3£ in. high ; a tankard with 
domed lid, 7 J in. high ; and an alms bason, 5£ in. diameter 
and 3 J in. high ; all now at Woolfardisworthy. 


Chalices. — A. Georgian style. 10$ in. high ; bowl bell 
shaped, 4£ in. diameter, 5 J in. deep ; baluster stem ; foot, 
4£ in. diameter. 

Inscription : " This Challice was given to the Church of 
Morchard Bishop. 1755." 

Marks : W P (W. Parry) and Exeter hall-marks for 1754. 
Weight, 21 oz. 17 dwt. 

B. French Renaissance type. 6J in. high ; bowl hemi- 
spherical, 4f in. diameter, 2 in. deep ; unusual style of 
stem with collar ; hexagonal foot, with chevron ornament. 

Marks : B L in monogram and London hall-marks for 
1910. Weight, 9 oz. 2 dwt. 

C. "In usu infirmorum." Georgian style. 4 in. high ; 
bowl, 2 in. diameter, 2 in. deep. 

Inscription : " Parish of Morchard Bishop. Private 
Communions. 1827." 

Marks : R.E. EB (Ernes and Barnard) and London hall- 
marks for 1827. Weight, 3 oz. 7 dwt. 

Patens. — A. On foot. 6£ in. diameter, 2 in. high. 

Inscription : " This patten was given to the Ghurch of 
Morchard Bishop 1755." 

Marks : as on chalice A. Weight, 7 oz. 5 dwt. 

B. A plain plate. 5J in. diameter. 

Marks : M E and London hall-marks for 1911. Weight, 
3 oz. 12 dwt. 

C. To match chalice C. 3f in. diameter. 
Inscription and marks : as on chalice. Weight, 2 ozs. 

17 dwt. 

Flagons. — A. A conical shaped tankard with domed lid. 
llf in. high, lOf in. to lid, 4£ in. diameter at lid, 7 in. at foot. 

Inscription and marks : as on chalice A, except " Flagon" 
instead of " Challice." Weight, 54 oz. 14 dwt. 

B. To match chalice and paten C. A small flask. 3f in. 

Marks : as on chalice. Weight, 3 oz. 16 dwt. 

Alms Dishes. — A. Plain plate with beaded rim. 7 J in. 

Digitized by 



Inscription : "ME Pish. 1703." 

Marks : (gl, crown over, and Exeter hall-marks for 
1702. Weight, 7 oz. 5 dwt. 

B. Parcel-gilt. 10 in. diameter, embossed with Adora- 
tion of Magi and inscription " Benedic anima mea Domino, 
noli oblivisci omnes retributiones ejus." 

Mark : I K and London hall-marks for 1846. 


Chalice. — Georgian style. 240 mm. high ; bowl conical, 
with Up, 106 mm. diameter, 118 mm. deep ; baluster stem ; 
foot, 108 mm. diameter. 

Inscription : " The Communion Plate of Newton S. 
Cyres, Devon. 1767." 

Marks : w (Whipham and Wright) and London 

hall-marks for 1767. 

Cover. — Domical with a finial. 70 mm. high. 

Inscription : as on chalice. Weight, 18 oz. 

Paten. — Plain on stand. 148 mm. diameter, 48 mm. high. 

Inscription : as on chalice. Weight, 7 oz. 5 dwt. 

Marks : S P (Sarah Parr) and London hall-marks for 1731 . 

Flagon. — A domed-lid tankard. 315 mm. high, 272 mm. 
to lid, 102 mm. diameter at lid, 184 mm. at base. 

Inscription and marks : as on chalice, " a.d. 1767." 
Weight, 7 oz. 5 dwt. 

Alms Dishes. — A. A decent bason. 174 mm. diameter, 
67 mm. high. Weight, 47 oz. 4 dwt. 

Marks and inscription : as on chalice. 

B. A plain plate. 214 mm. diameter. 

Marks and inscription : as on chalice. Weight, 12 oz. 
5 dwt. 


Chalice. — Georgian style. 7f in. high ; bowl, 3f in. dia- 
meter, 3f in. deep, with sacred monogram ; stem with 
slight knop ; foot, 3f in. diameter. 

Inscription : " Poughill Church, an offering from 
Thomas Melhuish." 

Marks : E B, J. B (E. and J. Barnard) and London 
hall-marks for 1859. Weight, 9 oz. 7 dwt. 

Paten. — On stand. 7J in. diameter, 2| in. high. 

Inscription : E B 1745. Weight, 9 oz. 7 dwt. 

Marks : Ie (Edward Jennings) and London hall-marks 
for 1714. 

Digitized by 



Flagon. — Tankard with flat lid. 9J in. high, 8£ in. to 
lid, 3| in. diameter at lid, 5| in. at base. 

Inscription : " Honour the Lord with thy substance and 
with the first fruits of thine increase. The gift of Mrs. Mary 
Bradford to the Church of Poughill, 1736." Weight, 31 oz. 

Marks : I W, crown over and mullet under (John 
Webber), and Exeter hall-marks ; date letter indistinct, 
probably 1724. 

Alms Dish. — With sacred monogram on centre. 7 in. 

Marks : E B J. B (E. and J. Barnard) and London hall- 
marks for 1860. Weight, 5 oz. 5 dwt. 


Chalices. — A. Elizabethan Exeter type, wanting its 
cover. 6| in. high ; bowl conical, 3J in. diameter, 4 in. 
deep, with band of arabesque foliation and interlacing 
strapwork, with four erect and four pendent fleur-de-lys ; 
stem with usual knop ; foot, 3f in. diameter, with tongue- 
and-dart ornament. 

Marks : (i.) [ ; (ii.) IONS; (iii.) Exeter town mark. 
Weight, 9 oz. 12 dwt. 

B. Georgian style. 7 \ in. high ; bowl, 4 J in. diameter, 
4£ in. deep ; stem with a collar, with gadroon rim under 
bowl ; foot, 3| in. diameter. 

Inscription : " Glory be to God on high. Presented in 
great humility by Arabella Morgan to the Parish Church 
of Sandford, Dec. 8th, 1824. Aged 84." 

Marks : S H (Samuel Hennell) and London hall-marks 
for 1811. 

Patens. — A. Silver-gilt on stand. 9J in. diameter, 2\ in. 
high, with gadroon edge. 

Inscription : "The gift of Margaret Davie to ye Church 
of Sandford in Devon, May ye 25. Anno 1697." 

Arms : Arg. on a fesse three swans between three 

Marks : R and London hall-marks for 1693. Weight, 
17 oz. 7 dwt. 

B. Plain. 8 in. diameter. 

Inscription : "AD 1864. This paten was manufactured 
from a Chalice inscribed as the gift of Margaret Walrond. 

Marks : A.G.P and London hall-marks for 1863. Weight, 

Digitized by 



Flagons. — A. A tankard, 9 in. high, 5£ in. diameter at 
base, 3f in. at lid. 

Inscription : " The gift of the eldest daughter of S r . 
William Davie Bart late of Creedy to ye parish of Sandf ord 
in 1726." 

Marks : R. M and London hall-marks for 1694. Weight, 
27 oz. 

B. A replica of A. Marks and inscription same, but 
weight 26 oz. 10 dwt. 

Alms Bowls. — A. A decent bason. 7| in. diameter, 2 J in. 

Inscription : " The gift of Sir John Davie Bart 1757." 

Marks : T. W (Thomas Whipham) and London hall- 
marks for 1756. Weight, 13 oz. 

B. An oblong tray, 17J in. by 13| in. 

Inscription : " Presented to Rev. C. Gregory by the 
Parishioners of Sandford in 1878." 

Marks : W.H J.H and Sheffield hall-marks for 1877. 

Spoon. — Apostle spoon with twisted stem and pierced 
bowl, in shape of cross. 

Marks: R.M E H and Sheffield marks for 1877. 
Weight, 1 oz. 7 dwt. 


Chalices. — A. Elizabethan Exeter type, with cover com- 
plete. 1\ in. high ; bowl conical, with usual lip, 3J in. 
diameter, 4 in. deep, with band of interlacing strapwork 
and arabesque foliation f in. wide round centre ; stem with 
fair knop and fillets at top and bottom ; foot ornamented 
with tongue-work. 

Marks : (i.) I ; (ii.) IONS. Weight, 12 oz. 3 dwt. 

Cover to fit. 4£ in. diameter, 1 in. high, with band of 
interlacing strapwork and arabesques round rim, and 
button with hit-and-miss wavy band. 

Marks : as on chalice. Weight, 2 oz. 17 dwt. 

B. Puritan style, gilt. 8 J in. high ; bowl cylindrical, 
4£ in. diameter, 4| in. deep ; stem with small flange instead 
of knop ; foot, 4J in. diameter. 

Arms : Impaling Diocese, Or a chevron gules, a hand in 
a canton (Trelawney) On a shield of pretence, Arg. a bend 

Inscription : " The gift of Sir Jonathan Trelawney, Ld. 
Bishop of Exeter and Rector of Shoebrock." Weight, 
14 oz. 6 dwt. 

Digitized by 



Marks : R and London hall-marks for 1695. 

Patens. — A. Cover to chalice A. See above. 

B. On foot, gilt ; forms also cover to chalice B. 

Marks and inscription : as on chalice. Weight, 8 oz. 12 dwt. 

Flagons. — A. A flat-lid tankard. 11 J in. high, 10 J in. 
to lid, 4| in. diameter at lid, 6 in. at base. 

Inscription : " Gratitudinis ergo Benedicat Deus Thomse 

Arms : Or a cross flory ; and crest, a goat's head erased. 

Marks : M B interlinked, and London hall-marks for 
1674. Weight, 46 oz. 6 dwt. 

B. Modern mediaeval style. 11 in. high, 10 J in. to lid, 
2 in. diameter at lid, 4f in. at base round belly-band, with 
*' Te Laudamus tibi benedicimus." 

Marks : I J. K and London hall-marks for 1846. Weight, 
17 oz. 4 dwt. 

G. Pewter. 9 in. high. Marks : S P 1665. 


Chalice. — Elizabethan, Exeter type, with cover com- 
plete. 5£ in. high ; bowl with usual Exeter lip, 3£ in. 
diameter, 3£ in. deep, with band of interlacing strapwork 
and arabesque foliage, J in. wide round centre, and tongue 
ornamentation at junction with stem, which has usual knop 
and fillets ; foot, 3 in. diameter, ornamented with tongue- 
work. Weight, 6 oz. 2 dwt. 

Marks : (i.) Exeter town-mark ; (ii.) IONS. 

Cover to fit. 3£ in. diameter, 1 in. high ; button with 
Tudor rose and tongue-work at base. 

Marks : as on chalice. Weight, 1 oz. 18 dwt. 

Patens. — A. Chalice cover. See above. 

B. Plain on stand. 7 in. diameter, 2£ in. high. 
Marks : J. E E W B (Messrs. Barnard) and London 

hall-marks for 1846. Weight, 10 oz. 2 dwt. 

C. Modern mediaeval style. 6 in. diameter. Plated. 
Flagons. — A. Modern mediaeval style. 11 in. high, 9 in. 

to lid. Plated. 

B. Silver and glass cruet. 

Alms Dishes. — A. Pewter " decent bason." 5£ in. dia- 
meter, 3f in. high, 3 in. deep. 

B. Pewter plate. 9£ in. diameter. 


Chalice. — A baluster stem cup. 6J in. high ; bowl 
conical. 3| in. diameter, 2| in. deep ; foot, 2 J in. diameter. 


zed by G00gk 


Inscription : "SE,IB 1669." Weight, 7 oz. 5 dwt. 

Marks : I M over a bear and London hall-marks for 1638. 

Paten. — Plain. 5J in. diameter. 

Inscription : "SE SMY Of their devotion Frances 
Bellew 20 Jan 1822. Mary Anne Bellew 1884." Weight, 
2 oz. 19 dwt. 

C S 

Marks : |j and London hall-marks for 1883. 

Flagons. — A pair of cruets, plate and glass. 
Inscription : " F + S Michaelmas, 1881." 
Alms Dishes. — A. Plain plate. 8f in. diameter. 
Marks and inscription : as on paten. Weight, 8 oz. 4 dwt. 
B. A pewter bowl. 7| in. diameter. 


Chalice. — Elizabethan, Exeter type. 6J in. high ; bowl 
with usual Exeter lip, 3f in. diameter, round its centre 
band of interlacing strapwork and arabesque foliage f in. 
wide, and tongue ornamentation at junction with stem, 
which is of usual Exeter type ; plain knop and fillets at 
top and bottom ; foot, 3f in. diameter, with tongue-and- 
dart ornamentation. 

Marks : (i.) E ; (ii.) IONS; (iii.) B ; (iv.) Exeter 
town-mark. Weight, 9 oz. 2 dwt. 

Cover to fit. 1 in. high, with narrow band of arabesque 
ornamentation ; on button is inscription " In the yeare of 
our Lord God 1576." 

Marks : as on chalice. Weight, 2 oz. 10 dwt. 

Patens. — A. Chalice cover. See above. 

B. Plain on stand. 7f in. diameter, 2£ in. high. 

Marks : Li (John Lingard) and London hall-marks for 
1719. N.S. Weight, 9 oz. 18 dwt. 

Flagon. — Victorian tankard, with spout and finial to 
domed lid. 10J in. high, 8 in. to lid, 3 in. diameter at lid, 
4 £ in. at base. Weight, 18 oz. 14 dwt. 

Inscription : " Stockleigh Pomeroy. Offered Easter 
Day, 1856." 

Marks : Messrs. Barnard and London hall-marks for 1 851 . 

Alms Dish. — Plain. 7£ in. diameter, 1J in. high. 

Marks : as on flagon. Weight, 8 oz. 18 dwt. 


Chalices. — A. A composite piece, but all of the Eliza- 
bethan age. At some time the stem below the knop and 

Digitized by 



foot have been broken off and apparently lost, and its place 
has been supplied by a chalice cover roughly soldered on ; 
at present it is 170 mm. high. The bowl is Exeter type, 
with usual concave lip and narrow band of interlacing 
strapwork and arabesques, 16 mm. broad round centre, 
and tongue-work at junction with stem, 108 mm. diameter 
and deep ; upper part of stem usual type ; lower part and 
foot is a chalice cover, possibly original one cut down. 
Marks: (i.) IONS; (ii.) I O. Weight, 10 oz. 18 dwt. 

B. Georgian style, with baluster stem. 233 mm. high ; 
bowl, 115 mm. diameter, 116 mm. deep, with marked lip ; 
foot, 108 mm. diameter. 

Inscription : "'The offering of Sir John Taylor Coleridge, 
Knight, one of the Judges of the Court of Queen's Bench, 
3** Nov. 1844." 

Marks : E E J. W. B (Messrs. Barnard) and London 
hall-marks for 1831. Weight, 14 oz. 9 dwt. 

C. Modern mediaeval style. 166 mm. high ; bowl hemi- 
spherical, 85 mm. diameter, 58 mm. deep ; stem hexagonal, 
with plain knop ; foot sexfoil. 

Inscription : " Drink ye all of this." 
Marks : I K and London hall-marks for 1863. Weight, 
10 oz. 9 dwt. 

D. Plated. 113 mm. high ; bowl, 69 mm. diameter, 
45 mm. deep. 

Patens. — A. Plate, with rim ornamented by concentric 
circles. 202 mm. diameter. 

Inscription : " The gift of M ra Elizabeth Tuckfield to the 
Parish of Thoverton, 1798." Weight, 8 oz. 4 dwt. 

Marks : P B, A B (Peter and Ann Bateman) and London 
hall-marks for 1798. 

B. A plate. 175 mm. diameter. Plated. 

Flagon. — A massive tankard with flat lid. 288 mm. high, 
258 mm. to lid, 122 mm. diameter at lid, 177 mm. at base. 

Inscription : " The guift of Roger Tuckfield ye younger, 

Arms : In mantling, with crest an eagle with arrow in 
dexter claw, arg. three lozenges az. in fesse, impaling az. 
a chevron gules between three mallets pierced gules. 

Marks : T E with fleur-de-lys above and escallop below, 
and London hall-marks for 1683. Weight, 56 oz. 6 dwt. 

Alms Dish. — A. A circular dish. 280 mm. diameter, 
with inscription. Arms and marks : as on flagon. Weight, 
18 oz. 9 dwt. 

Digitized by 



Spoon. — A late seventeenth-century apostle spoon with 
flat stem. 183 mm. long. Weight, 1 oz. 2 dwt. 

Marks : (i.) Maltese cross ; (ii.) triangle over crossed pins. 


Chalice D and paten B described among Thoverton 
Church Plate are supposed to belong to this chapel. 


Chalices. — A. A very fine beaker with cover. 229 mm. 
high, 151 mm. without cover. It is parcel-gilt, standing on 
a foot with cable border resting on three lions sejant re- 
gardant ; above this is a deep . moulding. The bowl is 
ornamented with repouss6 work of the flight into Egypt 
and other scenes from the life of the Virgin, above and 
below which are bands of pierced work, showing gilt sur- 
face under. The cover, also parcel-gilt, has an ornamenta- 
tion of acanthus leaves above, which is pierced work with 
plain gilt surface under, and as a finial a figure of a gr iffin , 
on the head of which is a small circular plate of a later date 
with the inscription " The gift of Sir John and Lady Davie, 

Marks : (i.) In circle t ; (ii.) in circle a device indistinct. 
See illustration. 

B. Modern mediaeval style. 178 mm. in height. Plated. 

Paten. — Plain on stand. 192 mm. diameter, 57 mm. high. 

Marks : R B (Robert Brown) and London hall-marks 
for 1737. 

Inscription : " Upton Hellions Church, 1771." 


Chalices. — A. Nondescript style. 184 mm. high ; bowl 
semi-ovate, 81 mm. diameter, 76 mm. deep, standing in a 
calix of cast work formed of interlacing tracery with 
cherubs ; baluster stem, with three heads on knop ; foot 
with interlacing work, 111 mm. diameter. Weight, 10 oz. 
16 dwt. 

inscription : " Presented by the cottagers and non- 
ratepayers of Upton Pyne, 1875." 

Marks : T G interlinked and London hall-marks for 1874. 

B. Replica, slightly larger. 

Mark and inscription same. Weight, 9 oz. 11 dwt. 
Date 1871. 

Patens. — A. Plain on stand. 204 mm. diameter, 66 mm. 

Digitized by 


Cine. A.D. 1600. 

CniRcii Pi.atk Report.— To face j\ 90. 


zed by G00gk 


zed by G00gk 


Marks : T S (Thomas Salter) and Exeter hall-marks for 
1721. Weight, 10 oz. 16 dwt. 
B. Plain plate. 108 mm. diameter. 
Inscription : "In memoriam Earl of Iddesleigh, 1887." 

C S 

Marks : j. and London hall-marks for 1887. Weight, 

2 oz. 19 dwt. 

Flagon. — A small embossed tankard with domed lid. 
179 mm. high, 139 mm. to lid, 100 mm. diameter at lid, 
121 mm. at base. A spout at side has been added, and 
destroyed marks, perhaps. Only one is, now visible, R°. 
Weight, 23 oz. 17 dwt. 

Alms Dish. — Plated. 230 mm. diameter. Inscribed : 
" The gift of Sir S. H. Northcote, Bart., to Upton Pyne, 


Chalice. — Modern mediaeval style. 8 in. high ; bowl 
conical, 4£ in. diameter, 2J in. deep ; hexagonal stem with 
knop ; and sexfoil foot, 5J in. diameter. 

Marks : E B J. B (Messrs. Barnard) and London hall- 
marks for 1853. 

Paten. — Modern mediaeval style. 7J in. diameter. Sex- 
foil depression round rim, engraved " Agnus Dei qui tollis 
peccata mundi da nobis tuam pacem." 

Inscription : " To the glory of God and in memory of 
Sophia A. B. Kempe her sister Margaret Brassey Hole 
gives this communion plate to the Church of Woolfardis- 
worthy, Christmas, 1885." 

Marks : E J. W. B. (Barnards) and London hall-marks 
for 1846. 

Flagon. — Modern mediaeval style. 9J in. high, 7£ in. to 
lid. Plated. 

Alms Dish. — 7| in. diameter, 1J in. high, with sacred 
monogram in centre. Plated. 

Also a fine complete pewter set, consisting of : 

Chalice. — 7 in. high ; bowl, 3£ in. diameter, 3 i in. 

Paten. — On stand. 9 in. diameter, 3J in. high. 

Flagon. — A tankard with domed lid. 7£ in. high, 6 in. 
to lid. 

Alms Bason. — 5| in. diameter, 3£ in. high. Kennerleigh, 
however, claims this set as belonging to her. 

J. F. Chanter. 

vol. LH. Q 

Digitized by 


98 eleventh beport of the 

The Deanery of Kenn. 

The present Rural Deanery of Kenn consists of the 
twenty-six parishes that lie south-west of Exeter, com- 
prising roughly the district between the Rivers Exe and 
Teign. Of these, twenty-one are ancient parishes, three 
ancient chapelries, and two modern districts ; and though 
none lie very far from the metropolis of the county, yet 
many are most inaccessible and secluded. From a church 
plate point of view it may be described as slightly above 
the average, for, although no parish possesses anything 
older than Elizabethan times, yet there is a very fair pro- 
portion of that period, several interesting pieces of the 
early seventeenth century, and, as might be expected, a 
good many examples of the work of Exeter craftsmen. 

The one outstanding piece of interest is the older Kenn 
chalice, which is the finest existing example of the revival 
of pre-Reformation forms for chalices during the reign of 
Charles I. Although it shows strongly Renaissance in- 
fluence, it approaches nearer to true Gothic art than any 
other surviving chalice of that period. Its chief weakness, 
from an artistic point of view, is that the bowl is too large 
for the base, although the latter with its bold foot of six 
mullets, with its points terminating in knops or toes 
formed of winged cherubs ending in small balls, has a very 
fine effect. I am glad to be able to give an illustration of 
this most remarkable piece ; it is the work of F. Terry, a 
well-known London goldsmith, its date being 1638. The 
date of 1696 which is inscribed on it has, however, misled 
many who had seen it. 

Another striking or rather curious piece is the mother- 
of-pearl chalice at Cofton. It is composite work ; originally 
it was doubtless a cup with handle formed* of two flat 
layers of haliotis shell geometrically cut, radiating from a 
medallion at the bottom, mounted on a short silver foot, 
probably sixteenth-century work ; but in 1838 it was 
mounted on a new base formed of stem with knop and 
foot, ornamented with Victorian engine-worked tracery, 
to make it into a chalice. 

Another chalice at Cofton has been stated to be pre- 
Reformation. It is, however, a baluster-stem wine cup of 
the early seventeenth century converted into a chalice, 
cutting down the bowl by removing the upper part of it, 
and engraving a crucifix in an ancient form on the foot. 

Digitized by 



By this operation the hall-marks, which would have been 
near the rim, were removed. I regret having to destroy 
the pleasing illusion that it had survived all the changing 
scenes of life in the varied history of the Chapel of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary at Cofton ; but I suspect that if an 
inquiry had been addressed to Lords Devon or Halifax its 
history would have been forthcoming before now. 

There are seven surviving examples of Elizabethan 
chalices in this Deanery, viz. at Ashcombe, Cheriton Bishop, 
Dunchideock, Kenton (two), Shillingford, and Whitstone, 
and, as might be expected, all are of Exeter workmanship. 
Five are the work of John Jones, one by the unknown 
worker whose mark was V I, and one with no marks. At 
Exminster there is also a good chalice in the late Eliza- 
bethan style by John Lavers, of Exeter, which may be 
dated as about 1638 ; there is another example in the 
diocese of a chalice by this craftsman, whose name I have 
only recovered since the last report, viz. at Ashwater. The 
maker's mark, I L, was before an unknown one. Other 
examples in the Deanery of the seventeenth century are 
at Kenn, to which I have already referred ; Doddiscombs- 
leigh, a very interesting cup, dated 1647, by an Exeter 
craftsman whose mark is almost indecipherable, which is 
of a style almost unique ; a Puritan shape bowl ; stem 
with knop ornamented with punched work in a semi- 
pre-Reformation style, and base with Elizabethan orna- 
ment. At St. Mark's, Dawlish, there is a graceful Jacobean 
cup of the year 1628 ; it is of interest as being almost a 
replica and by the same maker as the chalice from which 
Charles I. received his last communion. Dawlish Parish 
Church, Powderham, and Tedburn S. Mary have cups in 
the Puritan style ; while, of later times, the only ones of 
any interest are those at Ashton, Bridford, Christow, and 
Holcombe Burnell, which are all early eighteenth-century 
examples of the work of an Exeter craftsman. That at 
Bridford is by John Avery and dated 1703 ; it is the only 
chalice by this maker that I have met with, and is in a style 
quite distinct from any other Exeter chalice of this period. 
Some of the late nineteenth-century chalices might attract 
attention, whether from their adornment with diamonds 
and other precious stones, and in one case with bracelets, 
brooches, and pearls, or from their curious design, such as 
the East Teignmouth chalice with its seven-sided stem and 
septfoil foot. From one cause or another every parish in 

Digitized by 



this Deanery, with the exception of Bishops Teignton and 
its chapelry at Luton, h«ss something of interest, and it 
has suffered less from alienation, fire, theft, and vandalism 
than almost any other division of the Diocese of Exeter. 

With regard to patens there is little that calls for remark. 
Apart from chalice covers, the oldest is 1640, found' at 
Dawlish ; but it is a secular plate adapted for a paten by 
having a stand fixed under it ; and at Powderham there 
is another domestic plate dated 1679, but it is in its original 
state. Many of the later ones are of Exeter work and, as 
local work, of interest. 

Flagons are found in nearly every parish. The most in- 
teresting is that at Dunsf ord ; originally it was doubtless 
a tiger ware flagon, with silver mounts foot and cover, but 
unfortunately the stoneware part must have got broken and 
a new one supplied which is too small for the mounts. The 
silver parts still remaining show that it was the work of John 
Eydes, an Exeter goldsmith, and it may be dated at about 
1570. The majority of the others are plain tankards of the 
late seventeenth or early eighteenth century, the oldest of 
which are at Powderham, dated 1659, and Kenn, 1662. 

Alms dishes of silver, plate, pewter, or brass are almost 
universal ; the most interesting is that at Bridf ord — a 
Charles I sweetmeat dish. East Teignmouth has no less 
than six silver ones. There was in many a fondness for 
*' a decent bason " to obey the rubric, many of which, 
from their small size, have been erroneously thought to 
have been made for the priest's ablutions. 

Miscellaneous articles, consisting of silver palls, wafer 
boxes, bread boxes, spoons, and curious pewter vessels that 
look like sugar basins, are widely scattered. Among the 
spoons there is a seal-headed one with the Poole town-mark 
at Dunsf ord, an apostle spoon with date pricked 1656 at 
Cofton, and a very curious pewter one at Kenton. 

Both domestic plate and armorials are very scanty. 
Finally, I may say that, generally speaking, all the plate 
in this Deanery is well cared for and every precaution is 
taken for its safety, in which respect Kenn Deanery is an 
example to the Diocese. 

1920. J. F. Chanter. 


Chalice. — Georgian style, with baluster stem. 222 mm. 
high ; bowl, 102 mm. diameter, 101 mm. deep ; domical 
foot, 105 mm. diameter. 


zed by G00gk 


Marks : T W. C.W. (Whipham and Wright) and London 
hall-marks for 1759. 

Paten. — Plain on stand. 213 mm. diameter, 39 mm. high. 

Marks : as on chalice. 

Flagons. — A. Modern mediaeval style, with flat lid and 
cross for thumb-piece ; round belly engraved " Christus 
pascha nostrum immolatus est " ; sexf oil foot, 120 mm. 

Marks : E B. J.B. (E. and J. Barnard) and London hall- 
marks for 1848. 

Inscription : " An offering to Alphington Church, Easter. 
A D. 1853." 

B. A pewter flagon with dome lid and finial. 357 mm. 

Alms Dish. — A bowl. 224 mm. diameter, 30 mm. high, 
with border edge of gadroon and six shell-and-flower 

Inscription : " The gift of Mrs. Sarah Mole to the Parish 
of Alphington." 

Marks : S & Co. and Sheffield hall-marks for 1819. 


Chalices. — A. Elizabethan, Exeter type. 7J in. high ; 
bowl cylindrical, 3f in. diameter, 4| in. deep, with usual 
Exeter type concave lip which is ornamented with hit-and- 
miss work ; round centre band of interlacing strapwork 
with arabesques § in. wide, and at base ornamentation in 
shape of hearts ; stem with small knop and fillets ; foot 
with heart ornamentation, 3| in. diameter. 

Mark : V I or I A. Weight, 8 oz. 14 dwt. 

Cover to fit. 3£ in. diameter, 1J in. high, with bftnd of 
arabesques and, on button, Tudor rose, with basket-work 

Marks : as on chalice. Weight, 3 oz. 5 dwt. 

B. A curious small cup, the base of which forms a 
smaller cup. 4 J in. high ; bowl is 2tV in. diameter, 1 J in. 

Inscription : " Ashcombe." Weight, 2 oz. 15 dwt. 

Marks : Maker indecipherable, and London hall-marks 
for 1815. 

Patens. — A. Cover to chalice A. See above. 

B. On stand, with gadroon edges. 8 in. diameter, 2f in. 

Mark : (gl with crown over (John Elston) and Exeter 
hall-marks for 1708. Weight, 7 oz.16 dwt. 

Digitized by 



Flagon. — Tankard with domed lid and spout. 9J in. 
high, 7f in. to lid. Sheffield plate. 
Alms Dish. — Plate. 5f in. diameter. Plated. 


Chalice. — A good example of early Georgian style. 8 in. 
high ; bowl befl-shaped, 4£ in. diameter, 4| in. deep ; stem 
with good knop for the period ; foot, 3| in. diameter. 

Marks : Ri in circle (Edmond Richards) and Exeter hall- 
marks for 1718. 

Paten. — Plain on foot. 7| in. diameter, If in. high. 

Inscription: "| 8 M 1689." 

Marks : IE, with star under in shield. Doubtless this 
is an early mark of John Elston, of Exeter. A somewhat 
similar mark is found at Broadhembury on a chalice. 

Flagon. — A tankard with domed lid. 9| in. high, 3f in. 
diameter at lid, 5| in. at foot. 

Inscription : " For the use of the Parish of Ashton. 

Marks : P.S. (P. Symons) and Exeter hall-marks for 

Alms Bowl. — " A decent bason." 6^£ in. diameter. 

Inscription : " For the use of the Parish of Ashton. 

Marks : T B in circle (Thomas Blake) and Exeter hall- 
marks for 1737. 


Chalice. — An early Queen Anne chalice of somewhat 
peculiar design. 241 mm. high ; the bowl is 109 mm. 
diameter, 128 mm. deep, bell-shaped, and has two mould- 
ings 4 mm. wide in the upper half ; stem with large ovate 
knop which has a moulding round centre ; base with 
several deep mouldings ; and foot 105 mm. diameter. 
Weight, 10 oz. 18 dwt. 

Inscription : " John Hall Warden 1703 of the Parish of 

Marks : J^\> ; in oval (John Avery) and Exeter hall- 
marks for 1703. This is the only chalice so far known by 
this Exeter craftsman. 

Cover to fit is quite plain like an inverted paten, except 
for a flange which fits tight to the inside of bowl, 123 mm. 
diameter, 35 mm. high. 

Digitized by 



Marks : as on chalice. Weight, 3 oz. 9 dwt. 

Paten. — Chalice cover. See above. 

Flagon. — Modern mediaeval pattern. 284 mm. high, 
261 mm. to lid, 36 mm. diameter at lid, 123 mm. at base ; 
sexfoil foot. 

Inscription: " Bridford, 1886. E. R. Gotto, M.A., 
Rector ; Nicholas Tuckett, John Frost Northcott, Church- 

Alms Dish. — A Charles I sweetmeat dish with two lug- 
shaped handles, ornamented with punched work. 157 mm* 
diameter, 230 mm. diameter to ends of handles. 

Inscription: "Bridford. Edward Hall, Warden. 1680." 

No marks. Weight, 3 oz. 3 dwt. 


Chalices. — Elizabethan, Exeter type. 182 mm. high ; 
bowl conical, 92 mm. diameter, 102 mm. deep, with band 
18 mm. wide round centre of interlacing strap work and 
arabesque foliage, which has three pendants and three 
similar upwards ending in kind of trefoils ; at junction 
with stem there is egg-and-chevron ornamentation ; stem 
with usual knop and fillets, and egg-and-chevron work at 
junction with base ; foot is 87 mm. diameter. Weight, 
10 oz. 15 dwt. 

Marks : IONS and Exeter town-mark. 

Cover to fit. 99 mm. diameter and 21 mm. high, with 
band of strapwork and arabesques, and on button is 
the inscription: "THE PARISHE OF CHERETEN 
BISHVPE +," and on inside " Richard Dicker" (he was 
parishe clerk in 1625). Weight, 1 oz. 12 dwt. 
- Patens. — A. Cover. See above. 

B. Plain on stand. 155 mm. diameter, 39 mm. high. 

Inscription : " This patin belongs to the church of 
Bishops Cheriton in Devonshire." 

Marks : S L (Gabriel Sleath) and London hall-marks for 
1713. Weight, 8 oz. 1 dwt. 

Flagon. — A domed-lid tankard. 271 mm. high, 233 mm. 
to lid, 98 mm. diameter at lid, 156 mm. at base. 

Inscription : " This Flagon was given to the Parish of 
Cheriton Bishop in the County of Devon by Peter Foulkes, 
D.D. Rector, 1738." Weight, 43 oz. 2 dwt. 

Marks : T S. (Thomas Sampson) and Exeter hall-marks 
for 1737-8. 

Alms Dish. — Circular. 233 mm. diameter, 25 mm. high. 

Digitized by 



Inscription : " This plate was given to the Parish of 
Cheriton Bishop in the County of Devon by Peter Foulkes,. 
D.D., Rector, 1738." 

Marks : T C (Thomas Coffin) and Exeter hall-marks for 
1737-8. Weight, 12 oz. 10 dwt. 


Chalice. — Georgian style. 275 mm. high ; bowl bell 
shaped, 115 mm. diameter, 132 mm. deep ; stem has two 
knops, a smaller one in upper part and a larger one in the 
lower ; foot circular, 119 mm. diameter. Weight, 14 oz; 
2 dwt. 

Marks : J. E label over (John Elston, jr.) and Exeter 
hall-marks for 1725. 

Patens. — A. On stand, with cable borders to top and 
foot. 178 mm. diameter and 59 mm. high. Weight, 6 oz. 
16 dwt. 

Inscription : "Ex Dono Elizabeth Luscombe. ,, 

Marks : T> and London hall-marks for 1691. 

B. Plain plate. 114 mm. diameter. Plated. 

Flagons. — A pair of cruets. 185 mm. high. Glass and 

Alms Bowls. — A. Bowl. 203 mm. diameter, 83 mm. 
high. Has on it a crest, a cock crowing ; also a patri- 
archal cross. 

Marks : J B, crown over in circle (John Burdon), and 
Exeter hall-marks for 1724. Weight, 10 oz. 2 dwt. 

B. A pewter bowl. 234 mm. diameter and 34 mm. high. 


Chalices. — A. A very curious cup of composite work, 
now 301 mm. high ; the bowl is conical, formed of two 
flat layers of haliotis shell, commonly called mother-of- 
pearl, geometrically cut, radiating from a medallion. At 
the bottom it is 112 mm. diameter and 171 mm. deep, and 
has a silver rim 25 mm. deep scalloped at the lower edge 
with tracery. It appears formerly to have had a handle 
and probably had originally a short silver foot, but in 1838 
to have been mounted on stem and knop, with a foot 
ornamented with Victorian engine-worked tracery. There 
are no marks on the older work, which is sixteenth century ; 
but the new part has the marks of Messrs. Barnard and 
London hall-marks for 1838. 

Inscription : " Deo et sacris in Capella de Cofton 


zed by G00gk 


D. D. D. Gulielmus Collyn de Kenton Chireurgus 

B. A baluster-stem cup. 152 mm. high ; bowl is now 
80 mm. diameter, 57 mm. deep. It appears to have been 
cut down slightly and thereby the hall-marks destroyed. 
Foot is 93 mm. diameter and has on it a crucifix with 
I N R I, the N R interlinked. 

It has been described as a pre-Reformation chalice, but 
this is incorrect. There have been some repairs, but the 
date is early seventeenth century, as is shown by the lion 
passant mark still existing under the foot, and crucifix, a 
modern addition. 

Paten. — Plain on stand. 127 mm. diameter, 38 mm. high. 

Marks : D K (David Keene) and Dublin hall-marks for 

Spoon. — An apostle spoon (S. John). 181 mm. long ; 
bowl pierced with I H S. 

Inscription : Pricked "JBTB 1656." 

Alms Dishes. — A pewter bowl and plate. 


Chalices. — A. Puritan style. 177 mm. high ; bowl bell- 
shaped, 112 mm. diameter, 111 mm. deep ; trumpet stem, 
with small annular knop ; base, 107 mm. diameter. 
Weight (circ.) 10 oz. 15 dwt. 

Inscription : Pricked " T.T, R G Wardens. 1675." 
Marks : T R, crescent over, and London hall-marks for 

B. Late Georgian type. 204 mm. high ; bowl with wide 
lip, 109 mm. diameter, 101 mm. deep. Weight (circ.) 13 oz. 
10 dwt. 

Marks : R E E B (Ernes and Barnard) and London 
hall-marks for 1824. 

C. Modern mediaeval style ; a plain example. 165 mm. 
high ; bowl conical, 94 mm. diameter, 58 mm. deep ; hexa- 
gonal stem, with small knop ; foot sexfoil, 114 mm. dia- 
meter. Weight (circ.) 14 oz. 10 dwt. 

Marks : Messrs. Barnard's and London hall-marks for 

D. " In usu infirmorum." 88 mm. high ; bowl, 39 mm. 

Marks : G. G. and Birmingham hall-marks for 1893. 
Patens. — A. A plate to which a stand has been added 
at a later date. 176 mm. diameter, 47 mm. high. 

Digitized by 



Inscription : as on chalice A. Weight, inscribed, 5 oz. 
6 dwt. 

Marks : C P, rose under, and London hall-marks (circ. 

B. Plate. 213 mm. diameter, ornamented with sacred 
monogram in circlet. 

Marks : BE, EB (Ernes and Barnard) and London 
hall-marks for 1822. 

C. " In usu infirmorum." To match chalice D. 
Flagons. — A. Domed-lid tankard with spout. 273 mm. 

high, 232 mm. to lid, 113 mm. diameter at lid, 144 mm. 
at base. 
Marks : as on chalice B. Weight (circa) 32 oz. 

B. Cruet. Silver and glass. 204 mm. high. 
Inscription : "A.MD.6 In loving memory of E. M. 

Scott, late of the Buffs." 
Marks : London for 1904. 

C. Cruet. Silver and glass. 202 mm., with London hall- 
marks for 1902. 

D. "In usu infirmorum. ,, A small pitcher. 95 mm. 

Alms Dish. — Plate, with gadroon edge. 235 mm. dia- 
meter. Plated. 

st. mark's, dawlish. 

Chalices. — A. A graceful tall, slender Jacobean cup. 
208 mm. high ; bowl, 88 mm. diameter, 99 mm. deep ; 
baluster stem ; ioot, 86 mm. high. 

Inscription : " S Marks Dawlish. MDCCCL." 

Marks : R C, pheon under in heart, and London hall- 
marks for 1628. It is by the same maker k and very similar 
to the cup from which King Charles I received his last 

B. Modern mediaeval style. 163 mm. high ; bowl hemi- 
spherical, 102 mm. diameter, 54 mm. deep ; hexagonal 
stem, with small knop ; foot hexagonal, with points ter- 
minating in trefoil toes. 

Inscription : " The gift of certain parishioners of Dawlish 
to the Rev. John Martin, M.A., and by him dedicated to 
the service of God at the Chapel of S. Mark. 1859." 

Marks : E B J. B. (E. and J. Barnard) and London hall- 
marks for 1859. 

Patens. — A. Plate. 178 mm. diameter, with sexfoil 
ornamentation in depression. 


zed by G00gk 


Inscription : " S. Mark's, Dawlish. MDCCCL." 

Marks : Messrs. Barnard's and London hall-marks for 

B. Plain plate. 178 mm. diameter. 

Inscription : " S. Mark's, Dawlish. The gift of Mrs. 
Plenderleath, 1909." 

Marks : London hall-marks for 1909. 

Flagons. — A. Modern mediaeval style, to match chalice B. 
308 mm. high, 287 mm. to lid ; hexagonal foot. 

Inscription and marks : as on chalice. 

B. Cruet. Glass and silver. 

Marks : T A and London hall-marks for 1887. 

Alms Dish. — 215 mm. diameter, 30 mm. high. 

Inscription, marks, etc. : as on chalice B. 

Wine Strainer. — Electro-plate. 


Chalice. — Somewhat peculiar in both its style and its 
date, which is 1647. It is 208 mm. high ; the bowl is in 
the Puritan shape, plain, 100 mm. diameter, 106 mm. deep, 
and tongue-work at junction with the stem, which is 
circular, with large knop after pre-Reformation style, orna- 
mented with punched work of stars and dots ; there is a 
fillet at top of stem, and at base three raised lines ; foot, 
101 mm. diameter, with tongue- work and oblongs in the 
'Elizabethan style. 

Inscription : " Oct. 1647. This chalice was exchanged 
for the olde and 3 oz. added unto it which was the gift of 
William Chfeney and his wife late of Doddiscombsleigh." 

Marks : (i.) a monogram indistinct ; (ii.) and (iv.) a 
quatrefoil with roundels and circle ; (iii.) Exeter town- 
mark (blurred). Weight, 13 oz. 2 dwt. 

Paten. — Plain on stand. 163 mm. diameter, 49 mm. high. 
Weight, 6 oz. 7 dwt. 

Marks : C L in bif oil (Joseph Clare) and London hall- 
marks for 1718. 

Flagon. — A domed-lid tankard. 238 mm. high, 188 mm. 
to lid, 95 mm. diameter at lid, 137 mm. at foot. Weight, 
28 oz. 17 dwt. 

Inscription : " Doddescombsleigh. Ex Dono R. Geo. 
Comyns Rector 1740," in a mantling with cherub above. 

Marks : P E in oval (Philip Elston) and Exeter hall- 
marks for 1740. 

Alms Dishes. — A. Plain. 191 mm. diameter. 

Digitized by 



Inscription : " Doddiscombsleigh Anno Salutis 
MDCCCXVIII D d. Thomas Hole A M Jam fere per 
XXXIV annos huj: paroec: Rector." 

No marks. Weight, 11 oz. 7 dwt. 

B. Exactly similar, but inscription : " Anno salutis 
MDCCCCIII d d Fredericus F Buckingham MARD Jam 
per. XX annos. huj paroec. Rector." 

Marks : CSH and London 1903. Weight, 12 oz. 3 dwt. 


Chalice. — Elizabethan, Exeter type. 155 mm. high ; 
bowl conical, with usual Exeter concave lip which has 
chevron ornamentation and band of interlacing strapwork 
and arabesque foliation, 20 mm. wide, which has two large 
trefoil-ended drops and two smaller ; it is 84 mm. diameter 
and 83 mm. deep. At junction with stem there is a band 
of tongue ornamentation ; stem has plain knop and fillets, 
with linear ornamentation ; base is 75 mm. diameter, with 
tongue ornamentation. 

No marks. Weight, 7 oz. 10 dwt. 

Cover to fit. 37 mm. high, 90 mm. diameter, with border 
of chevron- work ; button has quatref oil with cross of darts. 

No marks. Weight, 2 oz. 5 dwt. 

Patens. — A. Cover. See above. 

B. Plain. 152 mm. diameter. Plated. 

C. On foot. 178 mm. diameter, 70 mm. high. 
Inscription : " Deo et Ecclesiae de Dunchideocke Dom s 

Robertus Palke, Bart. D.D.D. Anno Salutis. 1791." 
Weight, 10 oz.,5 dwt. 

Marks : P B, A.B (Peter and Anne Bateman) and 
London hall-marks for 1791. 

Flagon. — Plain domed-lid tankard. 293 mm. high, 
233 mm. to lid, 85 mm. diameter at lid, 152 mm. at foot. 

Inscription and marks : as on paten C. Weight, 31 oz. 
10 dwt. 

Alms Bowl. — " A decent bason." 149 mm. diameter, 
60 mm. high. 

Marks and inscription : as on paten C. Weight, 16 oz. 
8 dwt. 


Chalices. — A. Goblet. 178 mm. high; bowl ovate, 
95 mm. diameter, 105 mm. deep ; trumpet-stem foot, 
89 mm. diameter. 

Digitized by 



Inscription : " Dunsford Church. ,, Weight, 7 oz. 15 dwt. 

Marks : PB, AB. (Peter and Anne Bateman) and 
London hall-marks for 1798. 

B. Replica. 

Marks, inscription, etc. : the same. 

Paten. — Plain on stand. 184 mm. diameter, 48 mm. 
high. It is a composite piece, the upper part being the 
work of John Crouch and Thomas Hannam, of London, 
1776 ; foot added in 1815 by John Stone, of Exeter, when 
ornamentation of sacred monogram and cross was placed 
on plate. 

Inscription : " Dunsford Church." Weight, 8 oz. 15 dwt. 

Flagons. — A. Georgian tankard. 292 mm. high to top 
of cross, 212 mm. to lid, 89 mm. diameter at lid, 133 mm. 
at base. 

Inscription : " Dunsford Church, 1796." Weight, 34 oz. 
13 dwt. 

Marks : W D and London hall-marks for 1795. 

B. A stoneware jug with silver mountings. 260 mm. 
high. The mounts are all Elizabethan, but evidently the 
original stoneware jug was broken and replaced by a new 
one, which was too small and quite out of proportion. 

Marks: (i.) Exeter town-mark; (ii.) YEDS. in 
oblong ; (iii.) J. 

John Eydes, of Exeter (1568-1623). 

Alms Dish. — A sweetmeat dish with leaf handles. 
203 mm. diameter. It is ornamented with punched work, 
with stars of six points and bunches of grapes. Weight, 
8 oz. 4 dwt. 

Marks : S. R. cinquefoil below in shield and London 
hall-marks for 1663. 

Spoon. — A seal-headed spoon, parcel-gilt. 178 mm. 
long ; hexagonal stem. Weight, 2 oz. 5 dwt. 

Inscription : Pricked " A W H B." 

Marks : In bowl, an escallop in a circle (the Poole town- 


Chalice. — Jacobean, in the late Elizabethan style, parcel- 
gilt, with its cover. 215 mm. high ; bowl bell-shaped, 
106 mm. diameter, 105 mm. deep, with band of strapwork 
and arabesques, 15 mm. wide, and three pendants ; stem 
with small knop and fillets ; domical foot, with tongue 
ornamentation, 115 mm. diameter. 

Digitized by 



Marks : (i.) Exeter town-mark in shield shaped to 
letter X ; (ii.) I L in shield ; (iii.) as No. (ii.). This is the 
mark of John Lavers, an Exeter goldsmith (1636-1654). 
It is found on a chalice at Ashwater ; also on spoons. 
Weight, 18 oz. 4 dwt. 

Cover to fit. 45 mm. high, 115 mm. diameter, with band 
of chevron work. 

Marks : as on chalice. 

Patens. — A. Cover to chalice. See above. 

B. Plain on stand. 57 mm. high, 174 mm. diameter. 
Marks : C L in heart (Joseph Clare) and London hall- 
marks for 1719. Weight, 6 oz. 7 dwt. 

C. A replica of B. 
Marks : same. 

Flagons. — A. A squat, domed-lid tankard. 274 mm. 
high, 228 mm. to lid, 110 mm. diameter at lid, 155 mm. at 
foot, with good thumb-piece ; a spout has been added later. 

Marks : (gl (John Elston) and Exeter hall-marks for 
1710. Weight, 43 oz. 15 dwt. 

B. Similar to A. 278 mm. high. 

Inscription : " Deo et Ecclesiae de Exminster Stephanus 
Northleigh de Peamore. Arm. Cantharum hanc — e. Patinis 
alteram cum. S. Mensae tegumento et pulvinari DDD. 

Marks : (gl and Exeter hall-marks for 1719. 
Weight, 50 oz. 18 dwt. 

Alms Dish. — " A decent bason." 172 mm. diameter, 
57 mm. high. 

Marks : <gl and Exeter hall-marks for 1716. Weight, 
7 oz. 6 dwt. 


Chalices. — A. Early Georgian. 212 mm. high ; bowl 
bell-shaped, 114 mm. diameter, 121 mm. deep, with sacred 
monogram ; stem with small knop ; foot, 116 mm. 

Inscription : " The gift of Thomas Bolitho, Esq., 
25 March, 1748." 

Marks : P E (Philip Elston) and Exeter hall-marks for 
1740. Weight, 15 oz. 10 dwt. 

B. Georgian style. 200 mm. high ; bowl, 104 mm. dia- 
meter, 107 mm. deep, with sacred monogram ; foot, 
114 mm. diameter. 

Inscription : " Holcombe-Burnell. The gift of Richard 
Stephens, Esq., of Culver House, 1826." 

Digitized by 



Marks : G F (George Ferris) and Exeter hall-marks for 
1825. Weight, 13 oz. 4 dwt. 

Paten. — On stand, with gadroon edge and sacred mono- 
gram. 214 mm. diameter, 54 mm. high ; foot, 92 mm. 

Inscription : as on chalice A. Weight, 10 oz. 9 dwt. 

Marks : R pellet below in shield and London hall-marks 
for 1694. 

Flagon. — Tankard with domed lid. 288 mm. high, 
231 mm. to lid, 113 mm. diameter at lid, 165 mm. at foot. 

Inscription : " Holcombe-Burnell. The gift of Elizabeth 
Stephens, relict of Richard Stephens of Culver House, 
1843." Weight, 43 oz. 15 dwt. 

Marks : J. S (John Stone) and London hall-marks for 

Alms Dish. — A plate. 224 mm. diameter. 

Inscription : " It is more blessed to give than to receive. 
Acts xx. v. 35. Holcombe-Burnell. The gift of Richard 
Stephens, Esq., of Culver House. 24 th June, 1809." Weight, 
12 oz. 15 dwt. 

Marks : P B, W B (P. and W. Bateman) and London 
hall-marks for 1808. 

Breads Box. — A square box. 85 mm. across. Weight, 
5 oz. 9 dwt. 

Inscription : " Presented to Holcombe-Burnell Church 
by Eleanora Mabel Stawell in memory of her father, 
Edward Byrom, of Culver, 1915." 

Marks : CgC and London hall-marks for 1915. 


Chalice. — A plain Georgian cup with debased baluster 
stem, silver-gilt. 228 mm. high ; bowl, 101 mm. diameter, 
114 mm. deep ; foot, 104 mm. diameter. 

Inscription : " Ide,' Devon. The gift of Mrs. Philippa 
Portbury, A.D. 1766." 

Marks : I S (John Steward) and London hall-marks for 

Paten. — Plain gilt, on stand. 149 mm. diameter, 47 mm. 

Inscription and marks : as on chalice. 

Flagon. — Tankard with domed lid, silver-gilt. 343 mm. 
high, 305 mm. to lid, 114 mm. diameter at lid, 190 mm. 
at base. 


zed by G00gk 


Inscription and marks : as on chalice, except maker's 
mark has mullets above and below the initials. 
Alms Dish. — Plated. 152 mm. diameter. 


Chalices. — A. A very fine example of the revival of pre- 
Reformation forms for chalices during the reign of Charles I, 
and, though it shows Renaissance influence strongly, it 
approaches nearer the Gothic forms than any other exist- 
ing example. It is 263 mm. high ; the bowl perfectly plain 
and conical, 122 mm. diameter, 97 mm. deep ; the stem 
plain, hexagonal, is connected with the bowl by a pro- 
jecting moulded capping ; a good boss or knop in the late 
pre-Reformation style, with six lozenge-shaped facets, 
between each of which are pairs of treble-tongued orna- 
ments pierced with oblongs ; at the junction of stem with 
foot there is a bold projection of three steps decreasing in 
size ; the foot, which also is hexagonal, spreads outward 
in a concave line and rests on a recessed moulding orna- 
mented with double concentric circles joined by horizontal 
lines, and below, on foot, an ornamentation of tongue-work, 
the points of the six-mullet foot terminating in knops or 
toes formed of cherubs ending in small balls, 161 mm. dia- 
meter to points of toes. 

Marks : F T conjoined (F. Terry) and London hall- 
marks for 1638. Weight, 26 oz. 8 dwt. 

Inscription : " Sacrum Deo et Ecclesise Sanctse Andrese 
de Kenn. 1696." The date appears to be a later addition 
(see illustration). 

Cover to fit is now a perfectly plain plate, with flange 
to hold it in position, but appears to have had formerly a 
foot in the Elizabethan shape. Weight, 6 oz. ; with 
chalice, 32 oz. 8 dwt. 

Marks and inscription : as on chalice. 

B. Modern mediaeval style, gilt. 264 mm. high ; the 
bowl is hemispherical, 130 mm. diameter, 92 mm. deep, 
with two bands, the upper engraved " Requiem eternam 
dona ei Domino et lux perpetua " ; round its base is a 
gold buckle bracelet ; hexagonal stem with large boss, on 
which is a cable- work bracelet, and at top of base a third 
gold bracelet ; on base six bosses, with gold bracelet, car- 
buncle, and pearl brooches and gold balls ; in one of the 
compartments a crucifix, in another a pelican in his piety, 

Digitized by 



zed by G00gk 


zed by G00gk 


in the four others brooches, gold balls, etc. ; foot sexfoil, 
165 mm. diameter. 

Inscription : "To the glory of God and for the use of 
St. Andrew's Church, Kenn, presented by the Rev. Regi- 
nald Porter, Rector of Kenn, 1858-1894." 

Marks : I K (John Keith) and London hall-marks for 1858. 

Pall. — Square plate. 152 mm. across. Silver-gilt, with 
«ross, etc. 

Marks : I F and London hall-marks for 1898. 

Patens. — A. Cover to chalice A. See above. 

B and C. A pair of plates. 210 mm. diameter. 

Marks and inscription : as on chalice A. 

D. Modern mediaeval style to match chalice B, gilt with 
hexagonal depression. 203 mm. diameter. 

Inscription and marks : as on chalice B. 

E. Plain modern mediaeval style. 181 mm. diameter. 

Marks : I K and London 1858. 

Flagons. — A. Tankard with flat lid. 242 mm. high, 
215 mm. to lid, 108 mm. diameter at lid, 171 mm. at base. 

Inscription : " Sacrum Deo et Ecclesiae S fci Andreae de 
Kenn, 1665." 

Marks : A key between two mullets and London hall- 
marks for 1665. 

B. A replica of tankard A. 

Marks and inscription : the same. 

Alms Dish. — " A decent bason." 152 mm. diameter, 
70 mm. high. 

Inscription : " Sacrum Deo et Ecclesiae S ti Andreae de 
Kenn, 1737. 

Marks : J E, label over (John Elston, jr.), and Exeter 
hall-marks for 1736. 

Breads Box. — Silver-gilt. 51 mm. square, with orna- 

Marks : as on chalice B. 


Chalices. — A. Elizabethan, Exeter type, with cover com- 
plete. It is 171 mm. high without cover ; bowl conical, 
with usual concave lip, 90 mm. diameter, 99 mm. deep, 
with band of interlacing strapwork ornamented with 
arabesque foliage and four pendants, 16 mm. wide ; stem 
with .usual knop, but fillet only at the top ; foot has 
ornamentation of concentric circles, 98 mm. diameter. 


Digitized by 



Inscription : " William Lux, Vicar, John Jope, Ch. 
Warden, Kenton, 1694." 

Marks : (i.) I ; (ii.) IONS. Weight, 10 oz. 9 dwt. 

It is much ruder work than usual and probably an early 

The cover to fit is 32 mm. high, with band of interlacing 
strapwork and Tudor rose on button. 

Marks : as on chalice. Weight, 3 oz. 10 dwt. 

B. A replica of chalice A ; also with cover. 
Marks and inscription : the same. 

Patens. — A and B. Covers to chalices A and B. See 

C. A plain disc. 171 mm. diameter. Weight, 5 oz. 
11 dwt. 

Marks : T T & Co. and Birmingham hall-marks for 1887. 
, D. A plate. 203 mm. diameter. Weight, 8 oz. 

Marks : as on paten C. 

Flagons. — A. Tankard with domed lid. 266 mm. high, 
220 mm. to lid, 118 mm. diameter at lid, 142 mm. at foot. 

Inscription : " The gift of David Long, Esq., High 
Sheriff of the County of Devon, to the Parish Church of 
Kenton to remain for the use of the Communion Table for 
ever. 1705." 

Marks : (gj crown over (John Elston), and Exeter hall- 
marks for 1708. Weight, 36 oz. 14 dwt. 

B and C. A pair of cruets. Silver and glass. 

Alms Dish. — Brass. Engraved " God loveth a cheerful 
giver." 355 mm. diameter. 

, Spoon. — With twisted stem and cross on top. 127 mm. 
long. • 

Marks : J. C. S and London hall-marks for 1868. 
Weight, 11 dwt. 

Pewter vessels : 

Alms Bowl or Font. — 190 mm. high, the basin which 
is 266 mm. diameter, 77 mm. deep, on a circular stand. 

Inscription : " Kenton, 1822." 

A pair of Sugar Basins. — 141 mm. diameter, 85 mm. 


A new parish formed from Bishops Teignton in 1866. 
The only plate is a chalice, 166 mm. high ; bowl, 85 mm. 

A paten, 133 mm. diameter ; and a plated one, 152 mm. 

Digitized by 




Chalices.— A. Modern mediaeval style. A reproduction 
of the Fox chalice at Corpus Christi, Oxford ; it is 184 mm, 
high ; bowl conical, 109 mm. diameter, 76 mm. deep ; 
hexagonal stem, good knop ; the base has in the centre 
compartment a cross formed of fifteen brilliants ; foot sex- 
foil, 130 mm. diameter. 

Marks : G and S. Co. and London hall-marks for 1909. 

B. A Georgian cup. 190 mm. high. Plated. 

Patens. — A. To match chalice A. 162 mm. diameter. 

Marks : as on chalice A. 

B. Sheffield plate on stand. 

C. Plain on stand. 171 mm. diameter, 60 mm. high. 
Marks : (gl crown over (John Elston), and Exeter 

hall-marks for 1714. 

Flagons. — A. A Georgian jug. Sheffield plate. 
B and C. A pair of cruets. Silver and glass. 


Chalices. — A. Puritan style. 197 mm. high ; bowl is 
bell-shaped, 117 mm. diameter, 124 mm. deep ; stem an 
inverted trumpet shape ; foot, 121 mm. deep. 

Marks : T K, rosette below, and London hall-marks for 

B. Modern mediaeval style. 193 mm. high ; bowl 
conical, 98 mm. diameter, 73 mm. deep ; hexagonal stem, 
with small knot ; foot sexfoil, 115 mm. diameter. 

Inscription : " S. Clement's, Powderham." 

Marks : T B and S. and Sheffield hall-marks for 1905. 

Patens. — A. Plain. 131 mm. diameter, 24 mm. high ; 
forms cover to chalice. 

Marks : as on chalice A. 

B. A plain plate. 222 mm. diameter. 

Marks-: P, crown over (Benjamin Pyne), and London 
hall-marks for 1679. 

Pall. — A square disc. 123 mm. across. 

Marks : J W and Co. and London hall-m,irks for 1915. 

Flagon. — Tankard with flat lid. 228 mm. high, 205 mm. 
to lid, 118 mm. diameter at lid, 178 mm. at base. 

Marks: EH, with crescent (? Edward Hole), and 
London hall-marks for 1659. 

Alms Dish. — Dish. 248 mm. diameter. 

Inscription : " For the use of Powderham Church." 

Digitized by 



Marks : I E and London hall-marks for 1718. 
Wafer Box. — Square. 73 mm. diameter. 
Inscription : " S. Clement's, Powderham." 
~ Marks : J. W. & Co. and London hall-marks for 1915. 


Chalices.— Elizabethan, Exeter type. 158 mm. high ; 
bowl conical with usual concave lip, 86 mm. diameter, 
92 mm. deep, with narrow band of interlacing strapwork 
with arabesque foliation and tongue-work at junction with 
stem, which is of usual form ; small knop with fillets orna- 
mented with lines ; foot, 86 mm. diameter, with tongue- 

Marks : (i.) \ ; (ii.) IONS; (iii.) Exeter town-mark ; 
(iv.) A. (1575). Weight, 7 oz. 5 dwt. 

Inscription : " Shillingford S. George. Robert Palk 
Willand. . 1793." 

Cover to fit. 25 mm. high, with arabesque decoration 
and date 1575 on button. 

Marks : as on chalice. Weight, 2 oz. 5 dwt. 

Patens. — A. Cover to chalice. See above. 

B. Plain on stand. 136 mm. diameter, 70 mm. high. 

Inscription : " Hanc patinam in usum fidelium ad 
coenam Dominicam in aedi Sancti Georgii de Shillingford 
convenientium oblatum dederunt Rectoris proxmi Filiae 
in festo Paschae 1845." 

Marks : E A (John East) and London hall-marks for 
1720. Weight, 5 oz. 

Flagon. — A good reproduction of a mediaeval cruet. 
168 mm. high, 140 mm. to lid, 35 mm. diameter at lid, 
62 mm. at base. 

Inscription : " Glory be to God. The gift of Mrs. 
Charlotte Ellacombe to the Church of Shillingford S. 
George, Devon." 

Marks : London hall-marks for 1868 ; maker's mark in- 


Chalices. — A. A cup with practically no stem. 161 mm.; 
bowl cylindrical, with marked lip, 106 mm. diameter, 
100 mm. deep ; foot, 76 mm. diameter. 

Inscription : "In usum Capellae de Starcross in Comi- 
tatu Devoniensi, 1828." 

Marks : R E, E B (Ernes and Barnard) and London 
hall-marks for 1825. 

Digitized by 



B. Similar to A. 158 mm. high ; bowl, 103 mm. dia- 
meter, 94 mm. deep ; foot, 75 mm. diameter. 

Inscription : same as on chalice A, but date 1836* 
Marks : T B (Thomas Byne) and Exeter hall-marks for 

C. Modern mediaeval style. 209 mm. high ; bowl very 
conical, 98 mm. diameter, 72 mm. deep ; hexagonal stem, 
with fair knop ; and sexfoil foot, with sacred monogram* 

Marks : J W & Co (J. Wippell) and London hall-marks 
for 1904. 

Patens. — A. Plain on very low stand. 176 mm. diameter, 
30 mm. high. 

Inscription : as on chalice A, but date is 1844 ; also 
" D.D. Gul. Powley A.M." 

Marks : W P (W. Parry) and Exeter hall-marks ; date 
letter indistinct (circa 1755). 

B. Plain, to match chalice C. 165 mm. diameter. 

Marks : as on chalice C. 

Flagon. — Tankard with finial and spout, ornamented 
with bands of arabesque foliation round centre and at base. 
261 mm. high, 209 mm. to lid, 91 mm. diameter at lid, 
129 mm. at base. 

Inscription : as on chalices, but date 1846. 

Marks : W T (prob. Walter Tweedie) and London hall- 
marks for 1770. 

Alms Dishes. — A. Plain. 200 mm. diameter. 

Inscription : as on chalice ; also " The gift of Sir J. L. 
Duntze, Bart., 1852." 

Marks : Messrs. Barnard's and London hall-marks for 

B. Replica, but marks Ernes and Barnard and London 

Baptismal Shell. — With cross. 69 mm. by 57. 

Marks : Wippell and Co. and London 1904. 


Chalices. — A. Puritan style. 205 mm. high ; bowl 
cylindrical, 107 mm. diameter, 122 mm. deep ; stem an 
inverted trumpet ; foot, 109 mm. diameter. 

Marks : F S, star under in shield, and London hall- 
marks for 1670. Weight, 12 oz. 

Cover to fit. 145 mm. diameter, 25 mm. high. 

Marks : as on chalice. Weight, 5 oz. 9 dwt. 

B. Modern mediaeval style. 178 mm. high ; bowl 

Digitized by 



conical, 100 mm. diameter, 69 mm. deep ; hexagonal 
stem ; foot sexfoil. Weight, 6 oz. 11 dwt. 

Maj-ks : J. W. & Co. and London hall-marks for 1890. 

C. A goblet. 128 mm. high ; bowl ovate. 66 mm. 
diameter, 63 mm. deep ; wine-glass stem ; foot, 52 mm. 
diameter. London hall-marks for 1889. 
, Patens. — A chalice cover. See above. 
v B. Waiter on three feet. 1 72 nun. diameter, with beaded 
rim and sexfoil depression, 25 mm. high. 

Inscription : " Tedbourn S. M$ry." Weight, 4 oz. 19 dwt. 

Marks : W. C, (William Caldecott) and London hall- 
marks for 1780. 

Electro and glass cruets and two breads boxes. Plated. 


Chalices. — A. Georgian style. 204 mm. high ; bowl, 
103 mm. diameter, 106 mm. deep ; stem with slight ring 
for knop ; foot, 94 mm. diameter. 

Marks : Co (Lawrence Coles) and London hall-marks for 

B. A replica of A, inscribed " East Teignmouth Church," 
and London hall-marks for 1849. 

C. Modern mediaeval style. 188 mm. high ; bowl hemi- 
spherical, 114 mm. diameter, 57 mm. deep. It is set in a 
calyx of trefoil-headed flowers and has a narrow band 
round rim ; stem has seven sides, -with good knop and foot 
also of septfoil, 138 mm. diameter, with open-work at base. 

Inscription : " S. Michael's Church, East Teignmouth, 

Marks : W G and London hall-marks for 1895. 

Patens. — A salver. 248 mm. diameter. 

Inscription : "The gift of Mrs. Amy Newberry to the 
Chapel of East Teignmouth Devon, 1787." 

Marks : E I (Edward Jay) and London hall-marks for 

B. Plate. 249 mm. diameter, ornamented with star 
ftnd cross. 

Inscription : " East Teignmouth Church, 1852." 
Marks : R H and Sheffield hall-marks for 1851. 

C. To match chalice C. 175 mm. diameter, with orna- 
mented rim and four crosses in circle. 

Inscription : " This Chalice and Paten were given to 
S. Michael's Church, East Teignmouth, 1895. For God's 
service and in tender memory of a loved one." 

Digitized by 



Marks : W G J. L and London hall-marks for 1895. 

Flagon. — A tankard with domed lid and spout. 284 mm« 
high, 249 mm. to lid, 102 mm. diameter at lid, 160 mm. 
at base. 

Marks : RE EB (Ernes and Barnard) and London 
hall-marks for 1822. 

Alms Dishes. — A, B, C, and D. 205 mm. diameter, 
35 mm. high, with sacred monogram and cross in centre. 

Inscription : " East Teignmouth Church, 1846." 

Marks : J E. J. W. B. (Messrs. Barnard) and London 
hall-marks for 1846. 

E and F. Similar to the four preceding. 

Inscription : " The gift of Mrs. Amy Newberry to S. 
Michael's Church, East Teignmouth, 1894, James Veysey, 
MJL, Vicar ; James W. Bower, W. H. Walton, Church- 
wardens.' ' 

Marks : G M. J. and London hall-marks for 1894. 

Spoon. — 120 mm. long. 

Marks : S B, T W and London hall-marks for 1892. 


Chalice. — A. Georgian type. 182 mm. high ; bowl, 
110 mm. diameter, 105 mm. deep ; stem with small knop ; 
foot, 71 mm. diameter. 

Inscription : " The gift of Mr. John Holland of South 
Audley Street, London, to the Church of Christ, West 
Teignmouth, Jan. 1st, 1811." 

Marks : BS IS (Smith and Sharp) and London hall- 
marks for 1810. Weight, 12 oz. 

B. Modern mediaeval style. 205 mm. high ; bowl hemi- 
spherical, 114 mm. diameter, 65 mm. deep, with band 
engraved " Calicem salutaris accipiam et nomen Domini 
invocabo." Weight, 12 oz. 

Inscription : " Given in memory of Mary Elizabeth 
Stirling by her children, Dec. 10th, 1863." Weight, 12 oz. 

Marks : Messrs. Barnard's and London hall-marks for 

G and D. A pair, modern mediaeval style. 202 mm. high. 

Patens. — A. Plain on stand. 241 mm. diameter, 73 mm. 

Inscription : " The gift of Mrs. Mary Risdon to the parish 
church of West Teignmouth, ob. Mar. 31st, 1718." Weight, 
14 oz. 11 dwt. 

Digitized by 



Marks : (gl, crown over (John Elston), and Exeter 
kail-marks for 1717. 

B. A small waiter on three legs. 145 mm. diameter, 
with cable border. 

Inscription : " West Teignmouth Church, 1864." 

No marks. Weight, 7 oz. 10 dwt. 

CandD. A pair, modern mediaeval style, plated. 144 mm 

Flagon. — A tankard with flat lid. 245 mm. high, 198mm. 
to lid. It has been modernized with spout finial and em- 

Inscription and marks : as on chalice A. Weight, 
36 oz. 8 dwt. 

Spoon. — Apostle spoon, plated. 114 mm. long. 

Alms Dishes. — Two, brass. 305 mm. and 311 mm. dia- 


Chalices. — A. Npndescript kind of modern mediaeval. 
234 mm. high ; bowl conical, 112 mm. diameter, 84 mm. 
deep, ornamented with quatrefoils round base and trefoils ; 
circular stem, with fluted knot ; foot circular, 136 mm. 

Inscription : " The gift of Sarah Gardiner and her chil- 
dren Henry, Mary and Lucy MDCCCLViii." In a band 
round foot. Weight, 18 oz. 15 dwt. 

Marks : E S (Edward Smith) and Birmingham hall- 
marks for 1858. 

B. Replica of chalice A, but no inscription or marks. 

C. A goblet with wine-glass shape stem. 130 mm. high ; 
bowl, 61 mm. high, 66 mm. deep ; foot, 57 mm. diameter. 

Marks : W A and Birmingham hall-marks for 1902. 

Patens. — A. On stand. 281 mm. diameter, 53 mm. high. 
Weight, 28 oz. 10 dwt. 

Inscription : " An offering to the altar made by the 
parishioners of Bishopsteignton in the year of our Lord 

Marks : Messrs. Barnard and London hall-marks for 

B. Perfectly plain. 152 mm. diameter. Plated. 

C. Plain. 88 mm. diameter. 

Marks : G U and Chester hall-marks for 1912. 

D. Plain. 69 mm. diameter. 

Marks : S I L d and Chester hall-marks for 1909. 

Digitized by 



Flagon. — Domed-lid tankard. 323 mm. high, 279 mm. 
to lid, 120 mm. diameter at lid, 172 mm. at foot. Weight, 
52 oz. 13 dwt. 

Marks and inscription : as on paten A. 

Alms Dish. — Plain. 253 mm. diameter, 34 mm. high, 
with sacred monogram. Weight, 18 oz. 15 dwt. 

Marks and inscription : as on paten A. 


Chalice. — Elizabethan, Exeter type, parcel-gilt. 209 mm. 
high ; bowl conical, with usual lip, 104 mm. diameter, 
121 mm. deep, with band of interlacing strapwork round 
lip, and a second one with arabesque foliation, with three 
pendants and three upward, ending in a kind of trefoil ; 
egg-and-chevron work at junction with stem, whicfy has 
usual knop and fillets ; foot with egg-and-chevron work, 
91 mm. diameter. 

Marks : [IONS and Exeter town-mark. Weight, 
12 oz. 15 dwt. 

Cover to fit. 116 mm. diameter, 27 mm. high, with band 
of strapwork and arabesque, and star on button. 

Marks : as on chalice. Weight, 3 oz. 3 dwt. 

Patens. — A. Chalice cover. 

B. Plain on stand. 248 mm. diameter, 86 mm. high. 

Inscription : " The gift of Elizabeth the wife of 
Manister Barnard, Rector, to Whitestone Church. E B 
1756." Weight, 11 oz. 18 dwt. 

Marks : Ba (Richard Bayley) and London hall-marks 
for 1718. 

Flagon. — A flat-lid tankard. 220 mm. high, 191 mm. 
to lid, 97 mm. diameter at lid, 154 mm. at base. 

Marks : I C, crown over (J. Chadwick), and London hall- 
marks for 1694. 

Inscription: "DD Ecctae de Whitstone. Nic. Hall. 
S T P Rector ibid 1695." Weight, 32 oz. 16 dwt. 

Arms : in mantling. Three talbots heads collared 
erased ; and crest, a talbot's head collared erased. 

J, F. Chanter. 
May, 1920. 


zed by G00gk 


Twelfth Report of the Committee — consisting of Miss 
R. E. Carr-Smith, Miss Chichester, Mr. O. T. Harris, 
Mr. W. P. Hiern, Miss C. E. Latter (Secretary), Mr. 
C. H. Laycock, Mr. C. V. B. Marquand, Mr. H. O. 
Peacock, Miss C. L. Peck, and Col. A. B. Prowse, with 
power to add to their number — for the purpose of in- 
vestigating matters connected with the Flora and Botany 
of Devonshire. 

Edited by C. E. Labtkb. 
(Read at Totnes, list July, 1920.) 

1. Barnstaple Botanical District. 

Cochiearia anglica L., var. Hortii Syme. Fremington (Mr. 

W. P. Hiern). 
Viola Riviniana Reichb. formae? Woolacombe sand dunes, 

Mortehoe (Mr. H. J. Riddelsdell). 

" The stipules of these plants suggest affinity with 
V. rupestris ; they are broad enough and furnished with 
processes rather than teeth. Fresh specimens in flower 
would be instructive. Just where arenaria=rupestris 
should occur, one would expect, though the var. arenaria 
of V. rupestris is not represented here." (Mrs. E. S. 

Cf. V. meduanensis Bor. Georgeham (Messrs. F. A. Broken- 
shire and R. Taylor). 

Sagina ciliata D. Don. Hfracombe. A form of this species, 
not S. Reuteri Boiss as recorded in last year's Report 
(Mr. C. P. Hurst). 

*Geranium Endressi Gay. Hfracombe (Mr. R. Taylor). 

Prunus Cerastes L. Hfracombe (Mr. W. P. Hiern). 

Epilobium angustifolium L. Bittadon (Mr. W. P. Hiern). 

Pyrus communis L. Braunton (Mr. F. A. Brokenshire). 

Leontodon atUumnalis L., var. sordidus Bab. Challacombe and 
Stoke Rivers (Mr. W. P. Hiern). 

Digitized by 



Antirrhinum Orontium L. Ilfracombe (Mr. W. P. Hiern). 
Euphrasia boreaiis Towns. Braunton (Rev. H. J. Riddelsdell, 

det. Bucknall). 
E. Rostkoviana Hayne. Ilfracombe (Rev. H. J. Riddelsdell, 

det. Bucknall). 
E. Kerneri Wettst. Ilfracombe (Rqv. H. J. Riddelsdell, det. 

*Leonurus Gardiaca L. Heanton Punchardon (Mr. C. E. C. 

. Gardner). 
Orchis motio L, Fremington (Mr. F. A. Brokenshire). 
PolygoncUum muUiflorum All. High Bray (Mr. T. W. Pearce). 
Carex Pseudo-cyperus L. Bishop's Tawton (Mr. R. Taylor). 
O. paUescens L. Atherington and Bideford (Mr. W. P. Hiern). 
Avena strigosa Schreb. Challacombe (Mr. W. P. Hiern). 
Botrychium Lunaria Sw. Loxhore (Mr. R. Gregory). 

Freshwater Algjbj, etc. 

The following list is contributed by Mr. F. A. Broken^ 
shire : — 

Dindbryon sertularia Ehrenb. Braunton. 

Bidbochaete setigera Ag. Braunton. Of this genus G. S. West 
(1904) states, "In the greater part of the British Islands 
fructiferous specimens are relatively scarce. ' ' The material 
collected in August last of this nanandrous, dioecious 
species was in good fructification. 

Trentepohlia aurea Mart. Heanton Punchardon. 

Chnatonema ventricosum Wittr. Braunton. Plants of this 
genus are described by G. S. West (1904) as the rarest of 
the conjugatce, and reports this species as " known in 
Ireland." Mounted specimens were forwarded to him 
last June, but a promise to report on my specimens was 
not fulfilled, for he died on August 7th, 1919. A further 
examination of preserved material confirms my original 
observations and identification. 

Spirogyra majuscula Kiitz. Ilfracombe. 

Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp.) Breb. Bishop's Tawton. 

S. spicatus W. and G. S. West. Bishop's Tawton. 

Selenastrum gracile Reinsch. Bishop's Tawton. 

Cylindrospertnum stagnate (Kiitz.) Born, and Flah, Braunton. 

AndbcBna Flos-aquce Br6b. Braunton. 


Stereum purpureum Pers. Barnstaple (W. P. Hiern). 

Chiorosplenium ceruginosum De Not. Sherwill and Marwood 
(Mr. W. P. Hiern), who contributes the following note : 
" The verdigris-green stain was shown on dead and fallen 

Digitized by 



branches of oak trees ; the fungus itself was not seen* 
With its mycelium the fungus permeates the wood and 
secretes a green pigment, which stains the wood in it& 
vicinity. The actual fungus is usually not obvious, both 
the apothecium and the mycelium having disappeared. 
Pieces of the stained wood are used in the manufacture 
of ' Tunbridge ware.' Jas. Sowerby published a figure of 
the plant in his figures of English Fungi, Vol. Ill, tab. 347, 
Jany. 1, 1802, under the name of Helvetia aeruginosa 

2. Torrinoton Botanical District. 

Rubus Radula Weihe, var. anglicanus Rogers, rather than a 
form of R. Oriffithianus Rogers, as recorded in last year's 
Report. Okehampton Hamlets (Mr. W. P. Hiern). "The 
record of Linosyris vulgaris Cass, in last year's Report 
was an error.'* (W. P. Hiern.) 

Lepiota procera Scop. Okehampton (Miss K. M. Denmeade). 

3. South Molton Botanical District. 

Bartsia viscosa L. Chittlehamholt (Mr. W. P. Hiern). 
Carex pendula Huds. Chittlehampton (Mr. Trethewy). 

Freshwater AxoiE, etc. 

The following list is contributed by Mr. F. A. Broken- 
shire : — 

Mougeotia parvula Hass. Molland. 
Zygnema leiospermum De Bary. Molland. 
Tetoraspora gelatinosa (Vauch) Desw. Molland. 
Anabcena oscillaroides Bory. Molland. 
Chroococcvs turgidus (Kiitz) Nag. Molland. 

4. Exeter Botanical District. 

Ranunculus floribundus Bab. Tiverton and Exminster (Mr. 

W. P. Hiern). 
Gastalia alba Wood. Tiverton, " perhaps not native " (Mr. 

W. P. Hiern). 
Lepidium Draba L. Exminster (Mr. W. P. Hiern). 
Fcmiculum vulgare Mill. Exminster (Mr. W. P. Hiern). 
Chcerophyllum Anthriscus Lam. Exminster (Mr. W. P. Hiern) 
Pyrus communis L., galled with Eriophyes pyri Pagenst 

Exminster (Mr. W. P. Hiern). 
Epilobium lanceolatum S. and M. Exminster (Mr. W. P. Hiern). 
Myriophyllum spicatum L. Tiverton (Mr. W. P. Hiern). 

Digitized by 



JSium erectum Huds. Tiverton (Mr. W. P. Hiern). 
Orobanche major L. Exminster (Mr. W. P. Hiern). 
Ceratophyllum demersum L. Tiverton (Mr. W. P. Hiern). 
Lemna trisulca L. Tiverton (Mr. W. P. Hiern). 
Equisetum limosum L. Tiverton (Mr. W. P. Hiern). 

5. Honiton Botanical District. 

Geranium pyrenaicum Burm. f. East Budleigh (Mr. 6. T. 

Erodium cicutarium L'Herit., var. pimpinettifolium Willd. 

Yettington (Mr. G. T. Harris). 
*Hieracium aurantiacum L. Harpford Common, " certainly a 

garden escape " (Mr. 6. T. Harris). 
Scutellaria galericulata L. Bicton (Mr. G. T. Harris). 
Orobanche hederce Duby. Weston Mouth, near Sidmouth (Mr. 

G. T. Harris). 
Habenaria bifolia Br. Aylesbeare Common, in 1917 in greatest 

profusion, in a part of the common that had been fired a 

year or two previously (Mr. G. T. Harris). 
Arum italicum Mill. "Near Sidford, in a hedgebank, well 

established. On enquiring at the nearest garden I was 

told that it did not grow in the garden, and had not been 

known to do so at any time " (Mr. G. T. Harris). 


Breutelia arcuata Schp. , Lympstone Common (Mr. G. T. 


Mitrula paludosa Er. Woodbury Common, in bogs (Mr. G. T. 

6. Torquay Botanical District. 

Cardamine pratensis L., flore pleno. Wolborough (Miss R. E. 

Sisymbrium officinale Scop, flore alho. Torquay. 
S. Thalianum Gay. Dittisham. 
Lepidium Draba L. Kingpker swell. 
Viola odorata X hirta =sub-hirta. Abbotskerswell. 
V. hirta L., var. inconcinna J. Brig. Dunsford (Miss H. E. 

Pratt), and St. Mary Church. 
V. hirta L. 3 var. hirsuta Lange, forma hirtiformis Greg. Brix- 

V. rupestris Schmidt, var. ghhrescens Neuman. Torquay. 
Geranium Robertianum L., var. hispidum Druce. St. Mary 


Digitized by 



Erodium Lepellii Jord. Brixham and Paignton or Churston 

Ferrers (Major Wolley-Dod). 

See Journ. Bot., 1920, p. 126. 
Malva moschata L., var. heterophylla Lej. Moretonhampstead 

(Miss H. E. Pratt). 
Hypericum humifusum L. Lustleigh, on old walls. 
Medicago denticulate, Willd. Moretonhampstead (Miss H. E. 

Crataegus Oxyacantha L., galled with Authonomoud cratcegi. 

St. Mary Church. 
*Melilotu8 arvensis Wallr. St. Mary Church. 
Girsmm britannicum Scop. Moretonhampstead (Miss H. E. 

Pratt) and Bovey Heathfield. 
Taraxacum vulgare Lam., var. obliquum (Jord.). St. Mary 

Verbascum Blattaria L. Paignton (Miss K. M. Denmeade). 
Linaria minor Desf . Kingswear, by the railway bridge (Meld 

Club, R.N.C., Dartmouth, com. Mr. R. M. Milne). 
Sibthorpia europcea L. Lustleigh. 
Euphrasia borealis Towns. Brixham. 
E. fouloensis Towns. Moretonhampstead. 
E. hirtella Jord. Moretonhampstead and Manaton. 
Satureia Acinos Scheele. St. Mary Church. 

On this plant sent to him Mr. W. P. Hiern contributes 
the following note : — 

" The specimen, ' St. Mary Church, on limestone, 23 
May, 1920,' seems best to answer to the plant described 
in Journ, Bot., 1915, p. 217, from St. Vincent's Rocks, 
Clifton, as having the ' root-stock woody, flowers larger, 

J. W. White, Flora of Bristol (1912), p. 475, gave Col 
(amintha) arvensis Lam., as a synonym, and called it 
' native on limestone rock and rubble, rarely ii} cultivated 
ground ; locally frequent.' 

Bentham, Labiatarum Genera et species, p. 389( May, 
1834), also gave C. arvensis Lam., as a synonym, and 
described it ' herbacea annua . . . corollis vix calycem 

J. T. Boswell Syme, English Botany, 3rd ed., VII (1867), 
p. 32, agreed as to synonymy, and stated, ' Corolla twice 
as long as the calyx ' ; also, p. 33, ' Annual or Biennial, 
Summer, Autumn. Stems branching at the base, other- 
wise simple or nearly so in annual plants ; in biennial ones 
there is a short root-stock rooting at the nodes, and the 

Digitized by 



stems are frequently considerably branched. . . . Calyx 
J inch long. . . . Corolla about i inch long.' 

In the St. Mary Church specimen the calyx in- 
cluding its lobes is 6 mm. long, and the corolla 9 mm. 

T. Cabuel, Flora Italica, VI, pp. 141-143 (Sept., 1884), 
among synonymy gave * Thymus acynoides Ten. Fl. nap. 
1 prodr., p. 35,' and stated ' annua . . . corolla calyce vix 
vel dimidio longiore.' The note (in Italian) which he added 
runs thus in translation : * I have not cited the figure of 
Thymus acinoides of Tenore (Fl. nap. t. 155, f . 1), because 
he gave the flower with the corolla much larger than in 
fact it is, judging from an authentic specimen of the 
author in the Central Herbarium, which in other respects 
corresponds to the figure. In that specimen, as in the 
figure, the lower part of the plant is wanting, and I 
suppose, as do Tenore and Bertolini, that in saying of it 
that it is sufEruticose, an appearance is supposed other 
than the actual drawing presents.' 

Giovanni Abcangeli, Compendio delta Flora Italiana 
(1882), p. 542 gives ' 3323. C {alamintha) Acinos Clairv. 
in Gaud, iv, 74. 

B. acinoides (Ten.) f . suffruticoso : fg. lanceolate, acute : 
coroDe lunghe il doppio del calice. Colli aridi della 
Lucania, dell 9 Abruzzo, ecc" 

* Allium triquetrum L. Dartmouth, "in a meadow near 
College, perhaps a garden escape " (Field Club, R.N.C., 
Dartmouth, com. Mr. R. M. Milne). 

Marchantia polymorphs L. Lustleigh. 


MUrula paludosa Fr. Dartmoor (Mr. G. T. Harris). 

SpcUhularia flavida Pers. Teigngrace. New County record. 

Lachnea crucipilis Pers. Hennock. New Comity record. 

Lycoperdon giganteum L. Marldon (Miss K. M. Denmeade). 

Chlorosplenium ceruginosum De Not. Little Haldon. New 
County record. See note p. 123, under Barnstaple District. 

Cyathus striatus Hoffm. Dartmouth (Field Club, R.N.C., 
Dartmouth, com. Mr. R. M. Milne). 

Oeaster multifidus. Dartmouth (Field Club, R.N.C., Dart- 
mouth, com, Mr. R. M. Milne), 


zed by G00gk 


The f oDowing list is contributed by Mr. H. G. Peacock : — 

Lachndla nivea Hedw. Milber. 

Coprinu8 micaceus Fr. Milber. 

Oomphidium glutinosus Schaeff . Milber. 

Lactarius sub-dulcis Russ. Milber. 

Rvssula emetica Fr., var rubra. Milber. 

Fomes fulvu8 Fr. Torquay garden, on plum tree. 

Irpex obliquus Fr. Milber. 

The, lophora laciniata Pers. Little Haldon. 

Clavaria cinerea Bull. Milber. 

Hdotium conigenum Fr. Milber. 

MoUisia cinerea Batsch. Milber. 

Phenological Note. 

On 8th Dec, 1919, Scabiosa Columbaria L. and Poten- 
tilla sterilis Garcke were still in flower on cliffs by the sea* 
On 25th Dec. I found, for the third year in succession, one 
flower newly opened on Ruscus aculeatus L. and Oewm 
urbanum L. respectively. 

The extraordinarily earliness of the season of 1920 is 
evidenced by the records following. On 6th Jan., seven 
blooms were out on plants of Fragraria vesca L. all grow- 
ing within the space of a couple of yards. On the same 
date Salvia Verbenaca L. showed a full spike of flower- 
buds. On 2nd Feb., Myosotis sylvatica Hoff. was in 
flower. By the 26th Feb., the flowers of Ulmus sativa Mill, 
were already over. On the same date Silene maritima 
With., Cochlearia danica L., and Euphorbia portlandica L. 
were in flower on the cliffs at Meadfoot, Torquay. On 
20th March Stellaria Holostea L. was out, and on the 31st 
March Vicia sepium L. On the 1st April the flowers of 
Prunus Cerasus L. were all but over. On 16th May a bush 
of Rosa mollissima Willd., var. sylvestris (Lindl.) that for 
eleven years I have watched had flowers open, the earliest 
date on which I have seen them out. On 22nd May 
Oeranium columbinum L. was in flower, together with 
Satureia Acinos Scheele. 

7. Plymouth Botanical Distbict, 

The following records of the Field Club of the R.N.C., 
Dartmouth, are communicated by Mr. R. M. Milne : — 

Trifolium striatum L. Stoke Fleming. 

Hypericum undulaium Schousb. Halwell, " very typical fine 

Digitized by 



Veronica scutellata L. Hal well. 
Scutellaria minor Huds. Hal well. 


The following list of Sphagna is contributed by Mr. 
C. V. B. Marquand. The five first-named forms were all 
collected by him from " a small stream below the Three 
Barrows' Tor ridge above South Brent." 

Sphagnum inundatum R. and W., var. ovalifolium W. f . brachy- 
cladum W., and var. diversifolium f . eurycladum W# 

S. crassicladum W., var. magnifolium W. f . lonchocladum W. f . 
fluitans, and f . rufescens W. 

The following var., sub-form, and form were collected 
" above Owley, near South Brent." 

S. plumulosum Roll., var. versicolor W. 

S. papillosum Iindb., var. normale W., f. squarrosulum Ing. 

and Wheld., sub-form neglectum Ing. and Wheld., and f . 

ma]us Grav. 

8. Tavistock Botanical District. 

*Antennaria margaritacea Br. Hamlet of Lake, near Sourton, 
" Well established." (Mr. G. T. Harris). 

Armillaria mucida Vail. Bridestowe (Miss K. M. Denmeade). 


zed by G00gk 


Fifth Report of the Committee — consisting of Mr. Max- 
well Adams, Rev. J. F. Chanter, Miss B. F. Cresswdl, 
Mr. R. Burnet Morris, Mr. Northmore, Mr. H. Tapley- 
Soper, Mr. Hugh R. Watkin, and Mr. H. B. S. Wood- 
house — for the compilation of a Bibliography of the 
County of Devon. 

By R. Burnet Morris, m.a., ll.b. (Camb.), Hon. Sec. of the Committee. 
(Read at Totnes, 21st July, 1920.) 

The Report last year brought the work of the Committee 
down to 22nd June, 1919, when the total number of 
written slips in the collection was estimated to be approxi- 
mately 105,000. 

During the year now under review steady progress has 
been made, the number of written slips added to the 
collection having been practicaDy the same as last year. 
Much work, however, still remains to be done. The 
accessions for 1919-20 may be divided into three classes : 
(1) Notes on MSS. in the Public Record Office ; (2) Notes 
on Parish Registers ; and (3) Miscellaneous Notes. 

(1) MSS. in the Public Record Office. The following 
printed calendars and books relating to MSS. kept at the 
Public Record Office have been worked through for Devon 
references : Acts of the Privy Council, 1542-7, 1550-80 ; 
Ancient Deeds, Vol. VI ; Charter Rolls, 1226-57 ; Close 
Rolls 1307-23, and Supplementary Close Rolls, 1277-1326 ; 
Home Office Papers, 1760-72; Patent Rolls, 1281- 
1301, 1307-13, 1327-38, 1377-81 ; Scutage Rolls, 1277- 
1326; State Papers (Colonial), 1574-1660, also East 
Indies, 1625-34, and America, 1669-76 ; State Papers 
(Committee for compounding), 1643-60 ; State Papers 
(Foreign), 1547-58, 1560-61, 1566-8, 1575-77; State 

Digitized by 



Papers (Ireland), 1509-99, 1603-25, also Documents 
relating to Ireland, 1285-1307 ; State Papers (Scotland), 
1509-1603 ; State Papers (Spanish), 1485-1509, 1536-42, 
1558-67 ; State Papers (Venetian), 1520-91 ; Treasury 
Papers, 1556-1728. The foregoing occupy more than 70 

One, at least, of these MSS. is of special interest in this 
place as it shows the importance of Totnes at the begin- 
ning of the fourteenth century. This MS. is a Close Roll 
of Oct. 8, 1312, on which is entered an order for the sheriff 
of Devon to proclaim Totnes as the only place for the 
sale of tin raised in the County of Devon. 

Attention must also be called to the Patent Rolls of 
April 4 and 8, 1297, and to the Supplementary Close RoDs of 
the same year. In them we find documents executed by King 
Edward I during his visit to Devon, containing the names 
of more than 200 of the Devon clergy with their benefices. 
These documents are of importance as they enable us to 
fill up, to a considerable extent, the gap caused by the loss 
of the Registers of Thomas Bytton, who was Bishop of 
Exeter from 1291-1307. It is not surprising that Preben- 
dary Hingeston-Randolph did not refer to them in his 
" Attempt towards a brief Register for the Episcopate of 
Bishop Bytton," published with his edition of the Registers 
of Bishop Bronescombe, in 1889, seeing that the Calendar 
of the Patent Rolls of 1297 was not published until 1895, 
nor the Calendar of Supplementary Close Rolls until 1912. 
The information contained in these Rolls has, however, 
been made use of for the purposes of the Lists of Incumbents 
to be found in connexion with the churches at Alver- 
discott, Cadeleigh, Crediton, and Gittisham. 

(2) Parish Registers. Since last year's report the 
Register Books of the churches in the Rural Deaneries of 
Cadbury, Cullompton, Honiton, and Tiverton have been 
dealt with, and now the whole of the Archdeaconry of 
Exeter has been finished, so far as regards churches which 
have Registers dating before July 1st, 1837. 

In the Archdeaconry of Barnstaple, the Rural Deanery 
of Chulmleigh, begun some time ago, has been completed, 
as also the Rural Deanery of Torrington. In the Arch- 
deaconry of Totnes, a beginning has been made. Including 
previous reports, the Register Books of 215 churches have 
now been dealt with. In 196 cases the books have been 
seen, and in 19 cases information has been obtained from 


zed by G00gk 


other sources. The total number of Parish Register Books 
which have been seen now amounts to 2425, in addition to 
many books of Churchwardens' Accounts and other MSS. 
It may be well to say that for the purposes of this Com- 
mittee only three points are of importance : (1) the size 
and appearance of the Register Book, so that it may be 
identified or visualized ; (2) the general t nature of its 
contents ; and (3) the place where it is kept. The details 
of the entries are matters for the Devon and Cornwall 
Record Society. It would, of course, be beyond the scope 
of the Committee on Bibliography to make any sugges- 
tions about the custody of Parish Registers, but attention 
may be directed to the Third Report of the Royal Com- 
mission on Public Records (Cmd. 367 of 1919) published 
since last year's meeting of the Devonshire Association, in 
which the subject is considered at some length. With 
reference to Parish Register Indexes, Mr. R. Cornish of 
Axminster has been kind enough to state that he has made 
indexes to the Registers of Axminster, Dalwood (1568- 
1655 only), Kilmington, and Membury, and that they are 
all in MS. in his possession, with copies, in the cases of 
Dalwood, Kilmington, and Membury, in the vestries of 
the churches. There is also an Index at Offwell made in 
1796 by the Rev. E. Copleston. It is in MS. in a quarto 
book and covers the period 1551-1783. The arrangement 
is in three alphabets, the surnames in lexicographical order 
and the Christian names in chronological order. At 
Kentisbeare the Rev. E. S. Chalk has made an Index in 
three parts : that of Baptisms is in MS. in a book and is 
unfinished, that of Marriages is in type-script, and that of 
Burials (1695-1912) is in MS. in a book, the names in 
lexicographical order. At Sandford there is an Index in 
book form for the period 1603-1812 made by the Rev. 
George Bent. 

To all the Clergy of the above-named deaneries, who 
were kind enough to produce their Registers, most hearty 
thanks are offered. Many of them were put to consider- 
able inconvenience in order to help the work of the Devon- 
shire Association. 

(3) Miscellaneous. Under this heading, work done in- 
cludes the Cartulary of Buckland Priory (Somerest Record 
Society), Catalogues of various libraries at Plymouth, 
T. Duffus Hardy " Descriptive Catalogue of Materials 
relating to the History of England . . .," John Nichols's 

Digitized by 



" Literary Anecdotes," Orders in Council published in the 
London Gazette, 1830-1883, Philosophical Transactions 
of the Royal Society, Vols. 121-176, Proceedings of the 
Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, 
-and many more. Among scarce printed books which have 
been collated may be mentioned " The Tinners' Charter," 
printed at Tavistock Abbey in 1534, of which the only 
known copy was most kindly produced by the Librarian 
of Exeter College, Oxford, " The Register of Huntsham " 
(unindexed), of which the printers Messrs. William Pollard 
and Co., Limited, have been kind enough to state that 
only three copies were printed (in 1905), the well-known 
Tavistock " Bcethius " (of 1525), of which somd nine 
copies are known (one of these was also shown at Exeter 
College, Oxford), and the Life of James Sheridan Knowles 
(a resident at St. Marychurch), of which only 25 copies were 
printed, shown in the North Library at the British Museum. 

Mr. Woodhouse has continued his good work of collating 
at the Plymouth Libraries, and has contributed, it is 
estimated, 650 written slips. 

The total number of written slips in the collection on 
22nd June, 1920, was estimated to be approximately 
131,000. Members of the Devonshire- Association are 
invited to consult the collection, without fee. *^ £ 

It is desired to thank the following for their help : Mr. 
H. C. Barnard, Burnham, Som. (Beadon family) ; Rev. 
J. L. S. D. Bennett, Ashreigney (Church Music) ; Rev. 
W. H. Burgess (Unitarian Historical Society) ; Rev. E. S. 
Chalk (Tiverton Information) ; Rev. J. F. Chanter (Exeter 
Goldsmiths' records and some scarce books) ; Mr. K. 
Cornish (List of Works) ; Editor of the Exmouth Journal 
(History of Exmouth by an Inhabitant, c. 1836) ; Mr. H. 
Ford, Exeter (Lieutenancy Minutes) ; Mr. W. P. Haskett- 
Smith (Society of Genealogists of London. Blankminster 
Family) ; Mr. S. K. Jones (Dr. Williams' Library, London. 
Nonconformist Divines) ; Librarians of the Bodleian, 
Oxford, John Rylands, Manchester ; St. Andrew's 
University Libraries (Tavistock " BcBthius ") ; Mr. A. 
Rippon, Topsham (Biographical Notes, " The Connois- 
seur," Nos. 1-100, Science Notes) ; Mr. A. J. P. Skinner 
(Colyton Parish Registers) ; Mr. H. Stone, Topsham 
(answers to several questions) ; Mr. H. Tapley-Soper 
(facilities for borrowing books) ; Mr. H. Michel Whitley 
(loan of his paper on " Inquisitions for Proof of Age ") ; 

Digitized by 



Mr. E. R. Wood (Exeter Castle Records, see Devon and 
Exeter Gazette, 17 June, 1919). The late Professor F. W. , 
Moorman, of Leeds (born at Ashburton), who was un- 
fortunately drowned last September, had contributed a 
list of his publications shortly before his death. 

It is impossible to conclude this Report, written in 1920, 
without looking back to 1320, six hundred years ago, when 
Walter Stapledon, Bishop of Exeter, was appointed 
Treasurer of England and Keeper of the Treasury Records. 

He set to work to organize a Commission to calendar the 
State Papers under his control, and is considered to have 
saved from destruction many of the documents relating 
to DeVon and Devonians, which have been noted for this 
collection (see " Calendar of State Papers," Ireland, 1603-6, 
Preface, pp. ix-x ; " The Antient Kalendars and Inventories 
of the Treasury of His Majesty's Exchequer " (Record 
Commission, 1836) ; Hingeston-Randolph, Register of 
Stapeldon, Preface, p. xxiii n.). Though miscreants might 
murder his body, in the streets of London, the memory 
must remain in the minds of the members of this Com- 
mittee, of Walter of Exeter, King of Calendar-Makers, 
Inspirer of Indexers, best of Bibliographers. 

Beiaeb, Exmotjth. 


zed by G00gk 


Thirty-eighth Report of the Committee — consisting of 
Mr. J. 8. Amery, Sir Alfred W. Croft, and Mr. R. 
Hansford Worth (Secretary) — appointed to collect and 
tabulate trustworthy and comparable observations on the 
climate of Devon. 

Edited by R. Hansford Worth, Secretary of the Committee. 
(Read at Totnes, 21st July, 1020.) 

The weather of the year 1919 was no exception to the 
general rule that our climate mainly consists of extremes, 
and that nothing is more unusual than an approach to 
what is mathematically considered the normal, main- 
tained over any considerable period. 

The rainfall for the whole year was but 9% above the 
normal, but the rainfall of February was 92% in excess, 
and that of October showed 64% deficiency. 

The temperature was 1° below the normal on the mean 
of means for the whole year, but November was 6*1° 
below the normal. 

Sunshine for the whole year was 6% above the normal, 
for the month of October it was 49% above the normal 
and 14% below in December. 

January showed 56% excess of rainfaU, but also 23% 
excess of sunshine. July showed 55£% deficiency of rain- 
fall, but also 2% deficiency of sunshine. 

At Rousdon the extremes were less marked than at 
Ashburton, which latter we take as our standard. 

The rainfall at Rousdon for January, February, and 
March totalled 14-90 inches ; at Ashburton it was 2504 
inches. At Rousdon the rainfall for May, June, and July 
was 4-18 inches ; at Ashburton it was 3-97 inches. At 
Ashburton the rain in the first-named period was 74% 

Digitized by 



above the 4 normal, and the later period it was 53% below 
the normal. 

October was everywhere a wonderful month, at Rousdon 
it was the sunniest October in 38 years, having 26 hours 
more sunshine than September, notwithstanding the 
rapidly shortening days. The rainfall at Ashburton was 
only 3-6% of the normal October fall, but the month was 
cold, being 2-7° below the normal. It was followed by a 
very cold November of nearly normal rainfall ; and that 
was followed in turn by a wet and dull December. June 
was the best month of the year — dry, warm, and sunny. 

On the whole, from April to October inclusive, except 
in t the matter of temperature, the weather was good,|Jso 
that Spring, Summer, and Autumn were fine, but rather 
cool ; and the fine weather came when traditionally it 
would be expected. 

January, February, March, November, and December 
were true winter months. The Seasons were for once 

The following table gives the comparison of the weather 
of 1919 with the average. The rainfall is based on the 
Druid record, and compared with the forty years ending 
31st December, 1905. Temperature is also based on the 
Druid record, the period for average being 25 years to the 
end of 1919. Sunshine comparisons are founded on the 
Rousdon record, the period for average being 36 years 
'ending 31st December, 1919. 

The weather of 1919 compared with average conditions. 

Rain %. 


Sunshine %. 

January . . .156 















84 ■ 


+ 0-1 





+ 1*5 





+ 0*3 





. -1-9 





+ 1*8 







October . 










December . 

. 159 


+ 1*7 


Whole yeai 


. 109 




Digitized by 




The highest recorded temperature was 86-8° at Benton, 
Teignmouth, in August ; while Ilfracombe shows 86° for a 
day in September. The coldest night feU in November at 
Torrington, when the thermometer stood at 13°. 

Lynmouth. — Mr. T. H. Mead-Briggs having ceased to 
reside at Lynmouth there is no return from this station in 
the present report. 

The stations are as follows : — 


Arlington Court (N. Devon) . 613 


Ashburton (Druid) . 584 

Ashwater (Rectory) . . 500 
Barnstaple (Athenaeum) ' . 25 
Bere Alston (Rumleigh). . 125 
Coplestone House . . 315 

Cowsic Valley (weekly) 1352 

Cullompton . . . 202 

Devil's Tor (near Beardown 

Man) (monthly) . 1785 
Exeter (Devon and Exeter 

Institution) . . .155 
Exmouth Observatory . . 12 

Holne 620 

Huccaby . 900 

Ilfracombe . . . .25 
Leusdon (Vicarage) . 900 

Plymouth Observatory . .116 

Plymouth Watershed : — 

Head Weir (Plymouth 

Reservoir) . . 720 

Siward's Cross (monthly) 1200 J 

Princetown (H.M. Prison) 1359 ... 

... Miss Chichester. 

... J. S. Amery, j.p. 

... Rev. Q. D. Melhuish, m.a. 

... Miss E. Young. 

... Sir Alfred W. Croft, m.a., k.cj 

... Miss M. Pope. 

... Frank Howarth, m.inst.c.e. 

... Murray T. Foster, p.rmbt.Soc. 

... Frank Howarth, m.inst.cb. 

... John E. Coombes, Librarian. 

... Samuel Hutton. 

... L. Frost. 

... — Ford, for Major H. H. 


O. Prouse, a.m.inst.c.b. 

Rev. A. A. Woolcombe. 

H. Victor Prigg, a.m.inst.c.b., 


► Frank Howarth, m.inst.c.e. 

H. W. Shrimpton. 
548 ... Frank Howarth, m.inst.c.e. 
516 ... C. Grover, observer for Lady Peek. 

39 ... The Meteorological Office. 
186 ... Miss Constance M. Radford 
500 ... Miss C. M. Kingwell. 
South Brent (Badworthy) . 550 ... T. W. Latham. 

Roborough Reservoir . 



Sidmouth (Sidmount) . 

South Brent (Great Aish) 


zed by G00gk 



South Molton 
Tavistock (Reservoir) . 
Teignmouth Observatory 
Teignmouth (Benton) . 
Torquay Observatory . 

(Princess Pier) 

Torquay Watershed :— 



Torrington, Great (Enfield) 
Totnes (Berry Pomeroy) 
Woolacombe (N. Devon) 

ELEVATION (feet) O.D. 

. 430 ... 
. 457 ... 
. 20 ... 
. 320 ... 
1150 ... 



Fred. Day, f.r.g.8. 
W. J. Monk. 
G. Rossiter. 
W. C. Lake, m.d. 
H. B. Varwell, j.p. 

P. C. Steventon, a.r.San.1. 


. 836 

1041 )■ S. C. Chapman, m.inst.c.b. 
. 837 

. 336 ... George *M. Doe. 
. 185 ... Charles Barran, j.p. 
. 60 ... R. W. Hansford, for Miss 


zed by G00gk 



JANUARY, 1919. 







34 HOUB8. 



Arlington Court . 
Ashwater . 
Barnstaple . 
Bere Alston 
Coplestone Ho. . 
Oowsie Valley . 
Devil's Tor 

Exmouth Obs. . 

Huccaby . 
Ilfracombe . 
Leusdon . 
Plymouth Obs. , 

Head Weir . 

Siward's Cross , 

(S. Devon) 
Kousdon . 
Salcombe . 
Sidmouth. . 
South Brent 
South Brent 

South Molton 
Tavistock . 
Teignmouth Obs. 

Torquay Obs. 
Torquay Wtrshd. 

Kennick . 

Laployd . 

Mardon . 
(Berry Pomeroy) 





5. 89 











8. 54 



























41. 1 






























4I -2 



















5 "i.7 
























7 8.'( 

61.' 1 






Digitized by 



FEBRUARY, 1919. 












34 HOURS. 




















ini ieg. 






% < 

)-10' hours. 

Arlington Court . 








... | ... 




1.8 58.4 







7-7 \ ... 


Ashwater . 


• 5 


Barnstaple . 


.7 36.0 









Bere Alston. 


1.3 38.7 







Coplestone Ho. . 


•8 35.7 








Cowsic Valley . 



Devil's Tor 


/* 37.4 








59.8 15 

5 -9o 

* ... 

... ... 



•8 39.2 






... ... 

Exmouth Obs. . 













Huccaby . 





llfracomhe . 


•5 39.7 













Plymouth Obs. . 


i.c 41.4 


45. 5 








Head Weir 




Siward's Cross . 















(S. Devon) 




Rousdon . 










Salcombe . 










Sidmouth . 


•I 38.7 










South Brent 





South Brent 







South Molton . 










I.; 40.2 










Teignmouth Obs. 


i.s 40.4 













i.< 39-2 














Torquay Obs. 


!•' 41.3 










Torquay Wtrshd. 

Kennick . 









Laployd . 



Mardon . 







• ! 







(Berry Pomeroy^ 


















Digitized by 




MARCH, 1919. 










STATION. ! !• 

24 HOURS. 











tal D 





i s 1 « 




§ . 






ii deg. 









Arlington Court . 










1 42.2 








Ashwater . 


Barnstaple . 


1 40.9 






Bere Alston 









Coplestone Ho. . 









Cowsic Valley . 


Devil's Tor 









6. 9 





1 43- 1 





59 .0 

... 1 ... 

Exmouth Obs. . 







... 117.4 





... 1 

Huccaby . 




Ilfracombe . 









9.1 , 121.7 






Plymouth Obs. . 









6.6 1 120.0 



Head Weir 



Siward's Cross . 













(S. Devon) 




Rousdon . 










Salcombe . 







153- 1 


Sidmouth . 












South Brent 



South Brent 



South Molten . 






1 42.3 


40. s 






Teignmouth Obs. 


























Torquay Obs. 



3 8.'i 









Torquay Wtrshd. 

Kennick . 



Laployd . 



Mardon . 









(Berry Pomeroy] 













1 10.7 



Digitized by 



APRIL, 1919. 








Arlington Court . 
Asburt'n (Druid). 
Ashwater . 
Barnstaple . 
Bere Alston 
Coplestone Ho. . 
Cowsic Valley . 
Devil's Tor 

Exmouth Obs. . 
Huccaby . 
Ilfracombe . 

Plymouth Obs. . 

Head Weir . 

Siward's Cross. 

(S. Devon) 
Rousdon . 
Saloombe . 
Sidmouth . 
South Brent 
South Brent 

South Molton . 
Tavistock . 
Teignmouth Obs. 

Torquay Obs. 
Torquay Wtrshd. 

Ken nick . 

Laployd . 

Mardon . 
Torrington . 

(Berry Pomeroy) 
Woola combe 







•2 9 





























































































2. 1 1 




























4 8.*7 



























4 F 





































6.' 7 


6: 5 


155. 1 












Digitized by 




MAY, 1919 





34 HOUBS. 






Arlington Court 
Ashbur t'n(Druid ) 
Ashwater . 
Barnstaple . 
Bere Alston 
Coplestone Ho. . 
Cowsic Valley . 
Devil's Tor 

Exmouth Obs. . 
Huccaby . 
Ilfracombe . 

Plymouth Obs. . 

Head Weir 

Siward's Cross. 
Prince town 

(S. Devon) 
Ronsdon . 
Salcombe . 
Sidmouth . 
South Brent 
South Brent 

South Molton 
Tavistock . 
Teignmouth Obs, 

Torquay Obs. 
Torquay Wtrshd 

Kennick . 

Laployd . 

Mardon . 
Torrington . 

(Berry Pomeroy) 

1. 45 
1. 00 
1. S3 




1. 10 

1. 10 


1. 11 









lm4 2 





59 14 











56\ 5 

























































































Digitized by 



JUNE, 1919. 


















24 HOURS. 






















Arlington Court . 
Ashwater . 
Barnstaple . 
Bere Alston 
Coplestone Ho. . 
Cowsic Valley . 

Exmouth Obs. . 
Huccaby . 
Ilfracombe . 

Plymouth Obs. . 

Head Weir . 

Siward's Cross . 

(S. Devon) 
Rousdon . 
Salcombe . 
Sidmouth . 
South Brent 
South Brent 

South Molton . 
Tavistock . 
Teignmouth Obs. 

Torquay Obs. 
Torquay Wtrshd. 

Kennick . 

Laployd . 

Mardon . 
Torrington . 

(Berry Pomeroy) 







1. 12 
1. 16 


1. 16 

1. 6l 





* 3 2 











• 49 





























































61 .6 



























41. 1 



































251. 1 










Gauge imperfect. 

Digitized by 




JULY, 1919. 













04 HOURS. 













a * 


* ' 










ins. deg. 









Arlington Court. 









Ashburt'n ( Druid ) 


.45 60.2 









Ashwater . 




Barnstaple . 

1. 12 

-37 59-5 







Bere Alston 


.91 59.1 








Coplestone Ho. . 


.71 63.8 







Cowsic Valley . 






Devil's Tor 

I. IO 

.61 61.0 











.72 60.4 







Exmouth Obs. . 














Huccaby . 


• 33 

llfracombe . 


.29 58.2 













Plymouth Obs. . 


.43 60.8 










Head Weir 




Si ward's Cross . 






'.87 z 









(S. Devon) 




Rousdon . 









Salcombe . 









Sidmouth . 


.50 60.1 









South Brent 





South Brent 





South Molton . 






.59 59.8 








Teignmouth Obs. 



.58 59.3 










.67 59.0 












Torquay Obs. 


.61 60.6 









Torquay Wtrshd. 

Kennick . 




Laployd . 



Mardon . 



Torrington . 







(Berry Pomeroy] 
















VOL. LI1. 

Digitized by 



AUGUST, 1919 




- S 








24 HOURS. 


























ins. deg. 









Arlington Court . 









4- 17 

2.07 65.3 








Ashwater . 




Barnstaple . 


.61 62.3 






Bere Alston 


1. 15 62.6 







* Ooplestone Ho. . 


1. 00 64.3 







Oowsic Valley . 



Devil's Tor 


1. 18 64.5 














1.40 63.5 






Exmouth Obs. . 











5- 2 5 





Huccaby . 




Ilfracombe . 


•75 61.5 














Plymouth Obs. . 


1.36 63.9 







6. 2 



Head Weir 





Siward's Cross . 














(S. Devon) 




Rousdon . 








232. 1 


Salcombe . 


1. 61 







Sidmouth . 


1.42 63.8 










South Brent 


1.98 ... ... 




South Brent 





South Molton 


.85 :;: 


Tavistock . 


1. 00 63.3 










Teignmouth Obs. 



1.44 62.7 










1.68 62.7 















Torquay Obs. 


1.65 64.4 










Torquay Wtrshd. 

Kennick . 





Laployd . 





Mardon . 















(Berry Pomeroy) 







61. 1 











Digitized by 












24 HOURS. 












































ins. deg. 









Arlington Court . 









Ashburt'n(Druid ) 


1.22 57.1 








Ashwater . 



Barnstaple . 


.68 52.9,45.5 





Bere Alston 


1.00 57.2:48.5 





Coplestone Ho. . 


•47 57-6 






Cowsic Valley . 





.51 56.2 








146.7 1 4 

Devil's Tor 


| ... 



•44 55-8 






1 ... 

Exmouth Obs. . 

1. 41 







I.6.5 ; 6 




Huccaby . 



Ilfracombe . 


.48 57.4 








138. 1 





Plymouth Obs. . 


.78 57.8 










Head Weir 



Siward's Cross . 













(8. Devon) 



Rousdon . 

1. 54 









Salcombe . 



Sidmouth . 


•59 57-8 








149. 1 


South Brent 


1. 10 


South Brent 





South Molton . 


.81 ;*.; 


Tavistock . 


1.08 57.6 








Teignmouth Obs. 2.04 

(Benton) 1.98 

.58 55.6 










•55 55-6 









Thornworthy . 3.70 


Torquay Obs. 


.50 57.8 










Torquay Wtrshd. 

Kennick . 



Laployd . 




Mardon . 




Torrington . 







(Berry Pomeroy) 

1. 91 

















Digitized by 




OCTOBER, 1919. 






24 HOURS. 



S S 















Arlington Court 
Ashwater . 
Barnstaple . 
Bere Alston 
Ooplestone Ho. . 
Cowsic Valley . 
Devil's Tor 

Exmouth Obs. , 
Huccaby . 
llfracombe . 
Leusdon . 
Plymouth Obs. , 

Head Weir 

Siward's Cross 

(S. Devon) 
Salcombe . 
Sidmouth . 
South Brent 
South Brent 

South Molton 
Tavistock . 
Teignmouth Obs. 

Torquay Obs. 
Torquay Wtrshd. 

Kennick . 

Laployd . 

Mardon . 
Torrington . 
(Berry Pomeroy) 




















1. 11 



1. Vs 






1. 00 


































































29.0 1 62.0 









27.0 57.0 
40.0! 61.0 











161. 5 

121. 4 





Digitized by 




NOVEMBER, 1919. 


G T 






«4 • 





Arlington Court . 





Ashburt'n ( Druid ] 


.92 1 30 


A sh water . 


1.02 9 


Barnstaple . 


.86 | 9 


Bere Alston 


1.01 | 8 


Coplestone Ho. . 


.70 9 


Cowsic Valley . 


Devil's Tor 











Exmouth Obs. . 





Holne . . 





Huccaby . 





Ilfracombe . 










Plymouth Obs. . 


.70 I28 


Head Weir . 





Siward's Cross . 







Ro borough 

(S. Devon) 





Rousdon . 





Salcombe . 

Sidmouth . 





South Brent 





South Brent 


6.89: ... 

South Molton . 


1. 00 



Tavistock . 





Teignmouth Obs. 








.66 28 







Torquay Obs. 





Torquay Wtrshd. 

Kennick . 





Laployd . 





Mardon . 





Torrington . 


1. 21 




(Berry Pomeroy) 

4.00 1 .80 

























36 1 



















46.6 1 41-4 



































































Digitized by 




DECEMBER, 1919. 


Arlington Court . 
Ashwater . 
Barnstaple . 
Bere Alston 
Coplestone Ho. . 
Cowsic Valley . 
Devil's Tor 

Exmouth Obs. , 
Huccaby . 
Ilfracombe . 

Plymouth Obs. , 

Head Weir 

Si ward's Cross. 

(S. Devon) 
Rousdon . 
Salcombe . 
Sidmouth . 
South Brent 
South Brent 

South Molton 
Tavistock . 
Teignmouth Obs. 

Torquay Obs. 
Torquay Wtrshd, 

Eennick . 

Laployd . 

Mardon . 
Torrington . 
(Berry Pomeroy) 







11. 17 









1. 21 




l ' l J 


1. 00 




l 'l S 


1. 18 











1. 1 1 
















39- S 









50.0 43.9 29.0 

30.0 5 J -o 
32.0 54.0 












49.0 44.2 








3i. 1 







53-0 85 
54*o 88 










36.0 52.0 







88 J 8.3 

89 7.o 


















Digitized by 
















34 HOUR8. 


















Arlington Court . 
Athwater . 
.Barnstaple . 
Bere Alston 
Coplestone Ho. . 
Cowrie Valley . 
Devil's Tor 

Exmouth Obs. . 
Huccaby . 
Ilfracombe . 

Plymouth Obs. . 

Head Weir 

Siward's Cross . 

(S. Devon) 
Rousdon . 
Salcombe . 
Sidmoutn* . 
South Brent 
South Brent 

South Molton 
Tavistock . 
Teignmouth Obs. 

Torquay Obs. 
Torquay Wtrshd. 

Kennick . 

Laployd . 

Mardon . 
(Berry Pomeroy] 




lo' 55 











1. 21 


1. 00 














1. 21 
















9/1 1 

9/1 1 





l v 
























43- 2 






deg. 1 



57.2 , 








47-6 ' 

48.0 , 
4 8.8| 
















































1 542. 1 
1623. 1 

I73 1 - 

1736. 1 









Digitized by 




(Bead at Totnes, 21st July, 1920.) 

Lo> Loo, Lu, Lugh in Cornish, Llwch in Welsh, Louc'h in 
Breton, are the equivalents of the Gaelic Loch. As in 
Gaelic the term designates a pool or lake, or else a creek 
such as the Norsemen would call a fjord. 

Looe Pool at Helston is tautological. 

Duloe is " The Two Creeks," a very descriptive name, 
the parish lying between two branches of the estuary. 

Looe in Cornwall is the settlement at the mouth of the 
lake or creek. 

Nansloe is the lake in the vale. 

Landloe=Lan-looe, near Liskeard, is the Lan or Church 
settlement on the edge of a lake. 

Lew Trenchard and North Lew by their names show 
that at one time, and that when the country was settled 
by Celts, there existed lakes at both places. 

The river that flows through Lew Trenchard Valley and 
debouches into the Lyd at Coryton Station was never 
called the Lew River till the issue in 1882-8 of the more 
recent Ordnance Survey Map. In that of 1809 it was 
more correctly entitled the " Lewwater," and so the 
stream was called as I can recollect from childhood. But 
the term " water " was a reduplication, I take it, and that 
Lew or Lugh meant originally Water, and was applied 
like the Icelandic vatn either to water itself or to standing 
water, as UUeswater and Haweswater. 

The lake that occupied the Lew Trenchard Valley was 
three miles long, and its banks throughout are in almost 
all parts distinctly marked. Not only so, but there is an 
immediate change of soil between that of the banks and 
that of the extinct lake-bed. The latter consists of peat 
and gravel to a depth of nine to ten feet, resting on a stiff 

Digitized by 



clay which, if not glacial, has been brought down by a 
flood from the North and contains rolled stones. This 
flood has left belts running East and West on the hill- 
sides to the North, and has formed a thick deposit in the 
bed of the valley. 

In the peat and gravel of the old lake have been found 
large trees of Spanish chestnut turned black, also great 
numbers of hazel nuts cracked by the teeth of squirrels. 

The level of the lake was 350 feet above the sea. It 
extended from above Foxcombe to somewhere about where 
now stands Coryton Station on the G.W.R. Then its 
waters decanted into the Lyd at right angles. 

Whether the stream was there arrested by a bank of 
rubble thrown up by the Lyd or by a beaver-dam it is 
now impossible to say, as the ground there has been so 
altered that its contours are lost. 

The Lew Manor Mill was built just below the ancient 
bank,' and the pit of the waterwheel marks the fall from 
the bank to the dried-up lake-bed. On rebuilding the mill 
in 1913 it was found that the house of the miller rested on 
an artificial foundation of rubble and slate, thrown in 
upon the peat. 

At Lew Mill on'the old bank stands a prehistoric menhir, 
but whether in its original site, or was brought there from 
elsewhere, it is not possible to state. It was thrown down 
by my grandfather and buried because the farmers brought 
their cows to rub against it, with the idea that this in- 
creased their yield of milk. I raised and replanted it. 

When some cottages were being built at Foxcombe 
under the old bank by Mr. William Palmer of Foxcombe, 
he told me that in digging the foundations under two feet 
of ordinary soil that had come down from the bank he 
came on a mass of sand so fine that — to use his own words 
— it needed no screening, and was so abundant that a 
whole village might have been built with the supply for 

Moreover, when a leat was cut or recut here, many 
black chestnut trees were found as if fallen from the banks 
into the lake. They were of great size and age, and lay 
at a depth of ten feet. The lake had several bights as one 
running up to Beechcombe, and another up the Coryton 
Valley from the old toll-gate. 

It has generally been asserted that the sweet chestnut 
was introduced by the Romans, but this is by no means 

Digitized by 



certain. Anyhow the lake and parish obtained their 
designation from the Celts who are supposed to have 
occupied Britain some thousand years before the Christian 

The dam may have been constructed by the beaver 
(Castor fiber) which is distinct from the Castor Canadensis, 
the American species. The British sort, according to 
Pennant, was found in certain Welsh rivers as late as the 
twelfth century. It has given its name to Beverley, 
Beveridge, and Beaverbrook. In Scandinavia the last 
known specimen was killed in 1844. It is not possible to 
feel confident that the lake had its dam formed by beavers 
till some of its incisor teeth have been found. These are 
practically indestructible, and possibly unique in com- 
position, shape, and appearance. They may be short, or 
of great length like tusks. The enamel is extremely hard 
and of an orange colour, the teeth sharp and chisel- 
shaped, ridged at the cutting edge of the chisel. All the 
other bones and teeth would probably have disappeared. 

The American beaver plants stakes of alder vertically 
in the river-bed and lays above them logs of oak or pine, 
cut to lengths of two feet. The alder takes root, and it is 
just possible that the presence of alder* in lines at right 
angles to the course of the stream, near Coryton Station, 
may remain as relics of an old beaver dam. 

The creature is remarkably clever. It opens escape pas- 
sages for the water at the top of the dam so as to prevent 
the torrent tearing its way through the artificial barricade. 
There are strong indications in the Sydenham Valley of 
the Lyd of there having been lakes in it as well at one 
time, but I have not traced the banks on the map, nor 
have I examined the course of the North Lew River to 
discover the site of its lake. 

It has occurred to me repeatedly that probably there 
were palafite dwellings on the Lew Lake, but there are no 
indications on the surface to lead one to make excavations 
in search of them. 

There are other silted-up lake-beds in the county, notably 
Boveyheathfield, that deserve to be investigated and their 
banks traced. 


zed by G00gk 



, (Read at Tdtnes, 21st July, 1920.) 

Some few years since I was fortunate enough to obtain a 
very interesting Armada relic. It was dug up about fifty 
years ago out of the sand near Hope Cove, Salcombe, and 
there is a print of it from a photograph on the opposite 

It is of teak, 19J inches high, 10 inches broad, and 2£ 
inches thick, is rounded at the top and is bound round the 
edge or thickness with a band of brass similar to ship's 
brass. After being dug up it remained in a cellar for many 
years and then I obtained it. On it is carved a man's head, 
and it was said to be a representation of St. Peter and to 
have come from the wreck of one of the hospital ships of 
the Spanish Armada which ran on the rocks in Hope Cove, 
November, 1588. 

" Notes and Gleanings, Devon and Cornwall, 1888," 
contained articles entitled " Records of the Armada in 
Devon," and as a sequel to those articles printed a com- 
munication obtained from the late Mr. Robert Dymond, 
tf.s.A., of Exeter, being a letter from Mr. George Cary, 
deputy -lieutenant for Devon, from his seat at Cockington, 
to the Lords of the Privy Council, which letter is preserved 
at the Record Office. The letter gives an account of the 
wreck upon the rocks near Hope Cove of one of the vessels 
of the Armada which came ashore in the November gales 
of 1588. 

It was one of the two hospital ships attached to the 
Spanish Armada Fleet, and was laden with drugs and 
medical stores, and a ship of considerable burden for those 
days, about 500 tons. On leaving Spain she had 30 
mariners, 100 soldiers, and 50 persons attached to the 
hospital on board. She was named Peter the Great, and 

Digitized by 



must have gone right up to the north of Scotland and 
back through the seas on the west of Great Britain into 
the English Channel, going on the rocks at Hope Cove, 
where many a good vessel has come to an untimely end. 

Mr. Cary's letter to the Council gives a very interesting 
account of the news reaching him when at Plymouth and of 
his going to the scene of the wreck, that the hull was full 
of water and it shortly after broke up, and that the in- 
habitants of the villages near had secured all the plate and 
treasure, and that the drugs and " potecary stuff " of the 
value of 6000 ducats were nearly all spoiled by the sea 
water, the ordnance, however, wa§ saved. The crew were 
secured as prisoners ; some were sent to Kingsbridge, the 
apothecary and surgeon taken charge of by Mr. Cary 
himself at Cockington, others being sent to Sir William 
Courtenay at Ilton Castle. 

At first it was proposed to kill the prisoners, but that 
was not carried out. 

Anthony Ashley, Clerk of the Council, came down to 
Ilton Castle and took charge of the prisoners, and on 
12th November made a report to the Council, and in it 
writes of the prisoners: "x or xii of the best sorte are- 
placed in a toune called Kingsbridge, where order is taken 
for provision of their wants, and accompt kept of their 
expense. The rest until your Lpps further pleasure 
knowen are remaining together in one house whither they 
were first committed, where they are safe kept, and pro- 
vided of necessarie food." 

In his letter he adds : 

" By late examinations taken of the Spaniardes, I find 
that certain besar stones and other simples was purloyned 
out of the shippe, of which besar stones I hope to recover 
the most of them." 

Sir George Cary's letter to the Council was dated 
5 November, 1588, and the report of Mr. Ashley only a 
week after, so it would appear that he had notice of the 
wreck before the receipt of Mr. Cary's letter. Mr. Dymond 
added a note as to Sir George Cary. 

" This gentleman was an ancestor of the Cary family of 
Torre Abbey, Torquay, and occupied a conspicuous place 
in the brilliant Court of his kinswoman Queen Elizabeth. 
He had already done the State good service in the measures 
taken for the defence of the coast at Dover, as well as in 
his own Coupty, and in later years was knighted and 


zed by G00gk 


zed by G00gk 


An Armada Rklic— To face p. 157 


zed by G00gk 


became successively Lord Treasurer and Lord Deputy or 
Viceroy of Ireland." 

As to the relic, soon after I obtained it, it was suggested 
to me that as it was teak it could not be a relic of the 
Armada, as teak was not imported into Spain from India 
till after 1588. 

It appears, however, that a kind of teak very similar to 
the Indian teak was produced in the Philippines and it was 
the particular industry of the Spanish monks to carve 
images of the saints in those islands. Philip II made 
Manilla the base of his Pacific Fleet about 1566, or more 
than twenty years before the despatch of the Armada, so 
that the fact of the figure being carved out of teak is really 
in favour of its having been connected with the Armada. 

As to its representing St. Peter that idea may have 
arisen from the vessel being called the St. Peter. It does 
not appear to be a representation of St. Peter the Apostle, 
but I understand there are no less than four other St. 
Peters venerated by the Roman Church. St. Peter 
Alcantura was a Spaniard who is said to have flourished 
from 1499 to 1562. 

Teak is preserved for a very long time if kept moist, 
and buried in the sand of the seashore for even between 
two and three hundred years it would be so preserved. 

I am not aware whether any other portion of the wreck 
has ever come to light in recent years and been preserved 
in the neighbourhood. 

This relic may represent the patron saint of the hospital 
ship or one of them. 


zed by G00gk 



Its Exterior Aspect and General Construction. 

by charles h. laycock. 

(Read at Totnes, 21st July, 1920.) 

In these days of rapid changes and improvements, of 
universal education, and of ever-increasing facilities in the 
means of transport and communication, in even the most 
remote country districts the old order is rapidly changing 
and giving place to the new, and all things old are being 
ruthlessly swept away, and are disappearing one after 

Although at the present time a considerable number of 
old farm-houses are still standing in Devon, much (at least 
as regards their outward appearance) as they stood from 
one to four or even five hundred years ago, yet in every 
year that passes one sees a marked decrease in their 
number, either from accident or by design. For on the 
one hand, owing to the dryness of their thatched roofs, 
their cob-walls, and their well-seasoned and often worm- 
eaten timber-work, they fall an all too easy prey to the 
demon of fire. While, on the other hand, many are yearly 
being condemned by the Medical Officers of Health, and 
rightly so, as " no longer fit for human habitation," owing 
to the wilful neglect in some cases, and the inability 
through lack of means in others, of their owners to keep 
them in habitable repair. 

Occasionally the ancient homestead is repaired, or rather 
patched up ; for the new work is usually entirely out of 
keeping with the old. And so we see in almost every village 
in the county a number of hideous hybrids, such as a 
cob-walled house with a slated or galvanized-iron roof, 

Digitized by 



or a thatched roof over walls faced with cement blocks in 
imitation of stone-work, with glazed bricks, match-board- 
ing, or some equally incongruous modern creation. 

But as a general rule the old structure is entirely pulled 
down, and replaced by a modern farm-house built of stone 
or brick, according to the district, with a slated or tiled 
roof, most commonly the former. Moreover, the new 
structure is often built on a more advantageous site, from 
a modern point of view, in regard to drainage, water 
supply, and other conveniences, than that on which the old 
house stood. While in not a few cases no new house has 
been built at all, because there has been a growing tendency 
during the last quarter of a century or so for the larger 
farms to swallow up the smaller ones. I know many 
instances where one farmer now occupies land which once 
belonged to two, or even three, separate farms. And the 
smaller farm-houses have either been converted into 
labolirers' cottages, or (which is far more often the case) 
have been pulled down, and new cottages built. 

Whilst, therefore, an appreciable number of genuine old 
farm-houses still remain in the county, it would seem not 
out of place to give a short description of their structure 
and general aspect, with a few illustrations if possible, 
before they have all been " improved away," and their 
very shape and form have become matters of conjecture 
only, like the original appearance of the hut circles on 
Dartmoor, and other prehistoric remains. 

This I hope to do in Part I. of my paper. While in 
Part II. I propose to deal with the interior arrangements, 
furniture, utensils, and general domestic economy of the 

Seeing that Mr. R. Pearse Chope 1 has de^lt so fully and 
thoroughly with most of the out-del 2 work of the farm, 
both the field-work (ploughing, sowing, reaping, etc.) and 
that carried on within the court or barton (thrashing, 
winnowing, tending of stock, etc.), together with the 
buildings in which these various operations are performed, 

1 See " Some Old Farm Implements and Operations," Trans. Devon. 
Assoc., 1918, Vol. L., pp. 26&-92. 

* All dialect words and local terms are written in italics ; and, seeing 
that so many footnotes would have been required in order to explain 
adequately many of these terms, I have included them all in a glossary, 
which will be foimd at the end of this paper, following the Appendix. 
And to this the reader is referred for a full explanation of any term not 
fully explained in the text. 

Digitized by 



I intend to confine myself to a description of the farm- 
house itself and its immediate precincts, and shall only 
refer to the out-buildings in so far as they bear upon the 
exterior aspect of, or the work carried on within, the 

Before proceeding to describe the farm-house as it exists 
to-day, however, I propose to trace briefly the probable 
origin and growth of the farmstead generally. And also to 
notice the system of tenure on which farms were held in 
Devon up to quite recent times. 

First, as to its origin. This takes us back to very early 
days. The Anglo-Saxon invaders, being ruthless destroyers, 
made a fresh settlement of the land. We have this clearly 
shown in the dwelling-place names being Saxon in an over- 
whelming majority, while the names of natural features, 
such as mountains, hills, rivers, etc., are Celtic or British. 

The new-comers chose for themselves the site for their 
steading with a view to agricultural pursuits, and obviously 
the " home " for the dwelling was first to be built. This 
became known from the dweller. as his ham (i.e. home), or, 
with reference to the enclosure itself, as his tun or ton 
(i.e. town), or his stock (i.e. place of defence), his worthy 
(enclosure by his house, courtyard), and so on. 

The space between the dwelling-house and the cattle- 
sheds and other hovels conveniently near would naturally 
form the standing-place for cattle ; and so the farm-yard or 
court (as it is usually termed in Devon) came into being, 
bars and gates being required to keep the beasts from 
straying into the forest or open moorland. 

Through the gates the dwellers passed to visit the neigh- 
bouring settlers, and thus the first tracks were formed, 
passing in many instances (which remain to this day) 
through the farm-steads, a gate being placed across the 
track at either side. 

As land was tilled and crofts adjoining the farm were 
enclosed, by raising banks and bounds on either side of the 
bridle-track, the gates were set farther along, to the 
extreme end of the enclosures, to where the open land was 
reached. So farm land grew, though much of the country 
was open for depasturing, till farm gradually joined farm 
in those districts favourable to tillage. The " field " 
(cp. Du. Veldt) was the term used originally for the open 
country as distinguished from that brought into cultiva- 

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The map of a purely Anglo-Saxon district shows the 
settlements (now villages) with short roads radiating to 
other settlements near by. The farmstead was the un- 
doubted original of each Anglo-Saxon village. 

Now Devon, having in it tracts of very fertile soil, and 
at the same time far larger expanses of useless or un- 
desirable country, from an agricultural point of view, 
would naturally be most unequally settled. And the 
difficult nature of the hilly parts would favour the isolation 
of the Anglo-Saxon settlers, who, by the time they had 
taken possession of the south-west, had become Christian- 
ised, and more reasonably inclined toward the British, 
with whom they settled down more or less peaceably and 
even inter-married. So that it is more than likely that 
British customs, practices, traditions, and (to a limited 
extent) language, passed into Anglo-Saxon life, in this 
county, in those pursuits which of all are the least changeful 
— the agricultural. 1 

The wide alluvial plains of the east side of England and 
the Midlands allowed of settlements more after the manner 
of those whence the invaders came. The hilly west- 
oountry, on the other hand, tending to the formation of 
smaller and more irregular enclosures ; this being par- 
ticularly the case in stony districts where scattered rocks 
encumbered the ground, as on Dartmoor and its borders. 

It has been usual to regard the land of England as 
entirely unenclosed up to a few generations back. This 
was certainly the case with moorland, waste ground, or 
ohalk downs. But of necessity tilled land must have been 
bounded from the earliest times. 

Now, as to the system of tenure on which farms were 
held, at any rate from mediaeval times (if not earlier) until 
quite recently : A few of the owners of farms and agri- 
cultural land were undoubtedly also their occupiers, but in 
the larger majority of cases they let off their land and farms 
on a system of tenure known as the Life-hold System. 2 

1 It is to be noted, for instance, that the pronunciation of Meth,eglm is 
after the Celtic manner, accenting the penultimate, and not after the Saxon. 

* See Appendix I. As many of the ancient customs and practices 
eonnected with farms and farm-life in Devon are now obsolete, it seems 
desirable that some record should be made of their methods. As this 
would unduly break the continuity of the general text of my paper, I 
have added an appendix, in which I have endeavoured to give a brief, 
though I trust a clear, description of these practices, which are in whole, 
or in part, peculiar to Devon, or at least to the west-country, under their 
several headings. 



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I am aware, of course, that there are within the county, 
as elsewhere, a considerable number of ancient manor- 
houses and monastic buildings, which now for many 
generations past have been converted into farm-houses, 
owing to the impoverishment of their former owners, from 
various causes, and their consequent inability to keep 
them up in their former state. But these, though of the 
utmost interest to the historian, the antiquarian, the 
topographist and the archaeologist, I do not propose to 
dwell upon further, because they were not originally 
intended for farm-houses. Their size is frequently out of 
all proportion to the amount of land which now goes with 
them ; while not unfrequently only one-half, or less, of the 
original building is occupied, the remaining portion being 
allowed to fall into ruin, or else being converted into barns 
and other out-buildings. These buildings must not, of 
course, be confounded with the manor-farm and the 
church or glebe-farm, that is the home farm of some 
particular manor or church, which were never intended 
for any other purpose than that of farm-houses. 

Now the modern farm-house in any particular district is, 
like the modern villa, built after a more or less fixed model, 
consequently there is a disagreeable regularity and 
monotony of design, entirely absent from the older build- 
ings, which were erected at a time when every man was 
more or less his own architect, and built his house according 
to his own pleasure. 

There are few very large farms in Devon; probably none 
that would compare with the size of the really big farms 
in the grain-growing ajid large dairy-farming districts of 
the northern, midland, and eastern counties of England. 
For Devon is primarily a cattle-breeding and stock-raising 
county. Few farmers in Devon grow more corn than they 
require for consumption on their own farms, and some 
not even that, e.g. on Dartmoor, where the soil is altogether 
too light and the climate too moist. While dairy farms, 
though numerous in certain districts within the county, 
are for the most part of the small rather than the large 

Two distinct types of farm-house must, however, be 
noted : (1) The large farm (or what would be considered 
large in Devon) or barton, frequently (though by no means 
always) farmed by its owner himself, or by a hind im- 
mediately under his direction. (2) The medium-sized and 

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small farm (the latter often little better than a labourer's 
cottage). These are usually occupied by tenant farmers ; x 
and in many districts the greater number of the farms arej 
owned by one large landowner, who has either inherited 
them or bought them up as the old life-leases fell in. 

In the olden days the large landowners were usually the 
squires or lords of the manor, sometimes also the parsons, 
of the parishes in which they held their land, and were for 
the greater part of their time in residence in their own 
manor-houses, or parsonages. But of late years much 
land, including of course many farms, has been bought up 
by men who have made large fortunes in trade, whose 
principal residence is in London or some other part of the 
country, and who consequently spend a very small portion 
of their time on their newly acquired estates, leaving the 
management of them almost entirely in the hands of local 
agents. Though there are some exceptions of course. 

It need hardly be said that, as a general rule, when the 
landowner lives on the spot, his farms are in every way in 
a more prosperous condition, his land better tilled, and his 
farm-houses and cottages kept in better repair than when 
left entirely to the supervision of agents, whose main 
object is to gain the good- will of their employers by exacting 
as high a rent as possible from their tenants, and at the 
same time spending as little as possible on necessary repairs 
and improvements. 

When the landowner himself lives on his estate, he 
naturally takes a pride in keeping his land well tilled and 
his farms and cottages in decent repair. He frequently 
also takes a personal interest in the comfort and well-being 
of his tenants, who are all well-known to him, and whose 
families have in many cases been tenants, and in former 
days life lease-holders, of his own family for generations. 

I propose to give a short description of one of the larger 

1 This condition of affairs has been considerably altered since the 
great European War of 1914-18. For many of the old landed proprietors 
have become much impoverished owing to the burden of heavy taxation, 
and have in consequence sold much of their land, rightly giving their own 
tenant-farmers the first refusal to purchase the farms which they 
occupied. Of which offer a considerable number of them were not slow 
to avail themselves. For, owing to the very substantial increase in the 
selling price of stock and farm produce, many farmers have found them- 
selves in a position to purchase their own farms, even without borrowing, 
who could not have done so before the war. Consequently we now find 
a very much larger number of the smaller farms occupied by their owners 
than was the case prior to 1914. 

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class of farm-house, or barton as it is usually termed in 
Devon ; which includes all that is to be found in the 
smaller class, and a good deal more in addition. 

First, as to its approach. Seeing that most of the 
present-day high-roads have been made long after the 
majority of the farm-houses were built, it is not surprising 
to find that very few of them can be approached directly 
from the high-road. Indeed most of them stand some 
considerable distance from it, and can only be approached 
by narrow and often very rough lanes ; the typical 
"" Devonshire lanes " of nineteenth and twentieth-century 
poets and prose-writers, but which were originally in many 
cases the old main-roads, indeed the only roads, within the 

Now these roads served their purpose well enough when 
all transport was done by means of pack-horses, 1 but in 
these days of wheeled carts and waggons, not to mention 
the ever-increasing steam and motor traffic, they seem 
ridiculously narrow, and are indeed most awkward and 

The typical large Devon farm-house is usually ap- 
proached from the narrow lane just described through a 
permanent grass field, known as the homer-field, or home- 
meadow, through which sometimes a rough road for 
vehicles has been made, but more often than not merely a 
more or less permanent track has been cut in the grass by 
the constantly passing carts (see Plate I.). At the further 
end of this meadow stands the farm-house itself within its 
own grounds, which are fenced around by fairly high walls 
of stone or cob, according to the district ; while the farm- 
court with its various buildings, known collectively as the 
courtledge, lies adjacent to, and usually in line with, the 
dwelling-house, on either the right or left side of it. The 
court is entered from the meadow by a large gate or waggon- 
way, quite separate from that leading to the house. It is 
usually in the form of a large quadrangle, one side being 
taken up entirely by the long barn, the other farm-buildings 

1 It should be borne in mind that right up to the commencement of 
the nineteenth century, and even later, there was very little wheel- 
traffic of any kind in Devon, except in the neighbourhood of the large 
towns, and even there it was very limited. See Marshall, Rural Economy 
of West of Eng., 1796. 

While even so late as 1829 (not yet a hundred years ago !), there was 
hardly a wheeled cart to be found anywhere on Dartmoor. See Moore, 
Hist of Devon, 1829. 

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being ranged around the three remaining sides, these 
consist of the stables, shippens, pigs' -leivzes, various 
chambers for the storing of roots (which have been taken 
in from the caves in the fields, and stored in readiness for 
being sliced and given to the bullocks, etc.), such as the 
turmet-'ouze or mangd-ouze, etc. While one side will 
almost certainly be devoted to the shelter of the various 
carts, wains, and waggons, under a long open shed known 
as the cart-linhay or waggon-linhay. The other larger imple- 
ments, ploughs, drags, harrows, scuffles, drills, mowing and 
reaping-machines, hay-rakes, tedders, etc., being housed in 
another linhay outside the farm court proper. In the 
centre of the court is usually a large pit into which the dung 
from the stables and shippens is thrown, and allowed to rot 
for some months, to provide rich dressing for the land. 

There are usually at least three entrances to the court, 
the large gate from the home-meadow already described, 
a smajl one leading from the inner court or booklet im- 
mediately behind the house, and a third leading out into 
another meadow. Besides the buildings already mentioned 
will be found the round-house 1 or machine-house, adjacent 
to the barn but with a separate thatched-roof , containing 
the gear worked by one or more horses, originally for turning 
the cider-mill only, but of later years used also to work the 
thrashing-machine, wrara&in'-machine, chaff-cutter, turnip- 
cutter, etc., when these operations oeased to be performed 
by hand. The round-house itself is frequently circular in 
form, but by no means always so. It is so named, not from its 
exterior form, but from the fact that the horses in working 
the gear walk round and round ; the driving apparatus 
consisting of four or more wooden poles attached at right- 
angles to one massive upright, which turns round in 
sockets and is connected by means of cog-wheels or cog- 
wheel gearing to a pulley-wheel to which a belt is attached 
connecting it with whatever machine it is required to drive. 
The round-house and gear is still used on a few farms, but has 
been largely superseded by oil and petrol-driven engines. 

Where cider-making and home brewing are carried on, 
there will also be found the Pound-house for the former and 
the Brew-house for the latter, which will be described more 
fully when we come to deal with these operations in Part II. 

The fowl-house is usually merely a wooden structure for 
the fowls to roost in, they have the run of the farm-cow£, 

1 See Plate V. 

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indeed the only place from which they are debarred is the 
kitchen-garden. The culver-house, if there is one, is usually 
round, shaped something like the round-house, only having 
a small turret with holes for the pigeons to fly in and out 
of, and surmounted by a weather-cock. It is usually found 
in one corner of the front garden. But culver-houses are not 
very common in Devon, their place being taken by rows of 
pigeon-holes in one of the cob-walls. 

There is a separate enclosure for the ricks, known as the 
rick- or mow-barton, also called mowhay (pronounced moo'y) 

For the supply of water for drinking and washing 
purposes almost every farm-house will be found to have a 
well (pronounced wed in Devon) of some form attached to 
it. When the farm is situated close to a river or constantly 
running stream, a well has not unfrequently been formed 
by diverting water from the stream into a specially con- 
structed tank or standing pool of considerable depth, built 
up of stone, and in later times of cement, placed at a short 
distance from the stream, being covered in on two sides 
and the top with stone slabs, so as to keep the water clean 
and cool for drinking purposes, the water being obtained 
by dipping with a hand-bucket or dipper ; water for 
washing purposes being taken directly from the stream. 

But when there is no natural stream close at hand, it has 
been necessary to find water elsewhere. This was usually 
done by divining, or, as we term it, dowsing (pronounced 
douzin). It not unfrequently happened that the dowser 
was unable to find water very near to the spot chosen as 
most convenient for the dwelling-house, consequently we 
often find the well situated some distance from it. When 
the spring of water was only a few feet below the surface 
of the ground, a constant supply was obtained by digging 
a well to a depth of six or eight feet only, the water rising 
almost to the ground level, and being dipped out by hand, 
as in the case of the small well by the stream just described, 
or by a bucket let down by means of a short line and 
crook. These wells are usually entirely covered in, with a 
small door for entrance, and are often built up of dry 
masonry, even the roof being of the same construction. 1 
They form a pleasing and picturesque accessory to the old 
farm-house and out-buildings. 

1 Mr. R. P. Chope informs me he has a well of 'this description on a 
farm of his in North Devon, with a date -stone 1657. This well is 
figured in Plate VI, the block having been kindly lent to me by Mr. R. 
Pearse Chope. 

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When, however, it was necessary to dig down some 
twenty or thirty feet before water could be reached, then 
some mechanical appliance was required in order to bring 
up the water. To effect this two systems were adopted, 
both of considerable antiquity. The older system being 
that of the draw-well, that is a windlass or winch (termed 
in Devon wink), a large wooden or iron cylinder or roller 
around which was wound a chain or rope with crook, to 
which a bucket was attached, which could be let down and 
drawn up by means of an iron crank-handle at one end of 
the roller. The well itself was usually circular, occasionally 
rectangular, in form, it was surrounded by a low wall built 
up some two to three feet from the ground. The wink was 
placed on a wooden frame-work across the top of the well. 
These wells were usually left open, though sometimes a- 
wooden cover, made in two sections, was placed over them 
when not in use, to keep the water pure and to keep 
ohildren and animals from falling in, not such an unfre- 
quent occurrence as might be supposed. The term wink 
is frequently applied to the whole well and not merely to 
the winch, as it strictly should be. 

The other method of drawing water from deep wells was 
that of the hydraulic pump, which draws up the water by 
suction through a small leaden pipe let down into the well, 
the well itself being entirely covered over, the pump alone 
being visible. At the foot of the pump was usually placed 
a large granite trough (pronounced traw), which was 
hollowed out of a single block of stone, the pump and traw 
together being known as the pump-traw or plump-traw f 
while the well is spoken of as the pump-pit or plump-pit. 
The pump itself, which is usually made of iron, though 
the older pumps had wooden handles, is often enclosed in 
a small wooden casing as a protection against frost, the 
handle and spout alone being unprotected. Sometimes it 
is found entirely enclosed in a separate little building 
known as a pump-house (-'ouze). Some farms are found to 
possess both a well and a pump-house, either entirely 
separate or else connected by means of a pipe from the one 
to the other. 1 While it is no uncommon thing to find two, 
three, or even more pumps in different spots on the same 
farm. When not in a separate pump-house, the pump is 

1 Mr. R. P. Chope informs me that on one of his farms the pump is 
supplied by a pipe from the well, which is at least 100 yards away, though 
the pump is in this case a modern addition. . 

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usually to be found in the back-house or she-house, which 
we shall deal with later in Part II. 

Another familiar object, which still exists on many- 
farms, is the uppingstock (uppinstock)-^known also in 
different parts of the county as hepping-stock, lepping-stock 
(? leaping), lifting-stock, and lighting-stock (? alighting) — 
a small flight of three or four stone steps, usually against a 
wall, from which horses were mounted. In the old days of 
- the pillion, when a farmer's wife or daughter rode behind 
him on a cushion attached to the saddle, the uppinstock 
was in daily use ; even now, the ladies of the household, 
who still ride side-saddle, if any are to be found, would find 
it almost impossible to mount unaided without it. There 
were often two uppinstocks to be found on the same farm, 
one near the front entrance, the other near the back. If the 
farm-house were enclosed within a garden, the uppinstock 
would be built against the garden wall, but in the case of 
houses which opened directly on to the road, such as most 
old country inns and hostelries, it was usually placed 
against the main wall of the house, near to the main 
entrance. Sometimes the uppinstock stands by itself away 
from any wall, it has thus the advantage of being able to be 
used by either side for mounting or dismounting. When 
mellowed by age, as most of them now are, with the cracks 
and joints in their masonry overgrown with moss and 
stonecrop, these old uppinstocks are a most picturesque 
feature, and a pleasing reminder of old country life. 

To certain farms, situated near rivers and streams, it was 
not uncommon to find a mill attached, the farmer being his 
own miller. A certain number of the old waterwheels still 
exist, though few, if any, farmers now do their own milling. 
But the wheel is still made use of to supply the power to 
work the thrashing-machine, etc., in place of the round- 
house with horse-gear. 

In a few cases, where there was no water-power handy, 
a windmill took the place of the waterwheel ; but these 
do not ever appear to have been so common in Devon as in 
other parts of the country, and only a very few remain, in a 
more or less ruined state, at the present time. 

To return to the dwelling-house : A small wicket gate 
leads directly from the home-meadow into the front 
garden, with its straight path up the centre, formerly 
paved with flags or cobble-stones, but now usually of 
gravel or cinders. There are long rectangular flower- 


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borders on either side, running parallel with the path* 
edged with box neatly clipped to about one foot from the 
ground. These flower-borders are about four feet in 
width, and beyond them on either side is a square grass 
plat, in the centre of which are small beds either round or of 
some more fantastic design, such as a heart, diamond, star, 
and not unfrequently a lovers knot, from which latter the 
name of flower-nais, by which they are usually known, is 
probably derived. 

These flower-beds are the pride and joy of the good 
farmer's wife, and are carefully tended by her loving hands. 
It is here that we shall find still the old-fashioned flowers 
beloved by our grandparents, whose quaint local names 
alone fill one with a delightful sense of homeliness, such as 
Polyanthums, BuMer-and-eggs, Backlisses, Bliddy -warriors, 
Clove- jilanfers, Bunny-rabbits, Bloomy-downs, Money-in- 
both-pockets or Silks-and-satins, Scarlet-lightnin 9 , Bachelor's- 
buttons, Grannie 9 s-nightcaps, Duck-bills, Snow-on-ihe-moun- 
tains, and Golden-dust, to name just a few of the most 

The garden is, as I said, usually walled in on both sides, 
being open (that is with a low wall or fence) only in front. 
And in addition to the flowering plants one is almost 
certain to find small bushes' of box, holly, yew, or other 
evergreen, closely trimmed and cut into various shapes to 
represent familiar objects, animate or inanimate, such as 
peacocks, horses, tables, tops, and the nodding plumes on 
old-fashioned funeral hearses, to which latter the monkey- 
puzzle tree (found in most farm-house gardens) also bears 
a strong resemblance. Plate II. gives a fairly good idea of 
this topiary work. 

The front of the house is covered with hardy creepers of 
various sort, such as ivy, Virginian-creeper, Wistaria, 
Summer-rose, Jessamy, Quincy, etc. While the massive 
stwonen porch is covered on one side with Honeysuckle 
and on the other with the old-fashioned Monthly Rose, 
than which is no rose more sweet. 

At the back of the house is a small inner court, known'as 
the booklet, and a small gate leading out of this will bring us 
into the kitchen-garden, which is also walled all round. 
And where the walls are of cob, they have a covering of 
thatch on the top, which serves not only to protect the 
walls from damp but also affords shelter and protection 
from frost to the fruit-trees trained against it, as the 

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thatch projects one foot or more from the top of the 

In one corner of the kitchen-garden the good Dame 1 
grows her choice 'arbs : Sage, Mint, Thyme, Rue, Marjoram 
Same, Penny-royal for making Organ-lay, Lavender, Rose- 
mary, Bwoys'love, and Bergamot. While near by will be 
found her row of bee-butts, each in a small dome-shaped 
recess, known as a bee-hole, which are hollowed out of the 
cob-wall, its thickness admitting of this. This protects the 
bee-butts (which are the old-fashioned straw sleeps) from 
wind and rain. Each skep stands on its own pedestal, 
which is in the form of a toadstool ; and where are no 
bee-holes, the skeps are protected from rough weather by 
having an inverted sheaf of straw, known as a hat, placed 
over them. 

The rest of the kitchen-garden is the farmer's own 
special province. Whatever else he may or may not do 
with his own hands on the farm, he is almost certain to till 
his own bit of gearden ground, in which all the vegetables 
for his and his family's own consumption are grown. 

Just beyond the garden lies the orchet, which, with its 
mass of pink and white apple-blooth in spring, and its rosy- 
red fruit in autumn, adds so much to the beauty of the 

Having now described the immediate precincts of the 
farm-house, we will turn to the house itself : Though the 
general plan of the Devon farm-house is much the same 
throughout the county, the style of building varies con- 
siderably, no two houses being exactly alike (which feature 
applies to most buildings, whether in towns or in the 
country, prior to the nineteenth century). As one might 
naturally have expected, the technical niceties and refine- 
ments of the various styles which prevailed at different 
periods in the history of our country, affected the country 
builders but little in comparison with those in the towns. 
Still they could not help being influenced to a certain 
extent by them. Thus we find in these old farm-houses 
rough, though none the less picturesque, examples of the 
various styles in vogue from about the fourteenth to the 
nineteenth centuries. 

1 In olden days the farmer's wife was always styled Dame, not only by 
het servants, but also by her husband, while she addressed him as 
Farmer. Just as now he usually refers to her as the Missus, and she to 
him as Maister. 

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Not unfrequently these buildings bear a date, inscribed 
on one of the stones, usually to be found over the porch or 
front entrance, sometimes over one of the windows, or on a 
stone in the projecting chimney-stack. It is unsafe, how- 
ever, to place too great reliance on these dates as being 
truly indicative of the year in which the house was 
originally built. In many cases the house, or the greater 
part of it, is far older (sometimes a couple of centuries) 
than the date it bears. For these dates have been added 
when the house has been renovated or enlarged at some 
later period. I know of one undoubted fifteenth-, possibly 
oven fourteenth-century farm-house, to which a Jacobean 
porch has evidently been added bearing the date 1685, but 
the main part of the building is at least two centuries 
earlier. On the other hand, a goodly number of dated 
farm-houses are much more modern than the dates they 
bear. This is accounted for by the fact that, when the old 
house, having been burnt down or allowed to fall more or 
less into ruins, was rebuilt, the old stones were generally 
made use of in building the new structure. And the stone 
bearing the date was again given a place of honour over 
the entrance door, not in all probability with any thought 
of deceiving the public as to the true date of the new 
structure, but merely from a sentimental desire to retain 
that which would serve as a guarantee for the antiquity of 
the original building as an ancient farm-stead. 

But even apart from these dated buildings, it is im- 
possible from the style of the building alone even approxi- 
mately to fix a date for a farm-house, as one may in the 
<$ase of buildings in towns. For later styles had often been 
in vogue for many years in the towns before they exercised 
any influence whatever on the country builders. This is not 
surprising when one reflects upon the very limited means 
of transport and communication between London and 
other large towns and the country districts prior to the 
nineteenth century. And particularly does this apply to 
the west-country, where most of the roads were mere pack- 
horse tracks. In addition to which one must take into 
account the innate conservatism of the country folk and 
their extreme distaste for any departure from the customs 
and practices of their forefathers. " Wat was glide 'miff 
vor they be glide 'nuff vor we! " has always been their 

Consequently we find them still holding to a style in 


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their buildings which had gone out of fashion in London 
and other big towns at least half a century earlier. For 
instance, the well-known Tudor and Jacobean styles 
(which practically merged into one another in the case of 
farm-houses), with massive stone porch and gabled roof, 
which had been discarded in the towns before the close of 
the seventeenth century, at any rate for mansions and 
public buildings, in favour of the pseudo-classical style of 
Sir Christopher Wren and his school, we find still lingering 
in the country nearly a hundred years later. While the 
plain square Georgian style did not come into general 
vogue, in Devon at any rate, until about 1800, and con- 
tinued till 1860 or later. 

As, however the Tudor-Jacobean style is the most 
typical, as well as the most picturesque, of the old Devon 
farm-house, I shall take this as my example for illustration. 

Unfortunately the old farm-house in this style with 
which I was personally best acquainted has long since been 
pulled down, and none of the illustrations I am able to give 
contain all the features I wish to describe. Still they give 
a fair idea of certain types of old Devon farm-houses still 
standing. / 

(And here I should like to acknowledge my indebtedness 
to Messrs. Whitton and Laing, Exeter, for their kind loan 
of the blocks for these illustrations, also to the owners of 
the farms for their kind permission to reproduce them.) 

The material with which the old farm-houses were built 
varied according to the district. On Dartmoor, for instance, 
where granite is easily obtained, and where the soil (a 
mixture of peat and granite-detritus) is quite unsuitable 
for making cob, the farm-houses were invariably built 
entirely of granite, the stone being only very roughly faced, 
unpointed, and rarely plastered. Sometimes the buildings 
were whitened over, but as a rule the stone was left bare. 
While most of the in-country farms, wherever the soil was 
suitable, were built of cob, 1 a mixture of loam and straw, in 
general use in the west-country for building, not only 
farm-houses, cottages, walls, and out-buildings, but even 
good-sized town residences, up to the middle of the nine- 
teenth century. Most of the farm-houses and town houses 
were stuccoed and whitened or coloured, but many of the 

1 As the practice of cob -walling has been discontinued for some years, 
and is only remembered by the older generation, a short description of 
the process will be found in the Appendix II. 

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smaller cottages were left unplastered, and often un- 

The walls of these old cob houses vary considerably in 
thickness, from 2 ft. to as much as 4 ft. 6 in., according to 
the age of the building. As a rule, the thicker the walls, 
the older the building. They are rarely less than 2 ft. 6 in., 
while the average /thickness would be about 3 ft. 

This thickness of -the older cob-walls made it possible for 
deep recesses to be cut in them, often 2 ft. or more in 
depth, without in any way weakening the structure. 
Sometimes the bee-holes, already described, are found in 
one of the main walls of the house when there is no cob- 
wall in the garden. While close under the auvis, over 
which the thatch projects to a considerable distance, will 
be found in a row, sometimes in two rows, several small 
rectangular or dome-shaped holes for pigeons or doves, 
which take the place of the well-known and picturesque 
stone culver-house or wooden dove-cote fixed in the fork of 
a, tree or on a separate stand, these latter being seldom seen 
in Devon. 

The windows of these old farm-houses seem ridiculously 
small, according to modern ideas, for the size of the rooms. 
They are deeply splayed in the walls, the latter projecting 
1 ft. or more on the outer, and 2 or even 3 ft. on the inner 
side of the window. In the larger farm-houses there are 
often two windows to each room. Occasionally one of 
these will be in the form of a rectangular or semicircular 
bay, but as a general rule all the windows are flat and do not 
project beyond the main walls of the house. The number 
of lights in each window varies from two to four or even 
five, three being perhaps the most usual , number. The 
lights are latticed, each light being composed of a number 
of small square or diamond-shaped panes of glass, termed 
quarrels, fixed in lead-work, while the outer frame of each 
fight is usually of iron. The whole window is set in a 
massive frame of stone (in the case of a stone building) or 
of oak (in the case of a cob building) carved or moulded, 
and each light is divided from the next by a heavy mullion 
of the same material as the window-frame (i.e. stone or 
oak), also carved or moulded. As a rule one or two of the 
lights are made to open, casement-wise, but in some of the 
smaller farms and cottages it is by no means uncommon 
to find the windows have been fixed in and cannot be 
opened at al^ For fresh air in those days was evidently 

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not considered so essential to health as it is now. However, 
as there were rarely less than three doors to each room in 
addition to the large open chimney, the need of ventilation 
from the windows was not felt in the same degree as it 
would be in a modern house. 

Unfortunately a large number of these picturesque old 
windows have perished, and have been replaced by ugly 
modern casement windows with wooden framing, which 
look hideously out of place against the ancient mullions. 
While more often than not the mullions themselves have 
been removed, and still more incongruous sash window* 
frames put in their place. Only in fairness one must add 
that what they have lost in picturesqueness they have gained 
in light. It will be seen that in all the four illustrations the 
old windows have been replaced by modern casements. 

The windows of the upper rooms were similar to those of 
the lower, only smaller, and were frequently built out from 
the roof dormer-fashion, in which case they were known as 

It is rare to find a farm-house in Devon of more than 
two storeys, though a few of the larger structures, espe- 
cially those built in old Georgian and early Victorian days, 
have a third storey, but these rooms are rarely more than 
attics or garrets. In many two-storeyed houses, though, 
the space between the ceilings of the upper storey and the 
roof is used for storage purposes, this space being known 
as the cock-loft, or cock-lart. 

The chimneys of these old farm-houses are almost 
invariably built of stone, or of brick in districts where stone 
was not easily procurable. They are pointed, and some- 
times plastered over, but more usually left unplastered. 
When built against an outside wall, they project at least 
2 ft. from the wall. They strike one as very large and 
massive in comparison with the chimney-stacks of modern 
buildings. They are usually square or rectangular in form 
(as in Plate II.). But in West Somerset in the district of 
Porlock and Minehead, that part of the chimney-stack 
which appears above the roof, known as the tun, is almost 
invariably built in a cylindrical form, which is worthy of 
notice. Another remarkable feature in this same district 
is the old stone or brick ovens, which are built out at one 
side of the base of the chimney-stack, having a distinct 
tiled roof of their own, and often a small window consisting 
of a single pane of glass let into the masonry} 

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The roof of almost every farm-house, cottage, and out- 
building in Devon was, up to the middle of the nineteenth 
century, invariably thatched. Many hundreds still remain 
so ; though a large number have been re-roofed with 
tiles or slate, and some, horribile dictu ! with corrugated 

The art of thatching, 1 which has completely died out in 
most parts of the country, is still practised to a very 
limited extent in these western counties; but only to 
repair old thatched buildings. No new farm-houses are 
ever thatched. The work of the thatcher is, however, still 
in considerable demand by a certain class of people of 
independent means, who desire to imitate, so far as 
possible, the old style, and have their houses built accord- 

Unlike the thatching of ricks, which is usually done by 
the farmer himself or by one of his labourers, the thatching 
of houses and buildings is an art in itself, requiring special 
training and skill. And the Datcher, if he was smart at his 
work, could always earn good wages ; while at the present 
day he can ask almost what he likes, having little or no 
competition against him. 

The last feature to be noticed, before leaving the 
exterior of the house, is the large wide stone porch, sup- 
ported either by solid masonry (as in Plates III. and IV.), 
or by two stout pillars of stone or wood, the sides being left 
open. Within the porch, on either side as one enters, are 
wide stone seats, on which the farmer and his friends are 
wont to sit of a summer evening, smoking their pipes and 
drinking their cider, while discussing the state of their 
respective crops and other matters agricultural. 

In the later style of farm-house, the " country-Georgian " 
style, if one may so term it, the porch is rarely carried 
further than the level of the ceilings of the ground-floor 
rooms, and is usually a far lighter built structure. But in 
the earlier Tudor- Jacobean style (as figured in Plates III. 
and IV.), the porch is invariably carried up some distance 
above the level of the eaves of the house, having a 
separate gabled roof and containing a small room over the 
entrance lobby, known as the porch-room ; which is some- 
times used as a bedroom, but more often as a lumber-room 
or other storage place. 

1 See Appendix III. 


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One may aften see an old iron or brass sundial affixed 
to the wall immediately above the stone porch. 

The massive vore-door, about 6 ft. in height by 5 ft. in 
width, is usually of stout oak some 2 to 3 in. thick, some- 
times two thicknesses of wood are clamped together. The 
door is studded all over with large iron square or rose- 
headed nails, and furnished with a heavy iron knocker, 
often of quaint and fantastic design ; bells being quite 
unknown, except as a modern addition, in farm-houses. 
The door is hung gate-fashion, i.e. with two large iron crooks 
and eyes, known as hangin 9 -crooks. The door-frame is 
usually of the same wood as the door itself, the two side- 
posts being known as the durns, and the cross-piece at the 
top as the lintern. Both the durns and lintern are as a rule 
quite 1 ft. in width and nearly that in thickness, being 
sometimes plain square blocks, but more usually carved or 
moulded like the window-frames and mullions we have 
lately noticed. The door-frame is completed by a narrow 
wooden sill fixed to the ground and also to the base of the 
durns on either side, raised about 2 in. from the ground 
and placed in front of the door. This was no doubt 
originally intended for the purpose of keeping out the 
draught,* dust, and dirt, and not improbably snakes, toads, 
rats, snails, and other vermin from so easily entering the 
house. For it must be borne in mind that the entrance to 
these old farm-houses is usually on a level with the ground 
outside, and occasionally a foot or so below it, so that it 
was needful to have some form of protection beneath the 
outer door. This wooden sill is known as the drexal, 
drashel, or druck-stool. 

The hapse and staple, by which the door is opened, are 
of wood, and are on the inner side of the door ; the hapse 
(being a simple bar of wood) is lifted from the outside 
through a small round hole into which the finger is inserted, 
or sometimes by means of a piece of cord or a leathern shoe- 
lace passed through a still smaller hole above the hapse, to 
which it is attached. While on the inner side of the door 
is also fixed a heavy iron bolt which is shot into a large 
iron staple driven into the durn against which the door 
shuts. I have seen instances in which the bolt consists of a 
detachable wooden bar passing across the whole width of 
the door and fitting into a hole in the wall on one side and 
an iron staple at the other, a simple contrivance, but 
probably one of the most effective ways of barring the 

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I The Old Dkvox Farm-house.— To face p. 177. 


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The Old Devon Farm-housk.— To face p. 177. 


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door against unlawful intruders. 1 If a lock is found at all 
on the door, it is one of the large type found on church 
doors, the key being proportionately large and weighty. 

Sometimes there is a haU>door, known as the hatch or 
half-hatch, immediately in front of the big vore-door, which, 
when the latter is open, serves th$ double purpose of 
keeping dogs, fowls, etc., from entering the house and of 
keeping the small children within doors. 


Life-hold System of Tenure. 

The system of tenure upon which farms, cottages, and 
agricultural land, and even much property in towns, was 
held in Devon up to quite recent times, was that known as 
the Life-hold System. A system by which each parcel of 
land, comprising one or more farms, was leased, either 
privately or at an agricultural auction (called locally a 
survey), by the owner to the highest bidder (the owner 
having fixed a reserve price) for the period of Three Lives, 
agreed upon by the owner and tenant. 2 This period, how- 
ever, was not to exceed the term of ninety-nine years, 
should any one of the three parties nominated by the 
tenant survive that period. This, of course, in the case of 
the original three Lives, was of exceedingly rare occurrence. 
Though it has been known in a few cases where one of the 
original nominees (usually the son or grandson of the 
original tenant) was an infant at the time of his or her 
nomination (for the law allowed the nomination of infants 
as well as adults), and succeeded in reaching the ripe age of 
ninety-nine years, or over. Marshall 3 quotes an instance 
in which the lessee, at the expiration of the term of ninety- 
nine years, tendered his lease in person to the descendant 
of him from whom his own ancestor had received it. 

So long as any one of the three Lives nominated by the 
original tenant survived, the holding was literally the 

1 Mr. R. Pearse Chope informs me that the south door of Hartland 
Church is fastened in this way, but the bar fits into a hole in the wall at 
each side, and slides back into the hole on the left. 

2 If a young man, the tenant not ^infrequently put his own life as one 
■df the three, still more frequently that of his son. 

8 Rural Economy of West of Eng., 1796, Vol. I., p. 64. 

VOL. Ln M 

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property of that tenant and his heirs, and the ori,ginal land- 
owner had no power to interfere in any way, however ill- 
managed the land or the farms might be, and in whatever 
state of disrepair the houses might be allowed to fall into. 
At the death of the last of the three nominees, if no fresh 
Lives had been put op, the property automatically reverted 
to the original owner or his descendants, precisely as in the 
case of the ordinary leasehold system of to-day when the 
term of years agreed upon has expired. 

The whole system was more or less of a gamble, or game 
of chance. Sometimes within the lifetime of the original 
tenant, all three of his nominees might pre-decease him, 
and there are cases on record where no fewer than three 
whole sets of Lives, i.e. nine persons, have become extinct 
before the expiration of the original term of ninety-nine 
years. Thus the landowner and his heirs reaped the 
benefit of three separate leases of the same estate during 
that period. 

But by far the more usual practice was that of Renewal 
of Lives. That is to say, the original tenant or his heir 
had the option of putting in fresh Lives as the preceding 
ones dropped off, the landowner receiving a " fine/' or 
adequate recompense, for the addition of a fresh Life, 
or Lives. 

Not unfrequently also the practice of Changing a Life 
was resorted to, when the life of any one or more of the 
nominees was no longer considered to be a satisfactory one, 
either by reason of age or infirmity. In this case a fresh 
Life, almost invariably a younger one, was exchanged for 
the old one, also on payment of a fine to the landowner, the 
fine in this case being smaller than that paid on the 
renewal after the death of an old Life. 

When the three Lives were all surviving, the property 
was said to be " full-stated." 

In, later times, a more business-like practice arose of 
insuring one or more of the Lives, so that the element of 
risk or uncertainty was eliminated. 

This Life-hold system of tenure continued in practice 
down to a quite recent period, well within living memory. 
It is possible there may still be instances where the Lives, 
on which certain properties were leased, are not yet all 
extinct. But I believe the practice of Renewal of Lives is 
now quite obsolete. While most of the landowners have 
" bought out " the existing Lives, and now let their farms 

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upon the usual system of an annual rent, with or without 
leases for a term of years. 

The Life-hold system was very popular wjth the farmer ; 
for the land became, in a measure, his own property, and 
descended to his successors. But on the whole it was 
decidedly disadvantageous to the landowner, and to the 
community generally ; for if the farmer happened to be 
poor, negligent, and improvident, the farm was ill-managed, 
the land impoverished, and the produce deficient. And for 
these evils there was no remedy, as the landowner had no 
power to interfere. 



The material called cob, which was in general use in Devon 
and the surrounding counties for building all classes of 
houses (except large mansions), wherever the soil was 
suitable, is composed of earth and straw (barley-straw by 
preference) mixed together with water, like mortar, by 
being well beaten and trodden. The treading was usually 
done by men or boys, but occasionally by oxen. The straw 
was sometimes chopped up, but more usually merely 
pulled abroad and bruised with the hands. The earth 
nearest at hand was generally used, but it had to be a good 
heavy loam or clay-shillet, a light sandy soil being quite 
unsuitable for making cob. 

The method of building a cob wall is as follows :* A good 
foundation of stone-work is laid, carried usually to about* 
one or two feet, but sometimes as high as five or six feet 
above the ground level ; and the higher the stone- work is 
carried the better, as it elevates the co&-work from the 
moisture of the ground. Two men were usually employed 
in building a cob wall, the one standing by the heap of 
mixed earth and straw would lift it on to its place on the 
top of the stone-work in clats or lumps with a pick or a 
dung-evil; while the other man, standing on the wall, 
would arrange it by treading it down into place. 

The older method, in use from mediaeval times until about 

1 Much of this information is gleaned from an article written by the 

Rev. W. T. E (whoever he may have been) in 1832, and published in 

J. C. Loudon's Encycl. of Architecture, 1833, pars. 838-40. 


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1820, consisted in simply piling up the cob, leaving good 
edges on either side to be pared off afterwards with a spade, 
shovel, or cob-parer. After the wall was raised to a certain 
height, it was allowed some days, often weeks, to settle and 
dry, before more was laid on. The first course, or rise as it 
was generally termed, was about four feet in height, the 
next not so high, and so every succeeding rise was dimin- 
ished in height as the work advanced. It was usual to 
pare down the sides of each successive rise before another 
was added to it. The walls built according to this method 
were very thick, often as much as 4 ft. and rarely less than 
3 ft. in thickness, the outer surface being rough and often 
very uneven and out of the true. 

The more modern and improved method of co6-walling 
-employed from about 1820 to 1860 is that known as " box- 
ing." In which either two long planks, laid parallel so as to 
form a bottomless trough, 2 ft. in width, or else a number 
of smaller wooden moulds, about 3 ft. long by 2 ft. wide 
by 2 ft. deep, were placed on the wall, side by side. Into 
these moulds the cob was pitched, the man standing 
inside the mould treading it down until it was filled, 
when the same process was repeated with the next mould, 
the* ends of the moulds being made to slide up so as to 
allow the cob in each to unite with that in the next. The 
moulds were left resting on the wall for twenty-four 
hours at least, when they were slid up, leaving the cob 
in a solid mass. It was not, of course, possible to do 
more than one rise in a day ; and the length of time taken 
in drying depended on the weather. In very dry seasons, 
it would be fit for another rise at the end of twenty-four 
hours, but as a rule it was left for two or three days to 
settle. A little rain would not hurt it, but should there 
come a spell of continued wet weather, the work had to be 
suspended altogether for the time, and some temporary 
water-proof covering (often a rough thatching of straw or 
reed) placed on the top of the unfinished work. For a cob 
wall must never be allowed to get really wet on the top, 
or the damp will soak into it, causing it to swag, and 
ultimately to crack. The solidity and durability of cob 
walls depends largely upon their not being hurried or 
allowed to get damp in the process of making them. 
When the work could be resumed, the moulds were again 
placed on the top of the last rise, and the same process 
gone through until the desired height of the wall was 

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reached, when it was ready for the roof-timbers and 
thatch to be laid on. The walls built according to this 
" boxing " method were rarely more than 2 ft. in thickness, 
and needed little or no paring, as the moulds kept them 

The walls of cob houses were usually plastered on the 
outside about twelve months after completion, and were 
then whitened or coloured. But not unfrequently in the 
case of cottages, and almost invariably in the case of out- 
buildings and garden walls, the cob surface was left 
unplastered, and was not always even whitened. There 
is indeed no need to plaster a cob wall, provided the stone 
foundation is sound and the roof water-tight, according 
to the old saying : "A cob wall with a, good hat and a 
good pair of shoes will last for ever." The cob in its 
finished state naturally retains more or less the colour of the 
earth of which it is composed. Thus in districts where the 
soil is of a rich red or reddish-brown hue, e.g. around 
Exeter, Teignmouth, Dawlish, etc., the unplastered and 
unwhitened coft-walled cottages and buildings lend a 
particularly pleasing and picturesque effect to the general 

The chimneys were rarely, if ever, built of cob, but 
always of granite or other stone, or of brick in districts 
where stone was not easily procurable. But with regard 
to the doors, windows, and recesses for cupboards (of 
which there were always many) in co&-walled houses : 
When the older method of " piling " the cob was employed, 
the linterns only of the doors, windows and recesses were 
put in as the work advanced (allowance being made for 
their settling), being bedded on cross pieces, the walls 
being then carried up solid. The respective openings 
were cut out, and the door and window-frames, etc., 
inserted after the work was well settled. This practice, 
no doubt, accounts in a large measure for the varied size 
and general unevenness of the door and window openings 
in the older co&-wall buildings, hardly any two windows 
being of the same size even in the same house, and the 
upper windows being rarely directly over the lower ; 
which features lend to these old buildings a quaint charm 
of simplicity and homeliness, which the modern-villa, 
with its machine-made doors and windows, all cut to one 
exact measurement, utterly lacks. The roof timbers and 
the beams supporting the joists for the upper-room floors 

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were imbedded in the co&-work, the ends of these beams 
being frequently visible from outside, sometimes even 
projecting 6 in. or more from the wall. The thatch was 
always brought well over the auvis, so as to form a good 
protection from damp. 

The average cost of building a cob wall was, up to 1820, 
about 3s. 6d. per yard, i.e. rod or perch, of walling 3 ft. in 
height by 2 ft. 6 in. in width or thickness. 

There has been some talk of reviving the industry of cob- 
making on more modern lines, in view of supplying in some 
degree, in districts where it is suitable, the crying need for 
net*r cottages. A most interesting and instructive paper 
on this subject was read before this Association last year 
by Mr. T. J. Joce. 1 

It is certainly the most picturesque of building materials, 
and anyone who has had the good fortune to live in one, 
can truly appreciate the comfort — the warmth in winter and 
the coolth in summer — of a coft-walled house. And I venture 
to think most Devonians would welcome a resuscitation of 
this old, and now almost forgotten, method of building. 



The material most used in Devon for the thatching of 
houses and out-buildings is wheat straw, which when used 
for this purpose is always termed reed. It must be 
unbruised, that is to say, it must not have been passed 
through a thrashing-machine. An old thatcher tells me 
that the best reed is obtained from wheat reaped in the old- 
fashioned way by hand, with the sickle or reap-hook ; as 
reaping-machines and self-binders tend to a certain extent 
to bruise the straw, and at the same time longer straw is 
obtained by hand-reaping, as the machines do not cut it 
off so close to the ground. 

After the wheat has been bound up into sheaves, instead 
of being made into a rick or mow (pronounced moo), either 
thrashed or unthrashed, these sheaves are piled up loose 
and stored in the barn or some other convenient place of 
shelter until thoroughly dry. Later on, usually during the 

1 See " Cob Cottages for the Twentieth Century," Traris. Devote 
A999C., 1919. Vol. LI., pp. 169-74. 

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winter, the corn is separated from the straw in one of two 
methods. That most usually practised now being to take 
•each sheaf, or as much as can be comfortably grasped with 
the two hands, and beat the heads on the barn's floor, or 
-against a special wooden frame, something like a horse on 
which logs are laid to be sawed up, termed a whipper, until 
most of the grain is beaten out ; care being taken not to 
bruise the straw. When this method is adopted, the empty 
ears are usually left on the straw. The older method was 
to cut off the ears of corn altogether and then thrash out 
the grain with the drasMe or vlail. The advantage of the 
former method being that loager straw was obtained when 
the ears were left on, while in the latter method there was 
less chance of the straw being bruised. 

The straw is then laid out on the floor and combed out, 
either by hand with a reed-comb, or by a machine called a 
reed-comber or reed-maker, in order to separate the short 
straw from the long, and to get it all of one length. The 
combed straw, or reed as it would now be termed, is then 
done up into small sheaves called wads or nicky-wads. 

If required for home use, the reed was stored in wads 
until the services of the thatcher (datcher) could be 
obtained. But if intended for sale, the wads were done up 
in larger bundles called knitches, often written nitches in 
bills of sale, six wads going to make up one knitch. And it 
was sold at so much per knitch of reed, or per dozen 

In preparing the roof of a new building for its first 
thatching, the joists are fixed in the usual manner as for a 
tiled or slated roof, but the rafters are laid horizontally 
instead of up and down. The thatcher works upwards 
from the auvis (eaves) to the ridge. He usually moistens the 
reed by sprinkling water on it, so that it can be packed 
more tightly and securely. He starts his work at the right- 
hand corner, and works from right to left, standing on a 
ladder placed against the wall of the building. He usually 
lias an assistant or tender to hand him up the wads of reed, 
which he does either by hand or with a prang. The first 
lain (layer) of reed is sewed to the rafters with tar-cord, 
worked through or around the wads of reed by a long flat 
needle, known as a datcher' s niddle. While at the auvis the 
toads are fixed by specially made wall-crooks, and are made 
to project at least a foot from the wall, so as to afford a 
good protection to the top of the co6-wall, and also to 

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ensure that the drip from the roof shall fall clear of the 
wall (for iron shutes to carry off the water were quite 
unknown in the old days, though one sometimes sees them 
now as a modern addition to thatched houses, where they 
look hideously out of place). Each successive lain of toads 
is fixed to the lower one by spars or spears (made from 
sticks of halse or withy, most commonly the latter, termed 
spar -gads). 

The ridge is put on last, after both sides of the roof are 
thatched. It is formed by bending the reed over the top 
and securing it by spears and rods on the top of the thatch 
on both sides. The rods are generally placed diagonally, 
but not as a rule in any definite pattern as they are in some 
districts. The ends of the ridge, over the gables, are in 
Devon usually rounded off, but in the Minehead and 
Porlock district they are sharply pointed and closely 
resemble the stern of a ship. 1 The gable-end of a house is 
spoken of us the pwointing-end or puggen-end, both 
probably being corruptions of pinion (Fr. pignon, a 

To return to the thatcher : his tools are few and simple. 
He remains on his ladder against the house so long as he 
can reach to fix his wads of reed, but after he has progressed 
some distance up the roof, he can no longer reach his work 
from the ground-ladder. He then places upon the new 
thatch a small ladder-like wooden frame, having two or 
three flat rungs and two long tings (prongs) at right-angles 
to the frame to give him foothold. On this he stands or 
kneels, shifting it higher and higher as he advances up the 
roof. This frame is usually known merely as a datcher's 
ladder, but in some districts it is termed standing-bittles or 
standing-battles. The thatcher knocks in his spears with a 
datcher's bittle, or battle, a small wooden mallet, similar in form 
to the large heavy bittle used for cleaving wood. Or else he 
drives the spears in with his hand, wearing for this purpose 
a stiff pad of leather to protect the palm of his hand. While 
to protect his knees he wears a pair of stout leathern knee- 
caps, or else a pair of strads covering the whole of the front 
part of the leg and coming up over the knees. When he 
has completed one side of the roof, he pares down the 
thatch with a datcher's hook, so as to get an even and suent 
surface, paring it always in a downward direction from the 

1 There is a tradition that the idea was taken from a Viking ship 
which was wrecked in Porlock Bay many centuries ago. 

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ridge to the auvis, so that each reed-mote becomes a verit- 
able miniature waterspout ; and so long as the thatch 
remains sound, there is no possibility of water coming 
through the roof. Finally he presses and smooths it down 
with a smoothing-board. . 

When a roof which has already been thatched requires 
re-thatching, so long as the timberwork is sound, it is 
not usual to remove the first covering of thatch, but to lay 
the fresh one on the top of it in the manner already 
described. The thatcher first combs down the old thatch 
with a small hand-rake or a reed-comb, to remove all moss 
or other vegetable growth, also badly decayed reed. He 
then fills up all holes thus left by packing them up with 
fresh reed, so as to get a level surface for laying on the new 
thatch. And so on with each successive layer. In old 
buildings it is no uncommon thing to find three, four, five, 
and even six layers of thatch one over the other on the 
same roof. They can often be counted by looking up under 
the auvis or at the gable-ends. 1 This piling on of successive 
layers for an almost indefinite period can hardly be recom- 
mended, as the increase in weight of each fresh layer puts 
an additional strain on the timber-work and the walls, 
especially if of cob, which have got to bear them. Two, or 
at most three, layers is as much as it is reasonable to 
expect any roof-timbers to bear. 

If the reed be made from the best unbruised wheaten 
straw, and is well laid on, the thatch should last from 
twenty to thirty years without requiring anything further 
doing to it. But if straw of an inferior quality, or oat 
straw, be used, it will not last nearly so long. 

For picturesqueness and homely appearance, I think 
almost everyone will agree that, for a farm-house, cottage, 
or small country residence, nothing can compare with a 
good thatched roof. It has one great material advantage 
too, that it keeps the interior of the house far warmer in 
winter and cooler in summer than any other form of 
roofing. Its disadvantages are its comparatively short 
period of durability, and its greater liability to catch fire. 
Though I venture to think this latter evil has been much 
exaggerated ; and it will usually be found that, in the case 

1 I remember one old building at Moretonhampstead, part of my own 
house which was formerly a farm-house, on which the thatch (which was 
removed eleven years ago) was over six feet in thickness, and it was 
reckoned that it was at least two hundred years since the first layer had 
been put on. 

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of |quite 50 per cent, of thatched houses which have been 
burnt down, the fire has not originated in a spark from the 
chimney igniting the thatch, but from a beam supporting 
part of- the masonry of the chimney flue itself (which 
builders of old almost invariably put) catching fire ; it 
being more than likely that the house would have been 
burnt down just the same whether the roof had been 
thatched or not. 

But undoubtedly one of the chief reasons which deters 
many country people, the present writer amongst them, 
from retaining old thatch or putting on new, is the out- 
rageous premium demanded by the fire-insurance com- 
panies from the owners of thatched houses, who may wish 
to insure their property, 15s. per cent. I believe it is, as 
against about Is. 6d. for a slated roof ! This fact, added 
to the very high wages asked by the few thatchers still 
available, has unfortunately caused this once universal, 
and most picturesque, art of thatching to become, except 
in the case of repairs to old buildings, a mere luxury for the 
rich to indulge in. 



AppLE-BLOOTH=apple-blossom, blowth. 


Auvis=eaves. Often written office in old documents. 

A.-S. efese, a clipt edge of thatch. 
Back-house ('ouze)~a, scullery, or wash-house. In large 

farm-houses, the back-kitchen is a second kitchen, 

not a scullery or back-house. 
BACKLET=the outside back premises of a house., The 

small inner court or yard immediately outside the 

back-door of a farm-house. 
Bachelor's-buttons =a term applied to the double 

button-like varieties of several flowers, notably 

Ranunculus acris and Bellis perennis. 
Bame =local pronunciation of balm, Melissa officinalis. 
Barton =a large farm. Originally a rick-yard. A.-S. 

Bee-butt = bee-hive, particularly the straw skep. 
Bee-hole =a dome-shaped niche made in cob-walls for 

the reception of a bee-butt. 

Digitized by 



Bloody-wabbiobs (bliddy-waryers) =wall-flowers. Most 

commonly applied to the dark red variety. 
Bloomy-down =the Sweet-William, Dianihus barbatus. 
Bunny-rabbit = the Snapdragon, Antirrhinum majus. 
Butteb-and-eggs=(1) Common Toadflax, Linaria 

vulgaris ; (2) The double daffodil, Narcissus pseudo- 
narcissus, fl. pi. 
B wo y's-love= Southern wood, Artemisia abrotanum. 
•Cart-unhay (linney)=B, shed or shelter open in front 

only, in which carts and wagons are housed when not 

in use. 
-CAVE=a pit in a field in which potatoes or other root crops 

are stored during the winter, by being earthed up and 

thatched over. 
OHiCKET-wiNDOW=a dormer window. 
•CLAT=a clod or ball of earth. 
CLOVE-jiLATJFER==the clove-pink, Dianihus caryophyllus. 

Fr. girofle. 
<CoB=a mixture of loam, or clay-shillet 1 and straw, used 

for building. 
*CoB-PABEB=a special shaped knife used for paring down 

the edges of cob-walls so us to get a roughly true 

Cock-loft (-Zar£)=the space between the uppermost 

ceiling and the roof. 
CooLTH=coolness. Cp. dryth. 
CouBT=a farm-yard. 
Coubtledqe =all the yards and out-buildings appertaining 

to a farmstead. 
*Culveb-house (- 9 ouze)=a, pigeon-house, dove-cote. 
DAME=the mistress of a house. The term by which a 

farmer's wife was formerly addressed. 
Datcheb =thatcher. 
DATCHEB's-HOOK=a special hook used for paring down 

new thatch on a roof. 
Datcheb's-laddeb, or datchin' -ladder. See Standing- 

DATCHEB's-NiDDLE=a long flat needle used for sewing the 

first layer of thatch to the rafters. 
DiFPEB=a vessel in the shape of a bowl with a handle, 

frequently of copper, but now usually of enamel or 

galvanized iron. Used for dipping up water, cider, or 

any other liquid. 
JDowsEB=a diviner. 

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Dowsing = divining, the operation of searching for water,, 

or metal, with a hazel-rod. 
Drags =large heavy harrows. 
Drashel. See Drexal. 

Drexal = threshold. The sill of a door. 
Druckstool. See Drexal. 
Duck-bills = a common name for the plant Dielytra* 

Dung-evil =a dung-fork. 
DuRNS=the side posts of a door, jambs. 
Plower-nat =flower-bed. 
GEARDEN=a common pronunciation of garden, especially 

among the older generation. 
GoLDEN-DUST=the yellow Alyssum, A. saxatile. 
GRANNiB's-NiGHTCAP=the Columbine, Aquilegia. 
Half-hatch. Same as Hatch (q.v.) 
HALSE=hazel, made of hazel. 
HANGiN , -CR.ooKS=the crooks fixed into the faingin'-paust 

on which a gate, or large farm-house door, is hung. 
HAPSE=a hasp, door-latch. A.-S. hcepse. 
HAT*=an inverted sheaf of corn or straw, used as a covering 

for protection from wet. 
Hatch =the half -door often found in farm-houses and* 

Heppinstock. Same as Uppingstock (q.v.). 
Hind =a farm bailiff. 
Homer-field =literally the "homeward" field. The 

field which immediately adjoins the farm-house. 
Horse = a cross-legged frame on which small lengths of 

timber are laid to be sawn up into logs. 
In -country =a term denoting a farm situated in the vales 

as opposed to one on the moor. 
In-del=ui door. See Out-del. 
Jessamy = Jasmine. 
KNiTCH=a bundle of reed (q.v.), consisting of six wads^ 

Literally that which is knit together. 
Lain =a layer of reed laid on a roof in thatching. 
Leppingstock Same as Uppingstock (q.v.). 
Lifting-stock. Same as Uppingstock. 
Lighting-stock. Same as Uppingstock. 
Lights =the glazed spaces in a divided window. 
LiNTERN=lintel. The top part of a door-frame. 
Machine-house. Same as Round-house (q.v.). 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


MsTHEGLiN=meath, honey- wine. 
MoNEY-iN-BOTH-pocKETS=the plant Honesty, Lunaria 

biennis, in reference to the dried seed-vessels. 
Mow (pronounced % moo) =a rick or stack of corn, rarely 

used of hay. 
Mow-BARTON=a rick or stack-yard, an enclosure in 

which corn-ricks or mows only are stored, separate 

from the i&rm-court or courtledge. 
Mowhay (pronounced moo-y). Same as Mow-barton. 
Nicky-wads. Same as Wads (q.v.). 
NrrcH. Same as Knitch (q.v.). 
Orchet (archet) = orchard. 
Organ -tea (argin-tay) =a decoction made from the plant 

Pennyroyal, Mentha pulegium. 
Pick (or peek)=a, hay fork or prang. 
Pios , -LEWZE=a pigsty. 
Pillion (pronounced piUin)=a, saddle having a seat 

behind it on which a woman can ride. 
PLAT=plot, of ground, grass, etc. Also called splat. 
Plump-pit =the well from which water is drawn by a pump. 
PLUMP-TRAW=the trough at the foot of a pump. 
Pointing-end (pwointin-een)=the gable-end of a house. 
Polyanthums =Polyanthus. 
PoRCH-ROOM=the small chamber over the porch in old 

farm-houses. . 
Pound-house (-'o^ze) =the building in which the apples 

are pounded in cider-making. Also called Wring- 
Prang = a prong, a fork of any description, distinguished 

according to the number of prongs as a two-prang, 

dree-prang, vower-prang, or vaive-jtrang. 
Pump-house (-ouze) =the small building in which a pump 

is enclosed. 
Puggen-end. Same as Pointing-end. 
QuTNCY=the Japan Quince, Pyrus japonica. 
Quarrels (pronounced quarriels) = small square or 

diamond-shaped panes of glass, glazed with lead. 

O. Fr. quarrd. Mod. Fr. carreau. 
Racklisses = Auriculas. 
Reap-hook (raip-'ook)=a, large sickle, sharpened, jjiot 

Reed =unbruised wheat-straw used for thatching. 
Reed-comb =a small wooden comb, with iron teeth and a 

short handle, used for combing out reed for thatching. 

Digitized by 



Reed-comber =a machine for performing the same opera- 
Reed-maker. Same as Reed-comber. 
Reed-mote =a single reed or straw. Cp. Straw-mote 

(pronounced straw-mut). 
Scarlet-lightening ==£t/cA7iis chalcedonica. A popular 

Scuffle =a horse-hoe. 

SHippEN=a cow-house. A.-S. scy-pen, a stall. 
SHXJTE=a term used both for the open spouts around the 

eaves of a house, and also for the down-pipe from the 

Slee-house (-Wze)=a single room attached to a house, 

with a lean-to roof. 
Smoothing-board =a flat board with handle, used by 

thatchers for levelling down the new thatch, so as to 

get* an even surface. 
Snow-on -THE-MOUNTAiNS=the white Alyssum, A. mari- 

timum, also Arabia hirsuta. 
Spars =bent split sticks, used by thatchers to fasten down 

the reed. 
Spar-gads = stakes of hazel or rnthy, suitable for making 

Spears. Same as Spars. 
STANDiNG : BiTTLES=the ladder-like frame used by 

thatchers to stand upon the roof when thatching. 

Also called datchin' -ladder. 
Strads= stiff leathers worn over the front of the legs by 

hedgers, rabbit-trappers, etc. Kneestrads worn by 

thatchers cover the knee as well. 
STWONEN=made of stone. 
SuENT=even, level, smooth. 0. Fr. suant, Mod. Fr. 

Summer-rose = the double yellow Kerria japonica or 

Corchorus japonicus. 
Survey = an agricultural auction, principally for the sale 

of farms and farm-lands. 
SwAG=to sag or bulge, as of cob-walls. 
Tedder =a machine for turning and tossing hay. 
Tender =one who waits, or attends, on another, e.g. a 

mason's tender, one who hands him up bricks or stone 

and mortar. 
Tings =tines, prongs ; as of Drags, forks, etc. 
Traw= trough. 

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Tun =chimney-top ; that part of a chimney-stack which 

shows above the roof of a house. 
Turmet-house (-'o^2c)=a small chamber, or separate 

building, often circular, for storing turnips, mangel, 

Uppingstock (uppinstock)=a, horse-block, a short flight of 

steps from which horses are mounted. 
Vlail. Same as Dbashle (q.v.). 
Vore-door = frontdoor. 

WADS=small sheaves or bundles of reed for thatching. 
Waggon-linhay. Same as Cart-linhay (q.v.). 
Wall-crooks = special crooks for fixing thatch to the eaves 

of a house. 
WEEL=a well. 
WmppER=a wooden contrivance for beating out the corn 

from wheat-straw intended for thatching. 
Wimbing= winnowing. Also pronounced wlndin 9 . 
WiNK=a draw-well. 
Withy = various species of willow, Salix. 
YARD=a rod, pole, or perch of 16£ft., or 5 J ordinary 

cloth-yards ; the above being known as a land-yard 

(lanyard) when it is required to be distinguished from 

a cloth-yard. A yard of ground is this measure 

squared, and 160 yards go to the acre. The landyard 

is sometimes called a lug. 


zed by G00gk 



(Read at Totnes, 21st July, 1920.) 

During the last decade of his strenuous life Sir John 
Bowring evinced much interest in the recently founded 
Devonshire Association. Commencing his connection with 
the Society as President, at the first meeting, held at 
Exeter in 1862, he contributed an able Inaugural Address 
and took an active share in the proceedings, as he did also 
when the Association assembled again in the Cathedral 
city ten years later. Although the latter meeting took 
place only a few months before his death and he was then 
an octogenarian, he still brought to all his work the en- 
thusiasm of youth, his zeal for his three dominant interests 
— Philosophy, Social Science, and Philology — only deepen- 
ing as his experience increased, being apparently quite 
unaffected by the chilling influences of old age. During 
his later years he formed a warm friendship with William 
Pengelly, and it has been thought that some record of his 
life from the daughter of his friend might be of interest 
to the members generally. Although the present writer 
has no recollection of the philosopher, she learnt much 
concerning him through her father and from Sir John's 
second wife, Lady Bowring (who survived him thirty years), 
also from Mr. Lewin Bowring, a son of his first marriage, 
until recently a near neighbour and a valued representative 
resident of Torquay. 

Born at Exeter in October, 1792, the life destined to 
experience such great vicissitudes and to be marked by 
long journeys and public services in distant lands, was 
peacefully closed in 1872, after eighty years, in the city 
of his birth. A description of St. Leonard's, the suburb 
-of Exeter where he first saw the light, can be given in his 

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own words. He writes : " In the parish w*here I was born, 
and at the time when I was born in it, there was neither 
doctor nor lawyer, clergyman nor publican, tax-gatherer 
nor soldier. There was little disease to be cured by the 
physician, no squabbling to provide for the attorney, little 
vice to be reproved by the clergyman, no pothouse or 
tavern to encourage drunkenness, no riots to be suppressed, 
-and there being no paupers, there were no poor-rates to 
be collected. I have seen great changes in that happy 

The eldest son of Charles Bowring, an Exeter woollen 
merchant, and of his wife Sarah Lane (the daughter of a 
devout Cornish clergyman and sister of a favourite naval 
officer of Lord Collingwood), John Bowring was descended 
from a well-known Devonshire family, formerly of Bow- 
ringsleigh, near Kingsbridge. A Liberal in politics and an 
earnest Unitarian, he owed much to the precepts instilled 
in childhood into his mind by his parents and his paternal 
grandfather, a man of great independence of character and 
deeply religious sentiment. In early youth he also came 
under the teaching and moral influence of Dr. Lant 
Oarpenter, for whom he retained throughout life the 
warmest admiration. Receiving his early education at 
Moretonhampstead, neither the school nor the school- 
master appear to have afforded him any pleasant recollec- 
tions ; but, like most Devonians, Bowring had a strong 
love of Dartmoor, and he writes : 

" Our rambles were delightful. We were accustomed to 
trace the hill streams to their very source, to scramble over 
the rocks, and to visit the waterfalls, of which one — Becky 
Fall — has much local celebrity. There were, besides, 
numerous cromlechs, and I recollect Cranbrook Castle, 
a circle of stones, forming a vast encampment on a very 
elevated spot, down whose steep banks the most beautiful 
woodland scenery descends to the Teign below. The rivers 
which take their rise in the forest of Dartmoor glide or 
hurry through the most lovely varieties of mountain and 
valley, their clear streams bright and musical, and bordered 
with flowers. ... To trace them in their windings in the 
light-hearted days of healthful, joyous boyhood, that was 
indeed a bliss, and I felt — how often ! — all that I after- 
wards read in the finest passages of the * Excursion ' or 
' Childe Harold.' " 
r The striking talent for languages which he possessed was 


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evidenced even as a schoolboy, and rapidly developed 
during the immediately succeeding years. French he 
studied with a Catholic priest, one of the numerous refugees 
from the Revolution ; Italian was learnt from a vendor of 
mathematical instruments ; and Dutch, German, Spanish, 
and Portuguese were acquired through intimacy with mer- 
cantile friends. In addition to these six languages, which 
he spoke fluently, he had an accurate knowledge of the 
two important Scandinavian tongues, Danish and Swedish, 
and so thorough an acquaintance with Slavonic literature 
that he soon overcame all difficulties sufficiently to trans- 
late successfully the works of several Russian, Servian, 
Polish, and Bohemian writers. He was also an industrious 
student of Magyar, learnt Arabic during his Eastern jour- 
neys, and mastered that most difficult language Chinese 
in the years of his busy maturity. He is said to have had 
a thoroughly good knowledge of forty languages, and he 
himself stated that he knew two hundred slightly and 
could speak a hundred. This has been confirmed by state- 
ments from his son, heard by the present writer. Owing 
to these strenuous linguistic studies he sometimes found 
that he dreamt in languages other than English, and 
records, in later years, that his recollections of particular 
countries and special' studies did not at all times take the 
form of English phraseology. 

After adopting a mercantile career, he travelled for his 
firm in Spain and Portugal during 1813 and the two follow- 
ing years, and whilst in the Peninsula witnessed some of 
the stern realities of war. 

In 1816 his marriage with Maria Lewin took place, the 
union, which subsisted for upwards of forty years, proving 
exceptionally happy. During another long, absence on the 
Continent in 1819 and 1820 he visited France, Belgium; 
and Holland, and in Paris gained the friendship of Cuvier,. 
Humboldt, and many eminent scientists, politicians, and 
literary men, being charmed with the cultured atmosphere 
of the cosmopolitan capital. From this time onward it 
became the height of his ambition to do something which 
might connect his name with the literature of the age. In 
addition to his mercantile pursuits he soon made various- 
excursions into literature, which, although eminently 
successful, were doubtless detrimental to the prosecution 
of his business career. Journeying to Russia, Finland, and 
Sweden, where he was the guest of the poet Franzen,. 

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Bishop of Orebo, he published, immediately after his return 
to England, a small work entitled Specimens of the Russian 
Poets, which met with immediate success. 

His next expedition was to Spain, where he was detained 
in quarantine for some time, owing to a severe epidemic 
of fever prevailing throughout the southern provinces. 
In 1822, on revisiting Paris, he was still more unfortunate, 
as his friendship with the Duke of Orleans (afterwards 
Louis Philippe), with Lafayette, and various well-known 
politicians hostile to the elder branch of the Bourbons 
caused him to be suspected by the French Government 
and summarily imprisoned at Boulogne for some weeks, 
although he was ultimately released on the urgent demand 
of Mr. Canning. 

Writing of his Russian tour, he says : "At St. Peters- 
burg I acquired a knowledge of the Russian language 
sufficient to enable me to give the first specimens ever 
presented in English to the public. The first volume was 
successful. The second I wrote in 1822 while in Boulogne 
prison, and forwarded a copy to the Emperor Alexander 
who sent me a large amethyst ring surrounded with 

The young author now threw himself actively into 
literary pursuits, and the friendship formed with Jeremy 
Bentham about this time exercised a powerful influence on 
his career. In 1824 the Westminster Review was started, 
as an organ for disseminating the views of the Philosophical 
Radicals. John Bowring, who was joint editor, wrote 
various interesting papers on literary subjects and also 
contributed many political articles. To him faith in pro- 
gress and freedom was almost a religion and Hardly left 
room for his commercial activities, though stimulating his 
untiring devotion to various social movements. Of Jeremy 
Bentham his young disciple always wrote and spoke in the 
most enthusiastic terms. Bowring's own contributions to 
the Review were marked by profound learning, singular 
penetration, and philosophic acumen, and gained for him 
a great reputation as a political economist and parlia- 
mentary reformer. He was a staunch supporter of Popular 
Education, Catholic Emancipation, and Free Trade, and 
pleaded earnestly in the pages of the journal on behalf of 
these causes, to which he had long devoted especial atten- 
tion. Gifted with acute sensibility and a fearlessly logical 
mind, his apprehension seemed to be as keen as his memory 

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was tenacious, and his power of expression clear and 

Having undertaken government employment, he was 
despatched to Holland in 1828 to examine the Financial 
Department in that country, on which subject he furnished 
an able report, the first of a long series on the public 
accounts of various European States. These papers show 
great power in dealing with fiscal matters and arranging 
the facts clearly, and in consequence he received from the 
University of Groningen in 1829 the diploma of LL.D. In 
the following year he visited Denmark, occupying himself 
with the study and translation of Scandinavian poetry. 
The French Revolution of July, 1830, aroused his warmest 
interest, and he journeyed to Paris during the summer to 
offer to the French nation the congratulations of the people 
of London. He was warmly received by the Citizen King, 
Louis Philippe, with whom his intimacy was of long stand- 
ing. He also sympathized deeply with the declaration of 
independence by Belgium, although these sentiments gave 
some offence to his numerous Dutch acquaintances. 

He had brought out in 1823 the small volume of poems 
entitled Matins and Vespers, which has been widely read ; 
and, in addition to his published works, he wrote many 
pieces of fugitive sacred poetry. Probably his best known 
hymn, one which breathes especial spirituality and devo- 
tion, is that beginning : 

" In the Gross of Christ I glory, 

Towering o'er the wrecks of time, 
All the light of sacred story 

Gathers round its head sublime." 

The Servian Anthology, published in 1827, and also his 
translation from Polish Poets, issued shortly afterwards, 
both show growing power and beauty ; but a volume en- 
titled the Poetry of the Magyars proved less popular. His 
rapidly increasing reputation as a writer had already 
brought him to the notice of many distinguished men of 
letters, and he gives the following description of a visit to 
Abbotsford made in the spring of 1830 : "I could not 
resist the fascination of Sir Walter's repeated invitations, 
and nothing could exceed the kindness with which he has 
welcomed me. I found him writing for the * Waverley 
Novels,' but he locked up his manuscript, and has devoted 
to me every moment of his time. He has led me over his 

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grounds, talking of all possible things — his discourse rich, 
racy, and delightful. . . . He told me many interesting 
things respecting his novels, and the personages in them,, 
his interviews with the late Queen, the Princess Charlotte, 
.Burns, Byron, and others. More eloquent men I have 
known, I think, but I never knew anyone so attractive.' * 

Other literary associates and acquaintances included the 
poets Tom Hood and Tom Moore, the historian George 
Grote, and the essayists Charles Lamb, William Hazlitt, 
James Mill, and his son John Stuart Mill. 

Whilst revisiting France in 1832, Bowring was the guest 
of Lafayette, and writes to a correspondent from Lagrange : 
" I came here for a day or two, and send you a word from 
a spot so illustrious and attractive. The good old man, 
benign and gentle as a beautiful sunset, who could believe 
him to be the hero of two worlds — the bosom friend of 
Washington, Franklin, and Jefferson — the pole-star of 
three revolutions." 

The traveller also enjoyed the friendship of Lamartine 
and visited him at his beautiful estate, St. Pol. The 
illustrious French author, like Scott, had experienced great 
adversities, and he also had been led to incredible mental 
labours in endeavouring to meet them. Bowring had the 
highest admiration for his genius, and considered him to 
be amongst the most illustrious of Frenchmen, both in the 
field of letters and of politics. The society of Talleyrand 
was always greatly appreciated, and acquaintance with 
Louis Napoleon (afterwards Napoleon III) was made in 
the early days when he was living at Arenenberg with his 
mother, Hortense, the fascinating ex-Queen of Holland. 
The English author thought highly of the ability of 
Napoleon III, and some years later writes : "It is im- 
possible to deny that he succeeded in winning the suffrages 
of the great majority of the French people, and that he 
elevated his country to take the highest rank among the 
continental nations of Europe." 

Unsuccessful as a candidate for Parliament at the 
election at Blackburn after the Reform Bill, Bowring 
turned at this juncture all the more resolutely to his 
literary labours, and also resumed his journeys in France 
and Belgium. He was already well acquainted with 
Leopold I, whom he* saw frequently whilst in Brussels. 
Writing many years later, in 1868, he says : " I enjoyed 
more or less of intercourse with King Leopold during the 

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fifty years of his public life, and, not long before his death, 
had a most interesting conversation with him on his per r 
sonal history during that half century, in whose remarkable 
events he had taken so active and so useful a part. I had 
an occasion then particularly, as I had often had an oppor-. 
tunity before, of studying the grounds of that quiet and 
benign influence which he had so habitually exercised in 
the interests of peace." 

In 1835 Bowring was elected member for Kilmarnock, 
but was unseated two years later at the General Election 
after the death of King William IV. He gives some curious 
accounts of his electioneering experiences, and writes : 
" On two or three occasions, my supposed heterodoxy was 
thrown into the scale against me, and was sometimes urged 
in a somewhat amusing form. ... In one of the Clyde 
burghs, a letter was shown to me in which were these 
words : ' We will have a religious man to represent us, 
even if we go to hell to find him.' Everything seems 
allowed in the heated passions of an electoral struggle. I 
have seen myself placarded in Scotland as an atheist, an 
unbeliever, an unfaithful husband, and a disreputable head 
of a family. No small difficulties these for an Englishman 
seeking a seat for Caledonian burghs. ..." 

During his rest from parliamentary routine he prepared 
an elaborate edition, in several volumes, of the works of 
Jeremy Bentham, and was appointed head of a Govern- 
ment Commission to enquire into the state of commerce 
between England and France, afterwards engaging in 
similar investigations in Germany, Switzerland, and Italy, 
Courteously received by the Grand Duke of Tuscany, whom 
he accompanied in a visit to the Southern Provinces, he 
saw much of the country and the people, enjoyed the 
society of the* philologist Cardinal Mezzofanti, and was 
presented to Pope Gregory XVI, who conversed with him 
on Dante's works and Italian literature generally. On 
another visit to Rome, many years later, he had a private 
audience with Pope Pius IX, who asked for a variety of 
information, he himself introducing several topics. For 
Cavour the traveller had the highest estimation as a states- 
man ; but Garibaldi had even a stronger hold upon his 
affections. He thought it was as much to the enthusiastic 
ardour of the latter as to the cool statesmanship of the 
former that Italy owed her redemption. Writing concern- 
ing his impressions of Mezzofanti, the traveller says : 

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*' What struck me was the accuracy of his ear and the 
correctness of his pronunciation. . . . The most profound 
philologist whom I have known was Rask of Copenhagen. 
The philologist who made himself acquainted with the 
greatest number of dialects was the elder Adelung." 

Other journeys were made through Syria and Egypt. 
From the first Bowring had taken a keen and watchful 
interest in the Eastern question, whilst his adventures 
furnished materials for many valuable Articles on his 
return to this country. Whilst in Egypt he saw much of 
the celebrated Viceroy Mehemet Ali, and was impressed 
by his astuteness and sagacity. Feeling that a serious 
error had been committed by the English Government 
when they supported the views of the Ottoman Porte, the 
traveller regretted that, instead of coercing the Viceroy, 
his desire for independence had not been upheld. Mehemet 
Ali's idea was to establish a great Arabic-speaking empire 
under Egyptian rule and to seek the friendship of Great 
Britain. It is probable that this would have proved a 
civilizing influence at Cairo more potent than could be ex- 
pected from Constantinople, the very centre of intrigue ; 
whilst a strong Arabian kingdom might possibly have pre- 
vented some of the subsequent misery and misrule. 

Of Syria, Bowring gives the following account : " Galilee 
and Samaria were to me the most interesting parts of the 
Holy Land. . . . Nazareth and Nablous — the Shechem of 
the Old Testament, the Sychar of the New — stand forth in 
all their ancient simplicity and truth, reproducing the Bible 
of yesterday in the pictures of to-day. . . . How beautiful 
is the Sea of Galilee ! How beautiful the wild flowers on 
its borders ! Beautiful the barren mountains on the east, 
more beautiful still the green valleys on the west ! . . . 
Passing to Nablous, we saw the well at the entrance of the 
city, where the grand words were uttered to the woman, 
* God is a Spirit, and they that worship Him must worship 
Him in spirit and in truth.' A woman was there who 
offered us water to drink. It was indeed a realization of 
past history. " 

After returning to England the traveller re-entered 
Parliament as member for Bolton in 1841 and represented 
the borough for the following eight years, bringing to his 
work in the House of Commons a mind singularly free from 
narrow prejudices and conventional standards. Concern- 
ng his Parliamentary experiences, he writes : " Of the 

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questions which constitute what are called party politics 
I say nothing . . . but I had the satisfaction of laying the 
foundation of the decimal system in our coinage, and of 
obtaining the issue of the florin, the tenth part of a pound 
sterling. . . . My attempts to obtain modifications of the 
quarantine laws were not without success. I obtained on 
three occasions Resolutions of the House recommending a 
less stringent administration. . . . Another of my Parlia- 
mentary objects was to secure the payment into the 
Exchequer of the gross amount of public revenues from 
the department of receipt, and to check the departments 
of expenditure from raising money by the transfer of stores 
or other means unauthorized by the House of Commons. 
Seven millions sterling annually escaped the notice of the 
supposed * guardians of the public purse.' I carried by a 
small majority a vote in the House condemnatory of the 
existing system. I was opposed by the Whigs, but the 
battle was really won. To Mr. Disraeli, while Chancellor 
of the Exchequer, belongs the honour of abolishing the old 
and introducing the new arrangements." 

In 1849, through the friendship of Lord Palmerston, 
Bowring was selected to be Consul at Canton. This was 
at a most critical period in our relations with China, owing 
to the obduracy of the Mandarins and their dislike to 

Barly in the fifties he was appointed Plenipotentiary, 
and not long afterwards, on his return home for a holiday, 
visited the island of Java. Whilst in England he was 
knighted by the Queen, and subsequently held the appoint- 
ment of Governor, Commander-in-Chief, and Vice-Admiral 
of Hong-Kong, in addition to being appointed chief Super- 
intendent of Trade in China. The Tai-Ping insurrection 
having assumed formidable proportions, Sir John enquired 
carefully into the whole matter, which was causing great 
diplomatic anxiety ; but it was not until many years after- 
wards that the Tai-Ping power was completely crushed 
through the exertions of the famous Colonel (afterwards 
General) Charles Gordon. In 1855 the Governor concluded 
a treaty with the Kingdom of Siam, and was accredited 
to the Courts of Cochin-China, the Corea, and Japan. His 
Eastern travels also included tours in India and Ceylon. 
It was during his administration that the insult to the 
British flag, through the outrage on the lorcha Arrow by 
the Canton authorities, involved him in hostilities with the 

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Chinese Government. This incident finally resulted in the 
second Chinese War, Sir John having demanded an apology 
from Commissioner Yeh, of Canton. Although it was felt 
that the honour of Great Britain was safe in the Governor's 
hands, the subject naturally led to considerable discussion 
in Parliament, and his conduct was severely criticized and 
characterized as " high-handed " by some of his opponents 
and even by a few of his own party. On the outbreak of 
hostilities a price was placed on Sir John's head by the 
Mandarins, and an attempt was also made to murder the 
European residents of Hong-Kong by putting arsenic in 
their bread. The Governor and all his family suffered from 
the effects of the poison, but he was of too brave a tem- 
perament to be intimidated by such measures. 

After a severe attack of fever in 1858 he visited the 
Philippine Islands, of which he published an interesting 
account in the following year. Returning to China in 
January, 1859, he felt constrained in the early summer, 
on account of overwork and ill-health, to resign his office, 
and on the voyage to Europe was shipwrecked in the Red 
Sea, but finally reached England in safety. Writing after- 
wards of his many journeys, he says : " In my travels, I 
have never been very ambitious of the society of my 
countrymen, but have always sought that of the natives, 
and there are few men, I believe, who can bear a stronger 
or a wider testimony to the general kindness and hospitality 
of the human family, when the means of intercourse exist. 
My experiences of foreign lands are everywhere connected 
with the most pleasing and the most grateful remem- 

In 1860 his second marriage took place, with Deborah 
Castle, of Bristol, and it largely was owing to the devotion 
and solicitude of Lady Bowring, who was ever at his side, 
that he was able for so long to lead an active life and over- 
come successfully the infirmities of old age. He now turned 
his attention earnestly to social matters, and his know- 
ledge being encyclopaedic, reformers all over the world 
turned to him for data. His house at Exeter became the 
centre of many interests ; he was appointed a magistrate 
and Deputy-Lieutenant for the county, and for a dozen 
years touched local life at several points, willingly bringing 
his experience to bear on various difficult problems. A 
warm advocate of Female Suffrage, and indeed of Universal 
Suffrage, of Working Men's Clubs, and all that he thought 

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affected the welfare either of men or women ; his love for 
children was another marked characteristic, and shows 
how little his sympathies were affected by the passage of 
time. His ideals found expression in services to humanity 
of the most practical kind, and many people who were not 
in sympathy with his political and religious opinions felt 
admiration for his devotion to work and single-minded 
efforts to improve the condition of others. 

It was in the spring of 1860 that he first met William 
Pengelly. The acquaintance soon ripened into intimacy 
and the intimacy into friendship. The two men had much 
in common, both being endowed with great breadth of 
view on the subjects of the day, so that recurring inter- 
course proved a source of sincere pleasure to the veteran 
philosopher and also to his younger geological friend. 
Although making his head-quarters in Devonshire, visits 
to the metropolis always afforded much pleasure. He and 
William Pengelly attended the Royal Society and othfer 
scientific meetings there together, lighter recreation being 
found in various social gatherings, the geologist's geniality 
and love of fun and of puns proving attractive ; and in 
their correspondence during the summer of 1862 mention 
is made of some of these reunions. A few weeks later the 
first meeting of the Devonshire Association was held at 
Exeter and, under Sir John's inspiring chairmanship, 
proved a great success, both from the scientific and the 
social standpoint. A brief description of the gathering can 
be given in a note from the geologist : 

" Exeter, August, 1862. . . . Many of the papers were 
short, and elicited good discussions. We sat until about 
half -past four. The audience was small, as there were the 
more popular attractions of a Bazaar and Flower Show. 
At 5.30 we dined together, and had an ample supply of 
food and fun. . . . After dinner there were some decent 
speeches, and at half -past eight we went in a goodly party 
to Lady Bowring's tea-table, where Sir John christened 
me Mr. PungeHy. Friday was so wet that we had to give 
up the excursions. ..." 

Sir John not only filled the office of President with dis- 
tinction, but took a prominent and useful part in the 
Annual Meetings on several occasions, contributing various 
papers on Devonian folklore and other topics, and adding 
zest to the discussions by his ability and eloquence. The 
subject of Devonshire Dialects naturally interested him, 

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and in a note to William Pengelly in December, 1866, he 
refers to a paper on this subject : 

" Claremont, Exeter. — I have written to Mr. Harpley 
. . . about my copies of the Paper on Devonshire Dialects. 
As soon as I get them, I shall have very great pleasure in 
sending one to Mr. Earle, gratified that he deems it worthy 
of his notice. I am sorry that I cannot be in Torquay on 
the 1st, when your working people have asked me to pre- 
side, but it is our Quarter Sessions, and I had another 
engagement. (This may have a new rendering of the old 
teaching * To wish more virtue is to gain.' I say, to wish 
more freedom is to gain. The wish is father to the thought, 
and to the certainty of success.) . . . P.S. Is it not 
amusing to see the bishops so complaisantly and so effec- 
tually knocking one another down ? Oh, you geologists ! 
great are your responsibilities, you turbulent troublers of 
ecclesiastical serenities ! " 

During the previous year, 1865, William Pengelly had 
commenced his well-known explorations at Kent's Cavern ; 
the question of the antiquity of man was now specially 
engaging the thoughts of theologians as well as of scientists, 
and to this Sir John alludes in the postscript of the previous 
note. His letters, whether written in a playful vein or on 
deep philosophical subjects, were always attractive, and 
his conversation also, from its piquancy and nimble play 
of insight and fun, invariably afforded pleasure. 

Visits at Torquay, where he had stayed for some time and 
had still many friends, were always a source of satisfaction 
to him, and Mrs. Pengelly, in writing to a relative, gives the 
following sketch of her impressions of the philosopher : 

" Lamorna, Torquay. . . . We spent an intetesting even- 
ing with Sir John Bowring at Mr. Beasley's. Sir John looks 
much older than I expected — a keen, thin, and intellectual, 
worn face, with great animation. He is a capital talker 
and full of information. We talked of my old friends, the 
Ashworths ; he says they were for some time at his house 
at Shanghai, but are now in London. . . . Sir John 
Kennaway was there also, and we were invited to meet 
them both the next evening at Mr. Vivian's. ..." Many 
years afterwards, in 1894, Lady Bowring, in a letter to 
Mrs. Pengelly, writes : "I think much of the years gone 
by, when my own beloved husband and Mr. Pengelly ever 
appeared to be so much pleased with each other's com- 
panionship. ..." 

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In the summer of 1867 he attended the Devonshire- 
Association which met at Barnstaple, under the Presidency 
of William Pengelly. At none of the previous gatherings 
had so large a number of members attended, and Sir John 
was amongst those who by their exertions contributed to 
the success of the meeting. He was present also at the 
British Association which assembled at Dundee during the 
autumn of the same year, reading a Paper on the subject- 
of. Remunerative Prison Labour. This was a problem 
which he had studied long and earnestly, and he had re- 
cently been elected Chairman of a Committee of Magistrates 
appointed to investigate the matter. Whilst at Dundee he 
was a diligent member of the Economic Section, but also 
attended the Geological Section in order to hear the Kent's. 
Hole Report, having from the first taken a keen interest 
in the cavern explorations. One of the most useful 
functions of such meetings is that students in different 
branches of science can discuss together subjects of general 
interest. An accurate and careful worker in his own line,. 
Bowring, from his learning and wide outlook, was not only 
in sympathy with various researches, but was also able to 
converse on something like equal terms with the masters 
in many of them. A couple of years later, in August, 1869^ 
the members of the British Association paid one of their 
few visits to the West of England. Sir John threw himself 
heartily into the task of making their stay at Exeter 
agreeable to the men of science, and, after a hospitable 
welcome, the week of the meeting passed rapidly amidst 
the pressure of continuous work and congenial society. 

Notwithstanding his unremitting attention to literary,, 
economic, and kindred subjects, he found time for numerous 
family and social engagements, from which he derived 
considerable happiness and relaxation. His son, Edgar 
Bowring, whose pursuits and studies were much in accord 
with his own, was Member of Parliament for Exeter from 
1868 to 1874, and they were thus able to be frequently 
together. Intercourse also was much enjoyed with Dr. 
Temple, that broad-minded prelate whose appointment as 
Bishop of the Diocese in 1869 caused such commotion in 
certain clerical circles, owing to his authorship of one of 
the celebrated Essays and Reviews. In preparing for the 
second Exeter Meeting of the Devonshire Association > 
under the Presidency of the Bishop, William Pengelly re- 
ceived valuable assistance from Sir John. He and his son 

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Edgar consented to become Vice-Presidents, and it will be 
seen from the following letters to the geologist that he also 
interested himself in securing other suitable men to fill that 
office : " Claremont, Exeter. ... I have seen Mr. H. S. 
Ellis, and he is well pleased with the suggestion that he 
should be a Vice-President. I dare say Lord Devon, Sir 
Stafford Northcote, Sir John Kennaway , my son Edgar, and 
the Mayor to be, may also be had among the number. . . . 
My son Lewin has taken a house at Torquay ... he was 
the First Commissioner of Bangalore and Coorg, Lord 
Canning's Secretary, and will, I am sure, be pleased to 
make your acquaintance." Writing again in February, 
1871, he says : ". . . I have just left the Bishop. He will 
suggest two or three of the scientific clergy for Vice- 
Presidents. I suspect they are rarce aves in our woods. 
He wishes to have a set of our Transactions. ..." 

Although in the evening of life when the Association 
-assembled at Exeter in July, 1872, Sir John continued 
working with the utmost diligence at his favourite sub- 
jects, and his letters show that he retained much of his 
customary brightness. He contributed three valuable 
papers at the meeting, one entitled Ancient Exeter and its 
Trade, another Fables and Fabulists in connection with 
John Gay, and the third on Sir Thomas Bodley. He also 
took part in the discussions, being still singularly open to 
further accessions of knowledge and fresh generalizations 
from the increasing store of facts. In the following month 
he, with his friends William Pengelly and the Rev. W. 
Harpley, journeyed to Brighton with the object of attend- 
ing the British Association, and whilst there, in response 
to a request from the President of the Geographical Section, 
he delivered an excellent speech welcoming the Japanese 
Embassy. Later in the autumn he was present at the 
Social Science Congress at Plymouth, taking a leading part 
in the Conference and addressing a gathering of three 
thousand persons on Temperance, a subject which always 
appealed strongly to his sympathies as a means of raising 
the moral standard of the people and conducing to their 

His affectionate thought and interest for those about 
him never failed. In October he celebrated his eightieth 
birthday in the midst of a happy family circle, and was 
planning a journey to London in November, but owing to 
indisposition abandoned the idea. The sands of life were 

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now running low, but he was mercifully spared prolonged 
suffering. His mental faculties remained unclouded, his 
warm sympathies undimmed to the end, and on November 
23rd, 1872, he quietly breathed his last. 

He was a man of much courtesy and charm, with an 
attractive and striking personality. Although beginning 
his business life as a clerk in a mercantile house, he had the 
dignity of one who treats on an equality with princes, 
combined with a geniality that set strangers at their ease, 
and an evident desire to render service to all those re- 
quiring aid, irrespective of class or creed. Many marks of 
distinction were bestowed upon him, for, in addition to 
the honour of knighthood conferred by Queen Victoria, he 
received several foreign Orders, being knighted more than 
a dozen times by other sovereigns. He was a Knight 
Commander of the Belgian Order of Leopold I, a Com- 
panion of the Order of Christ of Portugal, and he also had 
the Grand Cordon of the Spanish Order of Isabella the 
Catholic. By King Victor Emmanuel he was created a 
Commander of the Noble Order of St. Maurice ; and from 
the Emperor of Austria he received the Knight Com- 
mandership with the Cross of the Imperial and Royal 
Order of Francis Joseph. In addition to these and other 
European distinctions, he received various Orders from 
Eastern rulers, and about thirty Diplomas, Degrees, and 
Certificates from Universities and literary and scientific 
societies in all parts of the world. 

His later years were happily spent amongst the Devonian 
scenes with which as a boy he had been familiar, so that 
he frequently revisited the haunts of his earlier days and 
the places where his love of nature and of humanity had 
been first aroused. For more than half a century he had 
been one of the most noted linguists of the world, and had 
also exercised a profound influence on the progress of 
Social Science, being equally eminent for the extent of his 
labours and the breadth of his philosophical views, thus 
rendering important service to his generation and shedding 
lustre on the county of his birth. 


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(Read at Totnes, 21st July, 1920.) 

For the third time in its cycle of changes the Devonshire 
Association meets at Totnes. The first gathering of the 
Society held in this interesting and ancient town in 1880 
(some years after its foundation) was noteworthy in 
numerous ways, the eminently successful character of 
the meeting being largely due to the untiring efforts of 
Mr. Edward Windeatt,' then Local Secretary, and now 
worthily occupying the Presidential chair. Amongst 
those who assembled on that occasion, one of the most 
striking figures was the President, Dr. Henry Acland, 
the distinguished physician and professor, whom Devonians 
were always pleased to welcome, his scientific and social 
energies being a source of gratification to West Country- 
men. Names of other prominent members in that active 
group also stand out, who, with the President, have since 
passed away — Fabyan Amery ; Arthur Champernowne ; 
Archdeacon Earle (afterwards Bishop of Marlborough) ; 
the Rev. W. Harpley ; the Rev. Treasurer Hawker ; 
James Hine ; William Pengelly ; J. Brooking Rowe ; 
R. N. Worth ; and T. W. Windeatt, one of the kind and 
courteous Vice-Presidents. Many well-known members 
then present might also be enumerated, some being 
fortunately still with us, and we are glad to know that not 
a few retain their pristine vigour, notwithstanding the 
forty years which have intervened since the first meeting 
in this hospitable place. We owe them all a deep debt of 
gratitude, for it was mainly owing to their support that 
the Association at the second Totnes meeting, held in 
1900, entered on the threshold of the twentieth century 
conscious of a work to do for the county, and a desire 
to do it. 

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Although passing the greater part of his active life at 
Oxford, Henry Acland frequently revisited the county 
of his birth, and he entered with much interest and 
sympathy into the work and spirit of the Association. 
Born on the 23rd of August, 1815, at his parents' beautiful 
Devonshire home at Killerton, near Exeter, his centenary 
occurred during the progress of the War, and could n6t 
a,t the time be adequately commemorated. A short 
record of his life may, therefore, be appropriately given 
at a Totnes meeting. He was the fourth son of Sir Thomas 
Acland, a well-known Member of Parliament and friend 
of the philanthropists, Wilberforce and Clarkson. Had 
the future physician and professor been the first-born of 
the family, he might probably have settled on the paternal 
estates and devoted himself to pursuits near at hand ; 
but it was fortunate for the cause of medicine, and for 
science at large, that he was led into a wider sphere of 

Naturally in this paper only the merest outline of his 
many-sided activities can be portrayed, and no attempt 
is made to describe the details of his life, or the diffusive 
nature of his mental gifts. In spite of health, which was 
never robust, he was distinguished even in his school- 
days at Harrow, and in his University career at Christ 
Church, Oxford, by his literary tastes and pronounced 
scientific proclivities. The B.A. degree was taken in 
1840, he proceeded to the M.A. degree in due course, 
and was also elected to a Fellowship at All Soul's College, 

At that time Italy, Greece, and Asia Minor were not as 
accessible to British travellers as at present, but for 
reasons of health he spent long holidays in 1837 and 
1838 in prolonged tours in these countries, visiting 
amongst other historic cities, Rome, Athens, and Con- 
stantinople, and also the site and neighbourhood of 
ancient Troy, and of the Seven Churches. His refined 
tastes and high imagination rendered the journey doubly 
delightful, and from his wide reading and studious habits 
he was able to write clearly and with literary grace 
concerning his observations on the subjects which 
specially occupied his thoughts. After returning home 
he published a descriptive account entitled The Plains 
of Troy which anticipated some of Dr. Schlieman's dis- 
coveries, gaining a favourable notice in the Quarterly 

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JReview, and the warm appreciation of many antiquaries 
and archaeologists. Interest in foreign travel and in fresh 
and fascinating scenes never weakened his love of Devon- 
shire, his thoughts turned constantly to the West Country, 
with its mighty trap rocks, forest scenery, wild ponies, 
and red deer, and whether at beautiful Killerton or at 
Holnicote, his parents' picturesque home near Exmoor, 
he was always .happy amongst country surroundings. 
Of the valley of Holnicote he writes : " It is about three 
miles in length and the breadth of the beach about two 
and a half. The north side is protected from the sea by 
a range of hills from Minehead to Hurlstone Point, very 
steep and sometimes precipitous towards the sea, clothed 
with heath and pasture at the top and seaward, but 
covered towards the valley with turf on the top, furze 
on the brow, and plantations in the middle region. The 
lower parts merge into the meadows and arable ground 
of the valley. The height of North Hill is from 800 to 
1200 feet. A lower range runs across towards Dunkerry 
on the south to shut in the valley from the land. Dun- 
kerry is nearly 1700 feet, and has at its foot the parish 
of Luccombe, with a Perpendicular church. Two deep 
valleys run up into it, Horner and Sweeteray ; these 
have a beautiful mountain stream rushing over stones 
and rocks, and steep sides covered with old forest trees. 
Dunkerry merges into the wild heights of Exmoor." 

He was soon on terms of affectionate intimacy with the 
Hon. Charles Courtenay, afterwards Canon of Windsor ; 
by John Henry Newman (then at the height of his Oxford 
influence) he was greatly impressed ; with Pusey he was 
united by family intimacy of long standing, was well 
known also to several members of the celebrated Oriel 
set, and for many years the valued friend of Dean Liddell, 
Dean Stanley, and Canon Liddon. 

Whilst at Oxford the student attended the geological 
lectures of Dean Buckland, to which he frequently referred 
when talking over various reminiscences with his friend 
William Pengelly. The Dean held the view that hunger 
was the most potent incentive to action, really ruling the 
world, and Henry Acland writes : "I can never forget 
my d6but as his pupil. . . . He lectured on the cavern 
of Torquay, the now famous Kent's cavern. He paced 
like a Franciscan preacher up and down behind a long 
.show case, up two steps in a room in the old Clarendon. 

vol. lh. o 

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He had in his hand a huge hyena's skull. He suddenly- 
dashed down the steps, rushed, skull in hand, at the first 
undergraduate on the front bench, and shouted, * What 
rules the world ? ' The youth, terrified, threw himself 
against the next back seat, and answered not a word. 
He rushed then on me, pointing the hyena full in my 
face — ' What rules the world ? ' ' Haven't an idea,' I 
said. He cried (again mounting the rostrum), * The 
great ones eat the less, and the less the lesser still.' " 

A profession had now to be decided upon, and, unlike 
many of his contemporaries at Oxford, Henry Acland 
chose that of a physician, being the one which would 
keep him continually in contact with those various 
branches of science for which he had already shown so 
strong a predilection. For a time he had hoped to be 
admitted to Holy Orders, but although remaining through- 
out life a devoted son of the Anglican Church, he now 
commenced those studies which were to fit him for the 
calling he had finally selected. A man of deeply religious 
character, untiring in the service of his Divine Master^ 
his medical work, especially during the outbreaks of 
cholera in Oxford in 1849 and 1854, brought him into 
close contact and sympathy with the working classes, 
for whom he laboured whole-heartedly. Through the 
establishment in later years of the " Sarah Acland In- 
stitution for Nurses," founded by their friends as a^ 
memorial to his wife, he was able also to be of still further 
and lasting service to the poor and the weak. A moderate 
Liberal and consistent High Churchman, he avoided con- 
troversies either in politics or theology, and throughout 
life directed his attention to the promotion of scientific 
and professional efficiency, and philanthropic and social 

Entering as a student at St. George's Hospital, London, 
in 1843, he received in addition private instruction from 
Dr. Quekett and other eminent medical men, also attending 
the lectures of Professor Richard Owen. Proceeding next 
to Edinburgh in 1844, anatomy was studied under John 
Goodsir, whilst the student resided as a pupil in the house 
of Dr. Alison, the distinguished physician. Returning 
later to Oxford, Henry Acland graduated as Bachelor 
and Doctor of Medicine, and also passed the London 
College of Physicians. In 1845 he was elected to Dr. Lee'a 
Readership in Anatomy at Christ Church, and two years. 

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later, in 1847, gained the high distinction of Fellowship 
of the Royal Society. During the same year the British 
Association visited Oxford, when he was Local Secretary, 
discharging the onerous duties involved with his usual 
.conscientious care. In the previous year his marriage 
with Sarah Cotton had been solemnized, the union adding 
greatly to the happiness and serenity of his life ; his wife's 
supporting love for over thirty years making much work 
pleasant to him, which might otherwise have proved 
laborious. For nearly half a century, from 1851 to 1900, 
he held the important University office of Radcliffe 
Librarian. In 1 858 he became Regius Professor of Medicine, 
and in 1874 was elected President of the General Medical 
Council. His career at Oxford embraced a period marked 
in the world of science by almost unparalleled activity 
in many branches of learning and research ; the fas- 
cination of the new discoveries, with the ideas and 
potentialities suggested by them, being keenly felt by 
one whose interest in fresh investigations was as strong 
and persevering as his desire to relieve human suffering 
was ardent and unwearied. 

His strenuous professional work, and other avocations, 
frequently overtaxed his strength, and his intimate 
friend, Dr. Latham, wrote : " You must either be a 
physician or a professor, not both." John Ruskin also 
sent the following note of remonstrance after visiting 
him at Oxford in 1851 : "... I never saw such a life 
as you live there — you never were able so much as to 
put a piece of meat in your mouth without writing a note 
at the side of your plate — you were everlastingly going 
somewhere and going somewhere else on the way to it — 
and doing something on the way . . . and two or three 
other things besides — and then — wherever you went, 
there were always five or six people lying in wait at corners 
and catching hold of you and asking questions, -and 
leading you aside into private conferences. and making 
engagements to come at a quarter to six — and to send 
two other people at a quarter past — and three or four 
more to hear what had been said to them, at five-and- 
twenty minutes past, and to have an answer to a note 
at haft-past — and get tickets for soup at five-and-twenty 
minutes to seven — and just to see you in the passage as 
you were going to dinner. ..." 

It will be seen from the previous letter how close the 

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friendship with Ruskin had become. Acquaintance with 
several members of the Pre-Raphaelite brotherhood soon 
followed, and he had long enjoyed the friendship of 
Joseph Severn, and George Richmond, being himself an 
artist of no ordinary merit. His wide circle also included 
many' politicians ; both Mr. Gladstone and Lord Robert 
Cecil (afterwards Lord Salisbury) he knew intimately 
and highly honoured, being also on most cordial terms 
with the Right Hon. W. H. Smith, with whom he became 
connected by family ties, this adding greatly to the 
pleasure of his later years. 

It may be imagined how self-sacrificing the young 
physician's efforts were during the visitations of cholera 
in 1849 and 1854, and, resolving that the experience which 
had been so dearly acquired during these outbreaks 
should not be lost, he published in 1856 a work entitled 
A Memoir on the Cholera at Oxford in the year 1854, with 
Considerations suggested by the Epidemic. 

This publication raised him to the position of an ac- 
knowledged authority on sanitary and hygienic questions. 
It was widely read in this country and abroad, and he thus 
became recognised as a pioneer in much that was essential 
in the treatment of the sick. In 1857 he published a treatise 
on the Drainage of the Upper Thames Valley. Amongst 
several other works from his pen were Remarks on the 
Extension of Education at the University of Oxford, written 
some years previously, a treatise On Fever in Agricultural 
Districts ; Notes on teaching Physiology in Higher Schools ; 
Two Reports addressed to the Trustees on the Removal to, and 
Progress of, the Radclijfe Library at the Oxford University 
Museum ; The True Relations of Physiology and Medicine ; 
Remarks on the Oxford Museum ; and a Biographical 
Sketch of Sir Benjamin Brodie. 

An important topic which engaged his attention during 
the fifties was that of scientific education in Oxford, in 
connection with the erection of a suitable museum. After 
meeting with extraordinary opposition, and making 
exceptional exertions, his efforts were crowned with success, 
and the foundation-stone of the New Museum was laid in 
June, 1855, by the Earl of Derby, Chancellor of the Univer- 
sity. Willing assistance was rendered by Professor 
Phillips, Dr. C. Daubeney (Professor of Botany and 
Chemistry), H. Strickland, and others, but it has always 
been acknowledged that Henry Acland was the originator 

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as well as the life and soul of the movement. Scientific 
gatherings brought him into further cordial relations with 
Lord Lister, Sir Richard Owen, Michael Faraday, Professor 
Huxley, Dr. Hooker, Dr. Burdon Sanderson, Sir James 
Paget, and Sir Joseph Prestwich, whilst Sir Benjamin 
Brodie had been his kind adviser from boyhood. His 
friendship with William Pengelly was formed during the 
fifties, and continued until the death of the latter in 1894. 
During the closing years of the nineteenth century the 
present writer had the privilege of frequently meeting Sir 
Henry Acland (as he had then become), at her father's 
house " Lamorna," during the physician's visits to Tor- 

Early in July, 1860, the British Association met again 
at Oxford, Dr. Acland being a Vice-President. He and 
William Pengelly were both present at the memorable 
scene when Bishop Wilberf orce and Professor Huxley had 
their famous passage-at-arms in the discussion on Darwin's 
Origin of Species. Although this was before the present 
writer's birth, she has heard many interesting accounts 
from her father of the Bishop's remarkable speech, and of 
Huxley's brilliancy and pungent wit. However, as full 
accounts of the controversy have been given in Mr. Leonard 
Huxley's Biography of his father, and also in other 
memoirs, any detailed description is unnecessary. In a 
letter at the time William Pengelly says "... The 
room was densely packed. The Bishop of Oxford, Huxley, 
Dr. Hooker, Professor Beale, Lubbock, and others spoke 
on it. The excitement was excessive. . . ." In another 
letter William Pengelly writes thus of the Opening Address 
and the Museum : " Prince Albert attended, and in 
short speech resigned the Presidency to Lord Wrottesley, 
who then delivered his Address. The customary vote of 
thanks was moved by Lord Derby, and seconded by 
Whewell. . . . The New Museum is, or rather will be, 
magnificent. It is far from finished. . . . The evening 
soiree was very good ; it was held in the New Museum ; 
from 1800 to 2000 people seemed lost in it." 

During the intervening years Dr. Acland had been 
busily at work on the arrangement of the Museum, and 
gladly showed the collections to the geologist, as men- 
tioned in their correspondence. The specimens were ar- 
ranged for the use of students, after the plan of the Museum 
of the College of Surgeons, the classification being Hunt- 

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erian. Dr. George Rolleston, the Linacre Professor, 
rendered important help in the work, and in him Henry 
Acland found an invaluable colleague and congenial friend. 
The building was first made available for the members 
of the University in October, 1860. It was about this 
time that William Pengelly completed the formation of 
an interesting collection of Devonian fossils from the 
counties of Devon and Cornwall, which was presented to 
the Museum in connection with the foundation of a Geo- 
logical Scholarship. In accordance with a regulation 
passed in a congregation of the University of Oxford in 
1860 the fossils are known as The Pengelly Collection. In 
collaboration with Professor Daubeney and John Philips 
(Professor of Geology) Henry Acland gave much attention 
to their arrangement. In May, 1861, whilst on the way to 
deliver a lecture at the Royal Institution in London 
William Pengelly paid a hasty visit to Oxford in connection 
with the matter, renewing his acquaintance with Dr. 
Acland, and also with Professor Daubeney, afterwards 
President of the Devonshire Association Meeting at Tiver- 
ton in 1865. The geologist writes : " I left home on 
Tuesday, so as to have a day at Oxford on my way, in 
order that I might have an opportunity of arranging the 
f Pengelly ' collection of fossils. I got there just in time 
for Dr. Daubeney's dinner. . . . We went in the evening to 
Magdalen College, at the invitation of the President 
thereof. Next day I arranged the fossils, and left for Town 
at four o'clock. This I was sorry to do, as Dr. Daubeney 
had invited a large dinner-party of eminent men resident 
in the University to meet me. . . . Before leaving, Dr. 
Daubeney informed me that a wish had been expressed 
by the Vice-Chancellor that I would deliver a lecture on 
the ' Pengelly ' collection of fossils before the University." 
In the following month William Pengelly paid a longer 
visit to Oxford, giving the desired lecture, arid again meet- 
ing Dr. Acland and many of his scientific circle, amongst 
those enumerated being Professor Daubeney, Professor 
Phillips, Professor Smith, Professor Westwood and Dr. 
Rolleston. The geologist's letters give further descriptions 
of the Museum, and the interest shown by the Vice- 
Chancellor and the various medical and other professors, 
in the Devonian collection. A year later, in 1862, when the 
British Association met at Cambridge, a communication 
on the Anatomical structure of the Brain, from Professor 

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Owen, was vigorously and successfully attacked by Pro- 
fessor Huxley (Chairman of the Physiological Department) 
who was supported in the discussion by Dr. George Rolles- 
ton, William Flower and others. Henry Acland and 
William Pengelly were both present, they were much 
attached to Owen, and were friends also of Huxley, but 
thought the former incorrect on this point, and took no 
part in the debate. During the next day the former 
medical student sent a letter to his old teacher, from which 
the following extracts are given : " Your lecture, not 
addressed to scientific anatomists, but to the public, 
seemed to some at least to vindicate your old description 
of the difference between man and the Quadrumana. I 
am aware that it did not really do so, unless my attention 
failed me ; for I did not hear you positively restate the 
debated structure to be peculiar to Man. Still the general 
impression on the non-anatomical hearers would be, I 
doubt not, that you adhere to the definition which you 
had before given, and that therefore Mr. Huxley (with 
Allen Thomson, Rolleston, Schroeder, Van der Kolk and 
Vrolik) was in error, and his opposition to you more or 
less groundless. . . . Believe me, the continuance of this 
feud over a simple fact will be injurious to the confidence 
of the public in scientific men, and justly so. . . . The 
question is one confessedly of pure zoology of the most 
technical kind. The public confound this in a misty manner 
with the essential nature of man. . . ." 

Not long afterwards Dr. Acland also wrote to Archbishop 
Longley (his valued friend and old headmaster at Harrow) 
expressing his views as to the unwisdom of the clergy 
embarking in controversies for which their previous 
training and experience had hardly fitted them. He says : 
". . . Two years ago, at the British Association, Professor 
Owen alleged that there were three points of marked 
difference between the brains of Man and the Brains of 
Apes (viz. in the posterior lobe, the posterior cornu, and 
the Hippo Campus). Professor Huxley stated that these 
differences are not so great as exist among the apes them- 
selves, and thereby as a ground of distinction between Man 
and the Apes they were valueless signs. This led to a serious 
dispute in which the Bishop of Oxford charged Professor 
Huxley to the effect that his assertions, unwarranted by 
facts, had an irreligious tendency. This was not sound 
Argument. Either Owen was right in his facts or Huxley 

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was right in his. . * . Owen accidently mis-stated certain 
differences, upon which afterwards great differences were 
supposed to hang, and he does not like to retract. The 
question is wholly exaggerated. Nothing of a religious 
kind turns on it. I wish people could see this. ... I pray 
you use your vast influence with the clergy to hinder them , 
from taking sides in scientific disputes, for which they are 
not thoroughly grounded by thorough training and by 
full practical knowledge. ..." 

In 1859 the Prince of Wales came into residence at 
Oxford, Dr. Acland being appointed his medical adviser. 
Dining the next year the Prince was invited to represent 
Queen Victoria at the opening of the Montreal bridge over 
the St. Lawrence, and also at the ceremony of laying the 
foundation-stone of the Parliament Houses at Ottawa, 
Dr. Acland joining the party as medical attendant. This 
invitation to cross the Atlantic could hardly have reached 
the Professor at a more opportune time, as his friend Dr. 
George Rolleston undertook to act as his deputy in Univer- 
sity matters. Voyages were always enjoyable to him, as 
he was a keen yachtsman, and, being in the prime of life, 
was in full vigour both of mind and body. He was thus 
able to appreciate new facts and observations drawn from 
further fields of knowledge. He spent such hours of 
leisure in Canada and the United States as he could spare . 
from his professional attendance in inspecting hospitals 
and other institutions. Several of the large cities of the 
West were visited, the discussions and interchange of 
ideas respecting scientific work and knowledge with various 
eminent professors and literary men, including Agassiz, 
Longfellow, Emerson, and Lowell, being much enjoyed. 
The Prince's tour had important and lasting results, not 
only in demonstrating the loyalty and affection of Cana- 
dians to the Mother Country, but also in producing a better 
feeling between the United States and Great Britain. 
In 1865 Dr. Acland was invited to deliver the Harveian 
Oration, and chose for his subject the Doctrine of Final 
Causes. The occasion was memorable from the annual 
address being delivered for the first time in English instead 
of in Latin as on former occasions. In the same year he 
acted as Chairman of the Physiological Department of the 
British Association at Birmingham (his friend Professor 
W. Turner assisting him as secretary), and when the 
Medical Association assembled at Oxford in 1868 he gave 

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an important Presidential Address, his hearers coming 
under the magnetic spell of a personality which by its 
singular charm quickly won the sympathy of others. 

Frequent visits to Killerton, Bovey Tracey and other 
West Country districts, kept him in touch with many 
Devonian acquaintances, and thus cemented friendships 
which were greatly prized. In 1862 a much needed holiday 
was taken in Switzerland, and in 1864 he journeyed to 
Utrecht to examine the pathological collection of Van der 
Kolk, paying a visit to Ireland and inspecting many 
archaeological monuments there later in the same year. 
In 1865 a tour was undertaken with Dean Liddell in Swit- 
zerland, and a short trip taken to Belgium during the 
following year. Another visit of archeeological interest 
was to the towns and monuments of Brittany, and a voyage 
to Norway in 1872 with Mrs. Acland was also beneficial, 
for he had been working with even more than his usual 
labour, and would not decline engagements which others 
feared to be too much for his strength. In succession to 
Sir George Paget, Dr. Acland was elected in 1874 to the 
Presidency of the Medical Council, and Sir William Turner 
writes, " His academic and social position and the innate 
nobility of his nature had from an early period of his life 
gained for him the friendship and confidence of the leaders 
of the medical profession, of statesmen of both parties, and 
others eminent in public life, and contributed in no small 
measure to ensure harmonious relations between the 
Medical Council amd the departments of Government with 
which it is brought into official communication." 

Much mutual pleasure was derived in the summer of 
1876 from a short visit from the celebrated surgeon, 
Professor Joseph Lister (afterwards Lord Lister). Writing 
from Oxford, the latter says : " Dr. Acland's house teems 
with beautiful pictures and engravings. He is a great 
friend of Ruskin, Millais, and Richmond. On Sunday 
morning we went to the University Sermon at University 
Church. It was preached by Canon Liddon, perhaps the 
most celebrated of preachers at the present time in Eng- 

In 1877, Dr. Acland attended the British Association, 
which assembled at Plymouth, the meeting being of 
special interest to him orf account of the Presidency of 
Professor Allen Thomson, the anatomist, whom he had 
known since the early Edinburgh days ; and also from the 

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fact that his friend William Pengelly was presiding at the 
Geological Section. During this year a break occurred in 
the family circle, through the loss of his son Herbert Acland 
in Ceylon, and this was followed in October, 1878, by a 
still more severe bereavement in the death of Mrs. Henry 
Acland. He bore the blow bravely, endeavouring by 
strenuous exertions for others to put aside the thought of 
his own dreadful desolation ; whilst the affection of his 
daughter and remaining sons, who watched over him with 
unfailing devotion, softened the grief which they shared 
with him. He worked on as well as sorrow and slowly 
increasing infirmities would allow, and in the following 
letter to William Pengelly he refers to the Presidency of 
the Devonshire Association for 1880, which had been 
offered to him. Writing from Oxford in February, 1879, 
he says : — 

" In the first letter you were so good as to write me, you 
gave me till February for my reply — and I am very sorry 
that I could not make up my mind when you kindly wrote 
again what reply to send. Since the great change that has 
fallen upon me I have not been away, and I was very desirous 
before I replied to wait till I had some rest. I have returned, 
and I trust it may not be too late for me to accept the 
honour which you offered to me. Of course if the oppor- 
tunity has passed, I am the unhappy loser. But I hope 
it is not so. There is no honour I should prize more than 
meeting your Association in the way you propose, and I 
should endeavour, as far as in me lay, to justify the con- 
fidence you repose in me. If you will accept me, I pray 
you to put me up as a Member of the Association, and in- 
deed in any case, I should be glad if that would and could 
be done through your kindness." 

His affectionate and devoted nature had been deeply 
moved by the shock of his recent bereavement. In a 
second touching letter he mentions that his wife had hoped 
he might carry on his work as long as possible. In a note 
from Winchester in the following year, just before the 
gathering, he says : "I cannot help writing a line to say 
I am coming towards you. I am looking forward to your 
meeting with deep interest." As President, he contri- 
buted greatly to the importance of the Totnes gathering 
by his thoughtful address and able chairmanship ; his 
enthusiasm for science, high ideals, and recognition of 
the value to the nation of sound education and original 

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research rendering him at all times an inspiring leader. 
In the following year, 1881, he and William Pengelly met 
again in London. The geologist, at the request of his 
friends, having consented to sit for a presentation por- 
trait by the well-known painter, Sir Arthur Cope, found 
relaxation in the society of several scientists at the Medical 
Congress. We get a glimpse of the concluding proceedings 
in a letter written on August 10th ; William Pengelly says : 
" Yesterday on leaving Cope I went to the Physiological 
Section of the Medical Congress, and was in time to hear 
the President of the Section, Dr. Michael Foster, close the 
Section, which he did in a very eloquent speech. Mac- 
Alister was there and we chatted a little. The final meeting 
of the Congress was held at two, in St. James's Hall, when 
' Huxley delivered a lecture on Medicine and the Biological 
Sciences. . . . Amongst the audience were Dr. Henry 
Acland, Dr. Carpenter, Dr. Boycott Bowman (oculist), 
Allen Thomson, Joseph Lister, amd several others I 
knew. . . ." 

The kindness and geniality with which Dr. Acland wel- 
comed the entry of younger students into the scientific 
field was always noteworthy, and in his courteous bearing 
there was a complete absence of the academic officialism 
which sometimes marred the influence of other dignified 
and learned professors. 

America was revisited in 1879 in ordef to study the 
Johns Hopkins University and Hospital, the physician 
being impressed with all that he saw at both institutions, 
and with the opportunities afforded by the Hospital for 
the training of students and nurses. In New York, Wash- 
ington, Philadelphia and Boston he was able to discuss 
subjects of Public Health and Education with several 
specialists and leading authorities. Nine years later, in 
1888, the United States were visited for the third and last 
time, and one of the pleasant results of the journey was an 
interesting correspondence with Dr. Asa Gray, Dr. Weir 
Mitchell and Oliver Wendell Holmes. The traveller always 
entered with keen interest into the social problems of the 
communities through which he passed, readily fraternizing 
with the representative men with whom he was brought 
into contact. In 1884 the physician was appointed a 
Knight Commander of the Bath, and in 1890 had conferred 
on him a Baronetcy of the United Kingdom. He was 
already an honorary Doctor of Laws of the Universities 

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of Cambridge and Durham, and an honorary M.D. of 
Trinity College, being also a member of various British 
and Foreign Scientific Societies, and amongst other Orders, 
bore that of the Rose of Brazil. 

His interest in the progress of different branches of 
science continued to be unfailing to the last, and he felt the 
keenest enthusiasm in the discoveries and disclosures of 
these investigations, which opened up vistas of practical 
and theoretical possibilities almost limitless in extent. 
Writing in 1890 to his friend Mr. Gladstone, who had 
been recently engaged in the well-known controversy with 
Professor Huxley, and was then preparing Papers on the 
Impregnable Rock of Holy Scripture, he utters the following 
note of warning, " I have long ago said that one thing is 
certain in Science, that the Science of to-day will not be 
the Science of to-morrow, I have no temptation therefore 
to make things square with its details. The subject is 

Another long journey was undertaken in the spring of 
1886 to Egypt and the Holy Land, when he was accom- 
panied by his eldest son, now Admiral Sir William Acland. 
Writing home from Jerusalem, the traveller concludes a 
long and interesting description by saying : " There are 
general features which I must record at once. (1) The 
simple devotion, artless, cheerful, loving devotion of those 
bands of pilgrims, from every nation where Christ is adored. 
(2) The, to me, unequalled picturesque sobriety and gor- 
geousness without tawdry effect of the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre, and the rare grace and loveliness of the platform 
of the Haram, and the Mosque of the Rock (falsely called 
the Mosque of Omar) and (3) the strange contrast of the 
dirt and mud and busy idleness of the motley peoples 
that, from Liberia to Spain, mingle as pilgrims in crowds 
with the Jews, the Turks, the Syrians, and Bedoweens, 
and jostle in the steep and saturated steps that are counted 
for streets in modern Jerusalem ; the contrast, I say, of 
all these, with the sense of sacred and spiritual life that, 
pervading all I have mentioned and much more besides, 
would seem to hush all thought, and quell all words of 
modern things. And the early Christians were assuredly 
right, when they clung almost wholly to the words and the 
life of their Redeemer, and not to the earth, and the place 
on which they were set forth to men." 

Early in the nineties, when the Medical Congress met at 

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Oxford, Sir Henry was still able to enjoy showing hos- 
pitality to various foreign savants, as well as to several 
well-known British medical men. In 1892 he journeyed 
tojEdinburgh, being the guest of Sir William Turner, who 
presided over the meetings of the British Association in 
the northern capital. On that occasion the present writer 
had the privilege of being shown over the anatomical 
•collections by the President and Sir Henry Acland, and 
vividly recalls how clear and luminous both professors 
made every subject on which they touched. Two years 
later the Association met for the fourth time at Oxford 
under the Presidency of Lord Salisbury, Chancellor of 
the University. The day after his address, the President 
unveiled a statue to Thomas Sydenham, and Sir Henry, 
who was intending shortly to resign the Regius Pro- 
fessorship of Medicine, also made an eloquent speech. 
Referring to the latter's work at the New Museum, Lord 
Salisbury said : " In honouring Sydenham as we do to-day, 
we are honouring his great successor, to whom more than 
any other man the renewal of study of nature in this 
University is due, and to whose efforts and to whose 
memory this splendid building and the more splendid 
incorporeal instruction for which it is built will be a lasting 
<and brilliant testimony.' ' 

The physician's home life at Broad Street, Oxford, was 
uniformly simple and beautiful. Given to hospitality, 
and from his leading position both in the University and 
the City, gladly entertaining numerous guests, he yet 
found special value in the inner circle of those dearest to 
him. To medical students he never lost an opportunity of 
inculcating the nobility and philanthropy that were pos- 
sible in the profession, and he attained throughout his own 
career an almost unexampled affection. His kindness and 
sympathy were remarkable, growing in intensity year by 
year, and many an aching heart could recall with gratitude 
the tenderness manifested when the Angel of Death 
visited some desolate household. During the later years of 
William Pengelly's Hfe (when he had become a confirmed 
invalid) Henry Acland afforded his old friend much com- 
fort and support by his frequent visits. He was at Torquay 
in 1894 when the geologist passed away, and the sympathy 
then shown will always remain a most cherished memory. 
Old age, with its crown of glory, dealt with him gently, 
-and although growing gradually more feeble, he paid his 

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customary visit to Devonshire in 1899, the last year of his 
life. To him Killerton remained always the dearest of 
districts, being his birth-place, and for so many years his 
home and that of his parents. As might be expected from 
one so gifted and genial, he had many life-long friends in 
the county, and although they, met but seldom the close- 
ness of their intimacy was never diminished by absence 
nor the adverse opinions held by some of those good men 
from whom he differed. By degrees his familiar face and 
figure were missed at the public meetings and in the busy 
streets of Oxford, but after relinquishing his walks and 
drives he still enjoyed going in a bath-chair into the parks, 
where the sight of the Museum was of unfailing interest. 
Occasionally also he could be wheeled down to the Cathe- 
dral whilst service was going on, but towards the last he 
was unable to take his place in the beloved House of 
Prayer. Very tranquilly the end came, and on a beautiful 
autumn afternoon in October, 1900, the faithful physician 
who had ministered to so many weary sufferers entered 
peacefully into his rest. 

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(? 1663-? 1739). 


(Reid at Totnes, 21st July, 1920.) 

The seventeenth century appears to be regarded by many 
Devonians as a kind of anti-climax after the glories of the 
sixteenth. Drake and Raleigh, Hawkins and Grenville 
are household words to us all, but comparatively few 
remember General Monk and tHe great Duke of Marl- 
borough, names which might make the reputation of a 
less fortunate county. It is therefore the less surprising 
that a seventeenth-century Devonian who is considered 
worthy of a place in the Dictionary of National Biography 
and several learned periodicals has never been mentioned 
in the Reports of this Association on Devonshire celebrities. 
Joseph Pitts of Exeter was the first Englishman to see 
Mecca, the holy city of the Mohammedans (whence no 
detected Christian may escape alive), and the first European 
to give an accurate account of the great pilgrimage thither. 
He was probably the fourth in the small company of 
Europeans (some fourteen in all) who made this dangerous 
pilgrimage before the opening of the railway to Medina 
in 1908. 1 

Of these fourteen, England contributes four, a larger 
number than any other nation. The first was one Ludovico 
de Bartema, an Italian gentleman, who made the pil- 
grimage disguised as a Mameluke in 1503, and wrote an 
account of his travels, a translation of which is given in 
Hakluyfs Voyages. He is generally accurate in his obser- 
vations, and it is probably the fault of the period rather 
than the individual that he saw two unicorns "ofa weasel 
colour " in the temple at Mecca* 

1 Augustus Ralli, Christians in Mecca, 1909. In 1910 the pilgrimage 
was made by rail by another Englishman, Major A. J. B. Wavell, of 
WavelTs Arabs, who was killed in East Africa 1916. 

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224 JOSEPH PITTS OP EXETER (?1663-?1739). 

Some doubt has been cast on the veracity of the second 
pilgrim, a Frenchman, Vincent Le Blanc, who seems to 
have been impelled on his travels by his marriage at 
Havre " to one of the most terrible women in the world." 
He states that he went to Mecca in 1568 with a friend of 
the inspiring but unusual name of Cassis. 

Johann Wild, a Bavarian, taken prisoner by the Turks 
in Hungary, made the pilgrimage with his Turkish master 
in 1607, but his account is vague and meagre. 

Joseph Pitts' book (1704) certainly marks a great 
advance in our knowledge of the holy places of Islam. It 
may be that his change of faith " under extreme torture 
and for love of a Temporal life ' n alienates our sympathy, 
but it should hardly forfeit his place in a list of celebrities 
that includes Bampfylde, Moore Carew, and Captain Avery 
the pirate. His book also describes his experiences during 
fifteen years of slavery in Algiers, a state of things now 
only kept in mind by the Prayer for Prisoners and Captives 
in our Church Litany. In the seventeenth century, how- 
ever, capture by the Turks, as all Moslems were then called, 
was as common a misfortune as fire or pestilence. Whether 
these piracies were the direct consequence of the expulsion 
of the Moors from Spain, and how far they were helped by 
English and Dutch sailors, thrown out of work by the 
cessation of naval warfare in James I's reign, cannot be 
discussed here, but it is certain that the ports of North 
Africa offered an asylum to ruffians of all nations who could 
handle a ship and would turn Mohammedan. Devonshire 
suffered more even than other maritime counties. In 1625 
Turkish pirates took Lundy ; 2 in 1630 the merchants of 
Exeter subscribed the then large sum of £500 for the 
suppression of Algerine pirates, and seven years later good 
Bishop Joseph Hall took counsel with Archbishop Laud 
as to a special service for the readmission into the Church 
of England of those " from the west parts " that had 
"" become Turks, being captured in Marocco." 8 

The lot of the prisoner so taken was hard indeed, depend- 
ing as it did entirely on the caprice of his purchaser. In 
the seventeenth century sailing ships had largely taken 

1 True and Faithful Account of the Mohammetans, by Joseph Pitts 
(Exon. 1704), p. 143. 

* Hist, of Lundy Island, by J. R. Chanter, Devon. Assoc. Trans., IV, 
p. 581. 

* Laud's Works, V, p. 352, quoted in MS. note by A. A. Hunt on 
1st ed. of True and Faithful Account in Devon and Exeter Institution. 

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JOSEPH PITTS OF BXETBB (?1663-?1739).J [225 

the place of galleys among the Algerines, so the captive 
had not to fear unceasing toil at one of the great oars, a 
fate which still overtook the Moslem who fell into French 
or Spanish hands. Prisoners taken to Algiers were not 
usually forced to change their religion, as was the case 
with slaves in Turkey f or Egypt, nor did they suffer quite 
so much as those taken by the rovers of SaUee, who were 
employed in gangs on the endless building schemes of 
successive Sultans of Morocco. Andrew Brice in his 
Gazetteer (published at Exeter in 1759) quotes Dr. Shaw 
(chaplain at Algiers 1720-33, D.N.B.), who gives the 
population of Algiers as Christian slaves 2000, Jews 15,000 
and Mohammedans 100,000, of which only 30(000) " at 
most are Renegadoes." He adds the somewhat surprising 
statement that many of the slaves live better than ever 
they did in their own countries. It is true that a slave 
skilled in some trade, which Turkish arrogance or Moorish 
indolence prevented the native Algerine from practising, 
might amass considerable wealth, or a slave in private 
hands might be treated as one of the family, and either 
might ultimately gain his freedom, but this by no means 
implied liberty to leave Algiers. Collections for the 
redemption of captives were made in every English parish. 
Each of the great powers had a Consul in Algiers through 
whom negotiations were made, and Roman Catholics were 
also helped by the devoted efforts of various orders of 
friars, notably the order of the Holy Redemption. But 
negotiations were lengthy, the ransoms asked usually 
■exorbitant, and but few of the many captives taken could 
■ever hope to see their native land again. 

Apart from his travels, we know very little of Pitts. 
His father, whose name was John, was a Nonconformist, 
probably the John Pitts who signed the petition of a 
ohurch in Exeter to King Charles II. 1 Joseph was one 
of several children ; he appears to have been born in Exeter 
about 1663, and to have received an excellent education. 

At the age of fourteen or fifteen, he tells us, " My Genius 
led me to be a Sailor, and to see Foreign Countries, much 
contrary to my Mother's mind, though my Father seemed 
to yield to my humour," and after two or three short 
voyages he sailed, on Easter Tuesday, 1678, on board the 
Speedwell of Lympstone, a fishing boat carrying six men, 

1 Professor Lyon Turner's Original Records of Early Nonconformity 
under Persecution and Indulgence (1911), p. 204. 


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226 JOSEPH PITTS OF EXETER (?1663-?1739). 

and owned by Mr. Alderman George Tothill, who had 
been mayor of Exeter ten years previously. 1 The captain 
(master) was Mr. George Taylor and the mate John Milton 
of Lympstone. They were bound for the West Indies and 
Newfoundland, intending to sell their catch of fish in Spain. 
Off the Spanish coast, however, they were taken by an 
Algerine pirate. The Speedwell was scuttled, and her crew 
chained with other slaves in the hold of the corsair, which 
took several other small ships, both English and Dutch, on 
the same voyage. 

A plan was made for a rising among these captives and 
the slaves who had been brought from Algiers to work 
the ship, their leader being one of the latter, Mr. James 
Goodridge, " now of Exon," says Pitts in 1704. He was 
probably the same " mariner " whose will was proved at 
Exeter in 1709, where he appears to have died a Quaker, 
and a man of substance. 

A similar rising had succeeded in the case of the Exchange 
of Bristol in 1622, 2 but this came to nothing, as one of the 
Dutchmen lost heart at the critical moment. 

Arrived at Algiars, the slaves were exposed for sale, ojae- 
eighth of their number being first chosen for the Turkish 
Government. Joseph fell to a private purchase*, one 
Mustapha, a shop-keeper and part owner of a pirate ship, 
who appears to have beaten the boy on all occasions for 
the pleasure of ill-treating a Christian. Three months of 
this treatment made Joseph glad to be sent to sea " to 
wait upon the head-gunner " of a corsair, and sorry ta 
return safely to Algiers. But within a few days he was- 
sold to a new master, a Turk of good family, the captain 
of a troop of horse who was commonly known as dUberre 
Ibrahim or handsome Abraham. He intended Joseph as 
a present for his brother at Tunis, but the latter not caring 
to accept the gift, kept him as one of his own slaves,, 
though the British Consul (who had met Joseph in the 
streets of Tunis) was anxious to buy him, and the boy'a 
eagerness to serve an Englishman may be imagined. 

Returning to Algiers he had to follow his Turkish master 
into the camp which set out every summer to collect the 
Dey's tribute from the unwilling Kabyles and Berbers. 

1 Izache's Antiquities of Exeter, 1681, p. 173. George Tothill died in 
1700. He lived in St. David's parish, and owned considerable property, 
much of it inherited from Mrs. Elizabeth Fleay, whose portrait is in 
Exeter Guildhall. 

2 R. W. Cotton in Devon. Assoc. Trans., XVIII, p. 186. 

Digitized by 


JOSEPH PITTS OP EXETER (?1663-?1739). 227 

Joseph gives a droll account of these mountaineers, who 
were struck by the flaxen hair and fair complexion of the 
English boy, whose appearance went to disprove the 
popular belief that Christians resembled swine rather 
than men. 

Here in an unlucky hour Joseph met Ibrahim's younger 
brother, who offered him great gifts if he would become a 
Mohammedan. Meeting with no response, this zealot 
suggested to his brother that the proselytising of a Christian 
would be an atonement for sundry murders and other 
peccadilloes of a wild youth, and at last so worked upon 
Ibrahim's fears that he started to convert his slave in 
earnest, regardless of any pecuniary loss that might ensue. 
Milder measures having failed, he had Joseph's bare feet 
tied up to the tent-pole and beat on them " with a great 
cudgel " and all the strength of passion. The poor boy 
held out long enough to increase his sufferings consider- 
ably ; but at last his limit of endurance was reached, and 
he woke next morning to find himself unable to stand or 
walk, but a Mohammedan and beyond the reach of ransom. 
Shortly after this arrived the first letter from his father in 
Exeter, sent secretly under cover from the former captain 
of the Speedwell, now a slave in Algiers. In it the father 4 
said he would rather hear of his son's death than of his 
apostacy. This was too much for poor Joseph. After 
some days of misery he showed the letter to his master, and 
told him that he was still a Christian at heart, only to hear 
that burning alive was the fate of renegades who recanted. 
There was nothing for it but to accept the position and 
write to his father, who in deep distress consulted most of 
the Nonconformist ministers in Exeter as to his son's 
spiritual plight, and at last wrote him a letter of forgiveness 
by the advice of Mr. Joseph Hallett. 1 

A few years later Ibrahim lost his head in an attempt to 
become I)ey of Algiers in the stirring times that followed 
the French bombardment of 1683 and the assassination of 
Baba Hassan. Joseph thus lost a chance of promotion, 
as he was to have been the Dey's secretary or treasurer, 
his known honesty counterbalancing his doubtful ortho- 
doxy. Instead of this he was sold a third time, and Bought 

1 Joseph Hallett II (1656-1722), pastor of James' Meeting, Exeter, 
1688. He conducted a Nonconformist Academy as early as 1690, which 
later became famous as a nursery of Unitarianism. He was expelled 
from his ministry in 1718 because of his opinions. (D.N.B.) 


zed by G00gk 

228 JOSEPH PITTS OF EXBTEB (?1663-?1739). 

by one Omar (or as Pitts, giving the soft Turkish pro- 
nunciation, spells it, Eumer), an old bachelor of kindly 
disposition, who took him on the great pilgrimage to Mecca. 

It seems clear that this must have been in 1684, not 
1680, the date given by most of Pitts' biographers. This 
alteration is more important than appears on the face of 
it, as the observations of a boy of seventeen could not be 
so valuable as those of a young man of twenty-one, who 
had spent the intervening four years in the East. Pitts 
also tells us that he was at Mecca at the time of the over- 
flowing of the Nile in Egypt — August to November. This 
tallies with the period of the pilgrimage (which with the 
whole Moslem calendar recedes annually thirteen days) in 
1684 or even 1685, but not in 1680. 

^Diversity of opinion on this point probably arose, because 
Pitts early lost count of the European calendar, and his 
habit of giving scraps of autobiography embedded in 
accounts of Mohammedan customs does not make for a 
clear chronology. 

Joseph's love of adventure and insatiable curiosity 
doubtless made him eager for the journey, but he cannot 
have known that he was the first Englishman to attempt 
it, any more than he can have foreseen that it would be 
one hundred and seventy years before another (Lieutenant, 
afterwards Sir Richard, Burton) should achieve it. The 
voyage was made by sea from Algiers to Alexandria with 
a party of pilgrims, among them an Irish renegade 
(possibly a survivor of the raid of Murad Reis on Baltimore, 
County Cork), 1 who had spent thirty years in the French 
and Spanish galleys, and was esteemed as a saint for his 
devotion to Islam, At Cairo they joined the great caravan 
which embarked at Suez for Jeddah. Joseph's observa- 
tions are everywhere interesting, and his accounts of Mecca 
and Medina most valuable, especially as the temple at the 
former had been destroyed by the Puritan Wahhabis and 
rebuilt before it was seen by another European, the 
Spaniard Badia y Leblich, in 1810. 

Joseph seems to have passed everywhere unsuspected, 
though he was put to a singular test of the genuineness 
of his* conversion by having to find blindfold a pillar, 

1 Stanley Lane Poole's History of the Barbary Corsairs, quoting Father 
Pierre Dan of the order of the Redemption, an eye-witness of the .con- 
sequent sale in Algiers of 237 Irish men, women and children, "even 
from the cradle." 

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JOSEPH PITTS OP EXETER (?1 663-? 1739). 229 

said to be the stump of the barren fig tree in the great 
mosque at Alexandria and at Mecca, and was publicly 
rebuked by a Turk for turning his back on the Bait Allah 
between the hours of prayer. After some four months 
in Mecca, Omar proceeded (as do about two-thirds of 
the pilgrims) to Medina to visit Mohammed's tomb. Here 
Joseph is able to refute the old legend that it hangs in 
mid-air, and remarks on the zeal of the faithful who are 
allowed to pray thrusting their hands through the iron 
grating of the tomb. While in this posture his master was 
robbed of his silk handkerchief. 

The return journey was made overland with the caravan, 
a romantic experience more familiar to the modern reader 
than the pack-horse traffic to which Joseph compares it. 
The plague raging in Cairo when they arrived, he and his 
master hastened on to Alexandria, and while Joseph was 
walking there on the quay he saw an English boat with 
a man in it, who when cautiously questioned proved to 
belong to the ship of one Mr. Bear of Topsham, on board 
of which was John Cleak of Lympstone, a friend and 
contemporary of his own. The two had a brief conversa- 
tion together next day, and Joseph managed to send by 
him a letter and presents to his parents — a green silk purse 
for his mother and a Turkish pipe for his father. 

The infection of the plague followed them on the return 
journey to Algiers ; Joseph himself sickened, but recovered. 
His master had given him his freedom at Mecca according 
to the usual Moslem custom, but the two were so sincerely 
fond of one another that they still chose to live together, 
Omar buying a Dutch boy to do the work of the house, 
and treating Joseph as his own son, promising him large 
sums at his death, offering him a wife, and advising him 
to mind his reading and writing with an eye to advance- 
ment in the Government. Joseph's heart was secretly set 
on returning to Exeter, however, and he refused these 
offers as gracefully as he could. He became a soldier in 
the Turkish army, and served as a "Bombagee" against 
the Spanish fort at Ceuta, and the Emperor of Morocco, 
the terrible Muley Ismail. 1 

1 Nick-named es-Semin=the stout. His energy, piety and cruelty 
kept him on the throne of Morocco for fifty -five years (1672-1727), and 
made the roads so safe that " a child could carry a purse of gold from 
Tangier to Tafnllat." When he appeared in a yellow robe his courtiers 
used to speculate on their chances of living out the day. (Adventures 
of Thomas Pellow, of Penryn, ed. by Dr. Robert Brown. Introduction 
and Notes.) 


zed by v G00gk 

230 JOSEPH PITTS OF EXETER (?1663-?1739). 

These expeditions appear on the whole to have been of 
a pleasant and picnic-like character, far less sanguinary 
than home life at Algiers with the French bombardments 
and consequent reprisals, or even the habitual executions 
too often of renegades who had attempted to escape. 

These examples deterred Joseph from making the 
attempt without a reasonable chance of success. In 1693 
he made the acquaintance of an English merchant, a Mr. 
Butler, to whose house he had gone to consult an English 
doctor (a slave) for ophthalmia. Mr. Butler introduced 
him to the English Consul, who proved to be the brother 
of Joseph's old friend at Tunis. The Consul at Algiers 
gave him a carefully worded letter to his colleague at 
Smyrna, whither Joseph went in the Turkish Grand Meet, 
having changed places with another Turkish soldier. 
English ships often came to Smyrna to trade, and he hoped 
to board one of them, but as ill-luck would have it the 
war with France (on the accession of William III in 1688) 
kept English ships away. 

After much weary .waiting both at Smyrna and Scio, 
beset by fears as to the horrid fate that awaited him if he 
were discovered, and tempted to give up all hope of escape 
by his expectations at Algiers and his real affection for his 
iormer master, Joseph's passage was paid on board a 
French ship by a Mr. Eliot of Cornwall, who, with the 
English Consul, Mr. Ray, had done all in his power to help 
the fugitive. Pitts at last went on board " Apparel'd as 
an English Man with my Beard shaven, a Campaign 
Perryurigg, and a Cane in my Hand." We can imagine 
his joy in these somewhat embarrassing trappings of 
civilisation. A Campaign periwig, we learn from Holne's 
i Armoury, 1688, is a Travelling Wig, and " hath Knots or 
Bobs (or a Dildb on each side) with a Curled Forehead." 

The French ship was bound for Leghorn, and arrived 
safely, in spite of chase by a privateer. Pitts tells us how 
he prostrated himself and kissed the earth, thanking God 
for his arrival in the " European Christian part of the 
Earth," and found himself in quarantine for twenty-five 
days, where he was hospitably entertained by a party of 
Jews. During this time a ship put in from Algiers with 
some redeemed Dutch slaves on board, who recognised 
Joseph and proposed he should join their party to walk 
-across Europe, to his great content, for a sea voyage always 
held a possibility of recapture. At the Austrian frontier, 

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JOSEPH PITTS OF EXETER (U 663-? 1739). 231 

however, Joseph's " left leg failed him," and he had to be 
left behind, the others not having money enough to wait 
for him. He soon recovered and started again on the 
march, but never rejoined his party, being always a day 
behind. He met with many adventures on the way, being 
on one occasion robbed and beaten by four or five German 
soldiers as he was going through a wood, " and I have 
since been told by one of that Country that I had a very 
narrow Escape, because the Germans seldom rob without 
committing Murder " ; but they did not find the bulk of 
his money which was in a belt under his clothes on the 
Eastern plan. 

Arrived at Frankfort, he found the city gate closed and 
not a house outside the walls (doubtless a great contrast 
to seventeenth-century Exeter). Joseph had no passport, 
and his story was met with incredulity. Snow was on the 
ground, and night was coming on. The poor wanderer 
46 sat down upon the Ground and bewailed my hard Lot." 
Some soldiers who were keeping guard "in a little Hutt 
or Tent " outside the gate took compassion on him, and 
called him in to share their fire and food. Joseph still had 
a little money, and one of the soldiers was dispatched to 
a neighbouring village and returned with wine in a bucket, 
and a friendly corporal undertook to get Joseph into the 
city next day, and if possible take him to an English 
merchant. The nearest he could find, however, was a 
Frenchman who had spent some years in England. He 
received Joseph most kindly, got him a passport and a 
passage down the Rhine, with an introduction to a brother 
merchant at Mayence. Through the rest of Germany and 
Holland Joseph's journey was as pleasant as possible, 
everyone eager to show kindness to one who had been so 
long in Algiers, and anxious for news of friends and rela- 
tives still in captivity. 

He crossed from Helvoetsluys to Harwich to meet with 
very different treatment, being " pressed " for the Navy 
on the very day of his arrival. Explanations were of no 
avail. He was sent to the prison at Colchester, and thence 
to the Dreadnought man-o'-war to proceed against the 

While there Pitts' name was called, a letter having 
come for him. This proved to be from Sir William Falkener, 
a Turkey merchant, to whom he had written while in 
prison at Colchester, and to contain a " Protection " from 


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232 JOSEPH[ PITTS OF EXETEB (?1663~?1739). 

the Admiralty Office. " I could not forbear leaping upon 
the Deck, and the Ship's Crew were highly pleased with 
the news." Joseph hastened home to his " dear Exeter," 
stopping in London to thank Sir William. 
. Arrived at Exeter, he did not dare to go straight to his 
home lest the shock should be too great for his parents, 
but going to a public-house near by inquired for some of 
his playmates of fifteen years before. Benjamin Chapel, 
he was told, still lived close at hand. Sending for him, 
Joseph asked him to break the joyful news to his father, 
and the story ends with the " godly joy and pious mirth " 
of an unhoped-for meeting. 

Joseph Pitts was two or three-and-thirty when he 
returned from the East, and though he lived in Exeter 
for the next forty years his career is hard to trace. He 
gives us no clue as to which of the twenty odd parishes of 
Exeter was his, besides as a Nonconformist it seems only 
too likely that he was baptized at James' Meeting, of 
which all records previous to 1707 1 have been lost, and 
buried in the Free Cemetery at Eriernhay, 2 of which the 
City authorities have no records before the nineteenth 
century. There is nothing to show what trade or profes- 
sion he followed, nor did he ever become a freeman of the 
city he loved so well, being probably disqualified as a 
dissenter ; he owns he was in a better way for preferment 
in Algiers than he could ever hope to be in England. It 
is possible that his skill in writing and figures got him some 
kind of clerkship, or he may, like so many Exonians at 
that date, have been engaged in the great woollen trade. 
He made the journey to London more than once, as he 
tells in the preface to his third edition (1731). 

" The late Mr. Lowndes* who was so long Secretary to the 
Treasury, had a great desire to see and converse with me. 
Accordingly when I was some Years since in London, 
Consul Baker " (of Algiers) " took me to him. Amongst 
other Discourse he told me, He was proud that he could 
say he had seen an English-Man who had been at Mecca ; 

1 MS. history of Nonconformist churches in the West of England, 
now in Baptist College, Bristol. Information kindly supplied by Mr. 
Edward Windeatt. 

2 I am indebted for this suggestion to Mr. Lloyd Parry, Town Clerk 
of Exeter, whom (with his subordinate Mr. Gay) I desire to thank for 
help in searching the City Records. 

8 William Lowndes, Secretary to the Treasury 1696-1724, M.P. for 
St. Mawes and East Looe, credited with originating the phrase " ways 
and means." (D.N.B.) 

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JOSEPH PITTS OP EXETER (?1663-U739). 233 

and withal assured me if I would accept of some Place, 
he would use his Interest to procure it for me. But I 
waved it in the best Manner I could, for some private 
Reasons." It seems probable that the private reasons 
included a wife and family at Exeter. One thing Joseph 
certainly did in his later life, and that was to write his 
book : "A True and faithful Account of the Religion and 
Manners of the Mohammetans, in which is a particular 
Relation of their Pilgrimage to Mecca, the Place of 
Mohammet's Birth ; And a Description of Medina, and 
of his Tomb there. As likewise of Algier and the Country 
adjacent : And of Alexandria, Grand Cairo, &c. with an 
Account of the Author's being taken Captive, the Turks' 
Cruelty to him, and of his Escape. In which are many 
things never Publish'd by any Historian before. By 
JOSEPH PITTS of Exon. EXON. : Printed by 8. Farley 
iot 'Philip Bishop andEdward Score in the High-Street.1704:" 
The title is sufficiently ponderous, and may well have 
deterred readers to whom the adventures would have 
appealed strongly ; but the book is none the less a remark- 
able achievement. The late Dr. Robert Brown of Edin- 
burgh, who possessed a unique collection of the auto- 
biographies of " Captives " among the Moors, speaks 1 of 
the general sameness of such works written for the most 
part by sailors, who even when they could write had 
forgotten their native language in captivity and were 
helped by the local parson or schoolmaster, who added 
flowers of speech and moral reflections to taste. Another 
type was the apochryphal voyage, made popular in Grub 
Street by the wonderful success of Defoe's Robinscn 
Crusoe. But "The True and Faithfull Account" is in 
neither of these categories. It wquld be vain to claim for 
it a high place as literature, the style is certainly crabbed, 
especially in the first edition. Neither is it in any sense 
a complete account of the Mohammedan religion, nor 
indeed was Pitts at all qualified to write such from a 
doctrinal point of view. Ibrahim would have doubtless 
scorned to explain the religion he advocated so forcibly, 
and his convert hated his new religion so heartily that he 
was probably content with the smallest performance of 
prayers and ablutions that his fellow-worshippers would 
tolerate, and an avoidance (wherever possible) of dis- 

1 In the Introduction to the Adventures of Thomas PeUow of Penryn, 
(Fisher Unwin, 1890). 

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234 JOSEPH PITTS OP EXETER (? 1663-11739). 

cussion of its teneis. This must account for his mis- 
translation of one of the simplest forms of prayer, and for 
his ignorance on so simple a point as that " A Mohammetan 
may have as many wives as 6e pleases," errors which are 
duly corrected in the third edition. Pitts also, it should 
be remembered, never pretended to a knowledge of Arabic. 
Turkish was spoken by the ruling class in Algiers, and the 
lingua franca, a hotch-potch of Mediterranean dialects, 
by slaves. 

As a record of manners and customs, however, his book 
is most accurate, and as a relation of strange things seen, 
done and suffered by a shrewd, observant man, who had 
doubtless told his story many times with force and a certain 
dry humour, it is more pleasant to read than many more 
pretentious works. There seems no reason to doubt, too, 
that it is as substantially truthful in what relates to his 
own experiences as it has been proved to be in his obser- 
vations at Mecca and Medina, which no one then living in 
Europe had the power of verifying. 

He tells us that it was with great reluctance that he 
published his book, doubtless from shame at his apostacy, 
but he was induced to do so in 1704, ten years after his 
return. The printer, Samuel Farley, is famous as the 
publisher of Prince's Worthies of Devon and the Exeter 
Journal. Philip Bishop was living in 1703 at the sign of 
the " Golden Bible " over against the Guildhall. 1 

The book sold well, for in 1717 M. Bishop (probably, as 
Dr. Brushfield in his Life of Andrew Brice, p. 10, suggests, 
the widow of Philip) 2 printed a second edition, to the great 
annoyance of the author. " The second edition," says he 
in the preface to the third, " was printed without my 
consent ; nay I knew nothing of the Matter till they had 
gone about half-way. I have wish'd since I had then 
published an Advertisement that I would in a little Time 
print a second Edition with Additions. This might perhaps 
have put a stop to the Press ; for I scarce ever saw a Book 
printed on worse paper, and so incorrect : But this must 
not lie at my Door." A copy of this edition is preserved 
in the British Museum library, and the author's criticism 
is certainly justified. 

His own corrected edition did not appear till 1731, 
when it was published by " J. Osborn and T. Longman at 

1 R. N. Worth in Devon. Assoc. Trans., XI, p. 501. 
1 Devon. Assoc. Trans., XI, p. 500. 

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JOSEPH PITTS OP EXETER (?1663-?1739). 235 

the Ship in Pater Noster Row, and R. Hett at the Rose 
and Crown in the Poultry." " Several have been very 
urgent with me to have it printed at London," says the 
author's preface, " assuring me it would meet with good 
Acceptance. Upon this I endeavoured to recollect some 
Things which had slipt me in the first Edition, and many 
soon ocur'd." In the preface to the first edition he had 
said : " I might have contriv'd it so, as to have made a 
much bigger Book of it, if I had thought fit, but I was 
willing that it should be for every bodies reading ; and 
therefore I was unwilling to make the Price too great." 
Certainly the third edition contains much more matter 
than the first, often just those picturesque details that a 
man writing his first book would consider beneath the 
dignity of literature, such as his sale from his first to his 
second master, the test of his conversion in Alexandria, 
the episode of the silk handkerchief stolen at Medina, 
the presents he sent his parents, his life with his third 
" patroon," and the detailed accounts of his being 
" pressed " for the Navy and his home-coming, which add 
so much to the interest of the third edition. It is a duo- 
decimo with two illustrations, " the gestures of the Moham- 
medans in their worship " and the temple at Mecca. The 
print is large and pleasant to the eye, and this with the 
improvement in the style makes this edition quite the 
pleasantest for reading. 

But not all the additions and improvements appear to 
be Joseph's own. The spelling of Arabic words is more 
conventional but less correct, Mohammet for Mahomet 
and Ollah for Allah in the first edition giving the Turkish 
pronunciation. Provincialisms too, such as "pooks of 
hay," have been carefully altered. 

Another difference between the first and third editions 
is to be found in the Dedication. Mr. Ray, Consul at 
Smyrna, had probably died in the intervening twenty- 
seven years, for the later edition is dedicated to " the 
Right Honourable Peter, Lord King, Baron of Ockham, 
Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain," the famous 
Exonian who owed his great advancement, as even his 
enemies admitted, entirely to his ability and knowledge 
of the Law (1669-1734 D.N.B.). King had in early life 
attended the academy of Mr. Joseph Hallett, the Non- 
conformist minister who was such a good friend to Joseph 

Digitized by 



Professor Thomas Seccombe in the Dictionary of National 
Biography hazards the year 1735 as that of Pitts' death, 
but in the absence of other evidence it seems .probable 
that the will of a Joseph Pitts proved at Exeter in Decem- 
ber, 1739, is his, though the identity of names can hardly 
be conclusive. There was a Joseph Pitts, a clergyman of 
the Church of England, who published several sermons at 
London and Ipswich in the first half of the eighteenth 
century, and an Aaron Pitts, a Nonconformist divine at 
Tppsham, whose father (also a minister and also named 
Aaron) died at Chard in 1738. 

It must be admitted, however, that the will is a dis- 
appointing document. It is undated, and there is nothing 
to show the testator's station in life or where in Exeter he 
lived. No inventory was exhibited, but his social status 
was not high, or he would have appeared as Mr. Joseph 
Pitts in the notice of probate. He leaves to his daughter 
Elizabeth Skutt £100 to be paid her at his wife's decease, 
" provided my Wife do not want in her life time " ; his 
wife Hannah Pitts being sole executrix and residuary 1 
legatee, and the effects at her death to be divided among 
the children " as their circumstances shall require and 
behaviour deserve." ' 

Something of the fate of the proverbial prophet seems 
to have overtaken Joseph Pitts in his own country, in 
spite of his recognition by Sir Richard Burton and other 
nineteenth-century writers. All his biographers mention 
that his book was not known to the learned and painstaking 
Gibbon, but it is even more remarkable that Andrew 
Brice, whose Gazetteer was published in Exeter within 
twenty years of Pitts' death, should be content to take 
accounts of Mecca and Medina from writers whose errors 
Pitts had exposed, and to make no reference to the latter, 
unless a hit at " Christian Renegadoes who have been to 
visit (Mohammed's) Tomb and afterwards escaping home 
turn'd Christian again as good and firm as they were before " 
be intended for him. 

As to the personal character of Joseph Pitts we can 
learn nothing beyond what appears in She course of his 
narrative. He certainly had great powers of observation 
and endurance, and a very fair measure of resolution and 
will-power. It would seem, too, that one who received 
kindness from so many people of widely different nations 
and characters (adopted as a son by a Turk, entertained 

Digitized by 


JOSEPH PITTS OF EXETER (U663-?1739). 237 

free of charge by Jews and succoured in distress by a 
German corporal) must have had something peculiarly 
attractive in character or address. 


A fourth edition of the True and Faithful Account was 
issued in 1738 by Messrs. Longman. A copy is preserved 
in Dr. Williams' Library, London, and it appears to re- 
semble the third exactly. Sir Richard Burton states th^t 
he had a copy of the fourth edition, but gives the date 
as 1708. He describes it as an octavo, and observes that 
the engraving headed "the most sacred and antient 
Temple of the Mahometans at Mecca " is the reverse of 
the impression. (Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to 
Al-Madina and Meccah, Vol. II, Appendix V, note 1.) 
This is not the case with the copy in Dr. Williams' Library. 

The parts of Pitts' narrative that relate to Mecca and 
Medina with most of his adventures were reprinted in 
1798 in Vol. XVII of The World displayed, or a curious 
Collection of Voyages and Travels selected from Writers of 
<dl Nations, etc. London : T. Carner and F. Newbery, 
Junior ; and the third edition was reprinted practically 
verbatim with Henry Maundrell's Journey from Aleppo to 
Jerusalem cti Easter, 1697, and A Journey from Grand Cairo 
to Mount Sinai and back again in 1810. 

Authors who have written on Joseph Pitts of Exeter 
-are : 

(1) Andrew Crichton devotes an interesting footnote to 
him in his History of Arabia (1830). 

(2) An anonymous writer in the Quarterly Review of 
1830 gives a brief account of Pitts in relation to Burck- 
hardt's Travels in Arabia, then just published. 

(3) A most interesting article (unsigned) in the Dublin 
University Magazine of 1846 is based on the first edition 
of Pitts' book. 

(4) Sir Richard Burton in the appendix of his Pilgrimage 
gives extracts from the True and Faithful Account describ- 
ing Mecca and Medina and the ceremonies observed there 
and a brief life of Pitts with explanatory notes of great value 
for Pitts' Arabic and Turkish words learnt orally and after* 
wards transliterated into English, complicated by a Devon- 
shire accent, need a master of languages to decipher them. 

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238 . JOSEPH PITTS OP EXETER (U663-?1739). 

(5) Mr. G. Townsend in Vol. IV of the Western Antiquary 
(1884-5) has an article reprinted from the Exeter Gazette 
Telegram of 19 February, 1884, on " Joseph Pitts of Exeter, 
the Mecca Pilgrim," in which he compares the different 
editions of his book and gives quotations. 

(6) Professor Thomas Seccombe, in the Dictionary of 
National Biography, has & most valuable life of Pitts, but 
makes the curious mistake of saying that it was with his 
second " Patroon " that he made the Pilgrimage. 

(7) The Rev. S. Baring-Gould, who includes Pitts in his 
Devonshire dharacteri arid Strange Events (1908), gives a 
delightful account, abridged from the first edition of Pitts 1 

(8) Augustus Ralli, in his Christians at Mecca (1909),. 
gives a life of Pitts, in which he follows Sir Richard Burton 
and Professor Seccombe. 


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(Read at Totnes, 21st July, 1920.) 


The Church began among the Jews as a section of the 
synagogue. Previously to the year 60 Nazarites, as 
Christians were at first called, were looked upon as a 
Jewish sect. Christianity, like Judaism, followed trade 
and spread from city to city. In some cities all the elders 
of the synagogue accepted it, in others only a few, in 
others none at all. Thus its institutions followed those of 
the synagogue. In each city it was under collegiate 
government, that of presbyters and deacons presided over 
by a ruler in place of the ruler of the synagogue. And 
when the breach with Judaism finally came local churches 
still continued under collegiate government, but subject 
to the apostles' authority until all of these had passed 
away. Some fifty years later a ruling presbyter, overlooker, 
or bishop is found occupying the place of the ruler of the 
synagogue in every city to which the faiths had penetrated. 

I. The Parish in the Roman Empire. 

The collegiate churches of the great Roman cities are 
not, however, the basis of the parochial system, the origin 
of which it is here proposed to investigate. On the 
contrary the term irapoiicia, in Latin paroecia or parish, 
when first met with in the fifth century is used of districts 
outside those cities. Innocent I. (401-416 a.d.) uses the 
term to express an outside or suburban district or chapel. 

Digitized by 



In his well-known letter to Decentius (Ep. 25 c. 5) he 
writes that the presbyters of the Roman city churches 
(titvli) celebrated the Eucharist every day in union with 
him their bishop, but on Sundays being obliged to preside 
in'their district churches (titvli) for the sake of the people, 
he was in the habit of sending to them by collets the 
Eucharist consecrated by himself that they might not 
deem themselves on that day separated from his com- 
munion. He does not, however, adopt the same course in 
dealing with the outside or suburban churches (paroecice) 
because the sacramental signs ought not to be carried about 
forjlong distances. Long before Innocent's time St. Paul 
in his letter to the Ephesians (ii. 19) had described Chris- 
tians as being no longer strangers and outsiders (irapoacoi) 
but fellow-citizens with the saints ; and St. Peter (Ep. i. 1) 
had exhorted the scattered Christians in Asia Minor as 
outsiders (irapoiKoi) to the life of the world to abstain 
from fleshly lusts. These passages show that the irapoiicos 
meant one who dwells close by but not in the city. 
A city church was not called a parish before the year 
SOI A.D. 1 

Prom being used of outside or suburban chapels to being 
used of any and all chapels dependent on a cathedral or 
collegiate church the transition was easy ; and so we find 
in North Africa and in the sixth century in Spain the term 
used as we now use it to express a country church or 
district served by a single priest. . The statutes of the 
early church [of Aries] in 505 Can. 31 run : " Let not deacons 
nor presbyters appointed to any parish (parochia) venture 
to exchange away (commviare) any property of the 
church." The 4th Council of Toledo in 633 Can. 26 runs : 
When presbyters are appointed to parishes. The earlier 
name, however, for what are now called parishes was 
plebs a people. 2 A rural church in this country was never 
called a parish before the 12th century, but a mass-priest's 
scyre or district. On the other hand, until the 12th century 

1 Leo III., a.d. 801, in Decret, Lib. III., Tit. IV., c. 1, says : Anastasius 
cardinal-presbyter of the city church (titulus) of St. Marcellus, was 
canonicaUy deposed by all in synod, because he deserted his parish for 
5 years contrary to canonical rule. 

2 For instance, in 348 the 1st Council of Carthage, Can. 5 : " Let no 
one employ a clergyman belonging to another people " (hominem cUterius 
plebia). In 397 the 3rd Council of Carthage, Can. 20 : Let no bishop 
usurp the people of another " nor supersede a brother bishop {collegum) in 
his own diocese." Council of Antioch, a.d. 341, Can. 3 : No presbyter or 
deacon to leave his own parish for another. 

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parish was here used of the sum total of a bishop's rural 
churches, which is now called a diocese. 3 

II. The Parish m Saxon England. 

In the 6th century when Christianity was first intro- 
duced among the Saxons by Roman missionaries they 
brought with them the institutions and usages to which 
they had been accustomed at home. They therefore first 
set up churches in the cities of Britain, Canterbury (Bede, 

I. 26), London (ibid., II. 3), Rochester (ibid., II. 3), York 
(ibid., II. 14), Dorchester near Oxford (ibid., III. 7), 
Winchester (ibid., III. 7). In each of these centres a bishop 
took up his abode with his family or staff of assistants, his 
mission being to evangelise the country round about, here 
called his parish or outside district, the peculiar feature of 
these early settlements being that both bishops and his 
assistants were monks. There must have been many 
others established as collegiate churches besides those 
named as existing names indicate, Wimborn minster 
established in 713 destroyed by the Danes (Dugdale, Mori. 

II. 88), and in the 10th century Axminster (ibid., VI. 1450) 
and Exminster (Gildroll, XXXVII. 11). Many of these 
appear to have existed at first independent of the bishop, 
but in time were included in one or other episcopal 
district, whether called parish 4 , territory, 5 province, 6 or 
diocese. 7 

8 Concil. Tolet. III. in 627, Can. 3 : Should a bishop assign any 
[property] belonging to his parish to secure the prayers of monks without 
detriment to the church, the gift shall stand. Concil. Cloueshoe (Lewis- 
ham), a.d. 747, Can. 3 requires every bishop to go round his parish 
every year. The papal legates at the Council of Cealchythe (Chelsea) in 
787 commands every bishop to go round his parish once a year. In 963 
archbishop Odo admonished his bishops to go about their parishes ever 
year preaching the word. A decretal of uncertain origin but prior to the 
11th century (in Gratian, Caus. XVI., Qu. I., c. 9) speaks of monks and 
abbots in the bishop's parish. Concil. Lat. 1, a.d. 1123, Can. 17, in 
Mansi XXI. 285, decrees That abbots and monks apply to the bishops 
in whose parishes they dwell for chrism and the holy oil. 

4 Egbert's Excerption, 28, c. 900, a.d. : Let every bishop take care 
that the churches in his parish are well built. 

6 Concil. Aurel. I. a.d. 541, Can. 17 : All churches (basilicas) wherever 
built shall be subject to the bishop within whose territory they he. 

• Concil. Tolet. XII. a.d. 681, Can. 12 : According to the institutions 
of the ancient fathers let the bishops of the several provinces (i.e. 
dioceses) meet every year on 1st November. Concil. Tolet. XVH. 
a.d. 694, Can. 6. 

7 Concil. Tarracon. a.d. 516, Can. 8 : Let a bishop every year visit 
his diocese (diocesim). 



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The bishop's parish supersedes the tribal system. 

In the century which elapsed between the coming of 
Augustin (a.d. 596) and the archiepiscopate of Theodore 
(673-692) the Saxon fchurch grew up around the principal 
cities on a tribal basis. The bishop's parish consisted not 
of an area but of a tribe or clan. The Jutes around Canter- 
bury, the East and Middle Saxons around London, the 
West Saxons around Winchester, the'Anglians of Norfolk 
and Suffolk, the Midlanders of Dorchester, and the North- 
umbrians of York each had their several bishops to govern 
them in spirituals. Such a method of personal government 
could not survive where individuals frequently changed 
their place of abode, and so archbishop Theodore, who as 
Bede says was the first bishop whom the whole people of 
England obeyed, divided rural chapels of the kingdom 
into parishes, i.e. dioceses, substituting local areas for 
tribal units. This creation of areal dioceses was the first 
step towards the subsequent creation of parishes. 

Inclusion of collegiate churches (dioceses) in the bishop's 

The next step was the inclusion of collegiate churchoB 
in the bishop's parish. Owing to a strange objection 
dating from the 4th century 8 it had become the custom not 
to appoint a bishop except in large cities, but collegiate 
churches were founded in all respects self-governing except 
in matters requiring episcopal order. The common name 
for such churches was administrative districts or dioceses.* 
The Saxons called them ancient minsters, 10 and it is in 
reference to these ancient minsters that Egbert's 25th 
Excerption prescribes : Let one entire hide (mansus=* 
120 acres) be given to every church service free. 11 We 

8 Concil. Antioch, a.d. 341, Can. 9 : " Let those in villages and rural 
places and those called rural bishops, even if they have received the 
ordering of bishops, know their places." Concil. Laodicea, a.d, 363, 
Can. 57 : Let not bishops be appointed in villages and rural places other 
than visiting ones (ircpioScvral). 

• Concil. Tarracon. a.d. 516, Can. 6 and 7 : Let presbyters and 
deacons in collegiate churches (diocesance ecclesiae) keep week-day 
services. Concil. Brae. II. a.d. 572, Can. 2 : Let no bishop when he 
visits his collegiate churches {dioceses) take more than 2 shillings. 

10 Wihtraed's Privileges, a.d. 692, No. 1 : Let all the minsters and 
churches that have been given and bequeathed to the honour of God 
. . . remain to the honour of God." Edgar's Law, a.d. 958 : " Let 
every church -shot go to the ancient rninster." Ethelred's Law, 4, a.d. 
1014 : Let every due go to the mother church. 

11 Gratian, Caus. XXIIL, Qu. VIIL, c. 25 ; Decretals, Lib. III., Tit. 

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hear of collegiate churches as well as see-churches founded 
almost immediately after the coming of Augustin. In 602, 
for instance, King Ethelbert not only gave to Augustin 
" a church which he was informed had been used by the 
ancient Roman Christians where he established a residence 
for himself and his successors " [the see-church of Christ 
at Canterbury] ; but he also " erected the church of SS. 
Peter and Paul not far from the city where he placed a 
body of monks " (St. Augustin's monastery, Bede, I. 32). 
In 633 Fursey founded a collegiate church at Cnobher's 
town in Suffolk now called Burgh Castle (Bede, III. 19). 
In 653 bishop Cedd built collegiate churches at Blackwater 
RiVer near Maldon in Essex (Ithancestre),*«tnd at Tilbury 
on the Thames (ibid., III. 22). His brother Chad in 660 
founded monastic churches at Lastingham (ibid., III. 23) 
besides others in 669 at Barton upon Humber in Lincoln- 
shire, at Barrow (At Barue) Chertsey (Ceortesei) and 
Barking in Essex (Bercingum, ibid., IV. 6). After defeating 
Penda at Winwidfield near Leeds in 655 King Oswy 
founded collegiate churches at Hartlepool (Heruten or 
Hart-island), Whitby (Streaneshalch or Lighthouse Bay), 
and Gilling in Yorkshire (Ingethlingum, ibid., III. 24). 
About the same time Sexwulf founded Peterborough 
(Medeshamstead or Meadow Hamlet, ibid., IV. 6), and 
in 688 King Ina built the minster at Glastonbury (Saxon 
Chronicle ad an.). 

By the Saxons these see and collegiate churches stood 
on a platform by themselves. The well-known law of 
Canute (No. 3 in 1017), which mentions four kinds of 
churches in all, calls see-churches head-churches, and 
ancient minsters middling churches. The breach of 
protection, it runs in a head-church is in the case of 
satisfaction equal to the breach of royal protection, that is 
according to English law 5 pounds ; and in a middling 
church 120 shillings, which is the same with the mulct 
to the king. 

Establishment of rural churches a work of time. 

Cnut's law then goes on to mention two other kinds of 
churches which it calls lesser churches. A subsequent age 
spoke of them as donative churches in contrast to collegiate 

XXXIX., c. 1. Gratian quotes this as a decree of the Council of Worms, 
but the Correctores state that it was a constitution of the King of the 

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churches which were known as elective churches. And 
they are stated in the document known as King Edward's 
Ecclesiastical Laws to have become about three or four 
times as numerous as they were in King- Alfred's time, 
(Eccl. Laws, No. 9). As these lesser churches form the 
basis of the present parochial system, it is obvious that 
(1) that system could not have come into being until such 
churches had become fairly numerous, and. (2) not even 
then until they had become amenable to episcopal 

The origin of these rural churches was the erection ot a 
building by the lord of the manor either to serve as a 
private chapelt for himself and his family or for a less 
worthy motive to be a source of income to himself out of 
the offerings there made after paying a priest to perform 
the services of religion. 13 

Within 100 years of the first introduction of Chris- 
tianity among the Saxons we hear of two lesser churches 
being founded in Yorkshire, one in 686 at South Burton, 
the country house of earl Puch about 2 miles distant from 
the monastery of Jarrow which John bishop of Hexham 
(Hagulstad) was invited to consecrate (Bede, V. 4) ; the 
other at North Burton, earl Addi's estate which the same 
bishop consecrated (ibid., V. 5). In both these cases the 
church was built by an earl, and the mass-priest was his 
private chaplain. Of course, no one who only held folk- 
land could build a church upon it for his own benefit. This 
privilege could only be exercised by a holder of bookland. 
Hence private churches must have been at first few and far 
between. They could not have become common until 
booklands had become common, i.e. until after Alfred's 
time. But before the Conquest all the land in the kingdom 
except the royal estates and the royal forests had been 

12 Concil. Agath. a.d. 506, Can. 21 : Should any one, outside the 
parishes in which the lawful and ordinary services are held, desire to have 
a prayer-station on his estate we allow him to have prayers there on 
other festival days to prevent fatigue to his household ; but at Easter, 
Christmas, the Epiphany, the Lord's Ascension, Pentecost and St. John 
the Baptist' 8 day or any other great festival let them attend nowhere 
save in the city or the parish. 

18 Concil. Brae. II. a.d. 572, Can. 6 : If any one builds a country 
church (bcmlica) not from devotion to the faith but out of covetousness 
, intending to share what is given by way of offering to the clergy there, 
on the ground that the church stands on his land (as is said to be the 
custom in some parts), let the rule be in force for the future that no 
bishop give countenance to such an abominable intention (votum) or 
dare to consecrate it. 

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granted out and the owners of most booklands had either 
themselves built churches or joined with neighbouring 
bookland-holders in building them. The power of building 
a church was an appurtenance of bookland and the church 
when built, like a borough, a market, or a fishery, was the 
property of the bookland-owner. If the bookland-owner 
desired to have service in the church it was his business 
or that of his villagers to provide the mass-priest with a 
maintenance. Or, on the other hand, he might farm out 
the church to the mass-priest for a fixed or a variable rent, 
and could appoint orxlismiss him at will. When, therefore, 
we read in Domesday of laymen possessing churches or 
portions of churches, we must understand that this means 
really possessing them, 14 not only the site on which the 
churches were built but the tithes, 15 offerings, 16 and dues 17 
which were appurtenant to the site, and possessing them 
so that they could give them to whom they liked and upon 
what terms they pleased. The bishop had only to be 
consulted if the nominee needed ordination. With such a 
state of things no wonder the complaints about simony 
were overwhelming. 

III. The Parish in Norman Times. 

Three things about the parish call for attention in 
Norman times : (1) the parish boundaries, (2) the position 
of the temporal or manorial lord in relation to it, and 
(3) the position of the spiritual head, the chaplain. 
Respecting the boundaries, the area of the parish con- 
sisted of the lands of one or more manorial lords who had 
built or combined to build the church, or of the lands of a 
submanor held under the crown or some important baron. 
The frequent occurrence of outliers is accounted for by 
these being outlying lands belonging to the same manorial 

14 For instance, " In the manor of Wanetinge in Berkshire Peter the 
bishop holds 2 parts..of the church with 4 hides thereto belonging which 
never paid geld. Now they are in the King's hand because they were 
no part of his bishopric. The 3rd part of the aforesaid church William 
the deacon holds together with one hide." In Suffolk the -^ of a church 
belonged to a small manor of 30 acres (D.-B. I. 75). 

15 Evidence of tithes being held by laymen is the numerous grants of 
them by laymen. 

18 The 1st Lateran Council in 1123 in its 14th Canon forbids laymen 
to take any part of the offerings made to churches. 

17 Such as the church-shot. See Trans. XXXIX. 368, n. 16. In 
Worcestershire the lord of a manor paid a horse-load (=240 lb.) of corn 
as church-shot. The villager usually paid a cock or a hen valued at 
one pennya 

Digitized by 



lord as the parish. An instance of a parish made up by the 
joint action of several manorial lords is Combe-in-Teign- 
head which includes the manors of Combe, Combe Cellars, 
Netherton, Buckland Baron, Middle Rocombe, and part of 
Haccombe (Trans. XLVII. 234). Exminster parish 
includes, besides Exminster manor, Shillingford Abbot, 
Matford Butter, Peamore, and Towsington (ibid., 235). 
The parish of Bradwood Wyger includes the manors of 
Bradwood Wyger, Downacary, Moor, and Norton Bauzan 
(Trans. XLVI. 238). On the other hand, Exminster, 
Kenton, and Kenn have each a distant outlier. Bystock 
is an outlier of Colaton Raleigh. Frithelstock has four 
outliers to the South West. Many more might be quoted. 

The manorial lord gives place to the parson. 

The first business which the Norman prelates set out to 
pursue, or rather those of them who were not engaged in 
fighting, hunting or hawking, was to establish episcopal 
control over donative churches. At a Council held at 
Winchester in 1070 Can. 6 ordained : " That bishops have 
free power in their dioceses over the clergy and laity." 
In the following year Can. 8 of Lanfranc's Council at 
Winchester ordered : " That masses be not celebrated in 
churches before they have been consecrated by bishops/' 
Can. 15 of Anselm's canons of Westminster in 1102 : 
"That new chapels be not made without consent of the 
bishop." Archbishop Carboyl's 9th canon at Westminster 
in 1127 in execution of canons 4 and 18 of the 1st Lateran 
Council, decreed : " We forbid churches or tithes to be 
given or taken by any person without the bishop's consent." 
The 5th Legatine canon at Westminster in 1138 : " Let no 
one accept a church or benefice from the hand of a lay- 
man." Canon 10 of the 3rd Lateran Council in 1179 : 
"We enjoin that laymen who hold churches do either 
restore them to the bishops or submit to excommunication." 
There were, however, always some manorial lords who 
stood out for their rights of property. Their churches have 
survived in independence almost to the present day and are 
now alone called donatives. 

One church-due only seems to have escaped central 
control, viz. the church-shot. This due, which dates from 
the time of King Ina (a.d. 692), had in many cases in 
Hampshire been given in whole or in part to the local 
chaplain, by whom it was held in the time of Domesday. 

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Originally like other church property it was in the hands 
of the manorial lord ; and according to the evidence of 
after-death inquests was in later times still held as an 
appurtenance of the manor. The Walraund Papers, for 
instance, show that at Steeple Launton in Wiltshire there 
were there " 293 acres of arable land, each acre being 
worth 4 pence, also 9 acres of arable land each acre being 
worth one shilling, pasture for 24 oxen, the pasture of each 
being worth 5 pence, pasture for 550 sheep, the pasture of 
each one worth a halfpenny ; rent of assise 103 shillings 
and 5 pence, a rent of 4 lbs. of wax to be paid at Pentecost ; 
for churcheshot (chersetum) 56 hens each worth one 
penny and the court and garden worth J mark " (p. 26). 
Among the revenues of the manor of Langford of which 
sir Robert Waulrond held the third part are enumerated 
" the churchshot whereof the third part is 11/10 J " (ibid., 
29). At Winterbourn Asserton the manor revenues 
included " churchshot on the feast of St. Martin 28 hens 
and 10 cocks each worth Id." (pp. 11 and 18). Among the 
manor revenues of Yatesbury " church-shot 10 cocks and 
30 hens " (ibid., pp. 14 and 17), and among the revenues of 
Wadden manor the church-shot is given as 17d. (ibid., 30). 
In all these cases the church-shot was still owned by the 
manorial lord and is treated as part of his manorial income. 

The claim of the bishop to control the patron's choice of 
incumbent by insisting on the necessity of his institution 18 
was based on the ground that since a cure of souls was 
appurtenant to possession of the site of the church, the 
fitness of the holder must be subject to the bishop's 
approval. This was the view taken by the Lateran 
Councils. Closely connected therewith was the further 
claim that tithes being God's right 19 ought only to be paid 
to those " whom the bishop could freely coerce." If, 
therefore, the manorial-lord had the patronage because 
the site of the church was held of him as feudal lord, the 
bishop claimed the administration of the tithes either by 
men in orders or by men of religion because tithes ought 
to be administered as a sacred trust. 

In the Council held at Westminster in 1102 Canon 13 

18 Concil. Westminster, a.d. 1138, Can. 5 : When any man takes 
investiture from the bishop let him swear on the Gospel that he has 
neither given nor promised anything. Const. 18 Langton, a.d. 1222 ; 
Lyndwood, p. 108. 

19 Concil. Westminster, a.d. 1127, Can. 9 : Tithes as the portion of 
Ood should be paid in full. 

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ruled : " That tithes be not paid but to the church only." 
This canon merely repeated what various councils had 
decreed in Saxon times, but which as Domesday shows- 
was still a dead letter. But the ruling came with different 
authority when the 1st Lateran Council decreed in 112& 
(Can. 4 in Gratian Caus. XVI., Qu. VII., c. 20 ; Mansi XXI. 
282) that " In accordance with the ruling of the most 
blessed pope Stephen we decree that laymen, albeit they 
may be men of religion, have no power of disposing of 
ecclesiastical property ; but according to the canons of 
the apostles let the bishop have charge of ecclesiastical 
property (res) and dispose of the same in the sight of 

This decree was followed by one more stringent at the 
2nd Lateran Council in 1139 which laid it down (Can. lfr 
in Mansi XXI, 528) that " Tithes of churches which 
canonical authority shows were given for pious uses we 
forbid by apostolic authority to be in the possession of 
laymen. Whether they got them from bishops or kinga 
or from any other persons let them kndW that unless they 
restore them to the church they are committing the crime 
of sacrilege and incur the risk of eternal damnation." In 
1179 the 3rd Lateran Council finally closed the door to 
laymen, keeping in their hands the administration of tithes 
by decreeing (Can. 14 in Mansi XXII. 226 ; Decretals of 
Gregory IX., Lib. III., Tit. XXX., c. 19) : Also we forbid 
laymen who at the peril of their souls withhold tithes to 
transfer the same in any way to other laymen. Should 
anyone receive them and not hand them over to the church, 
'et him be deprived of Christian burial." 

The effect of this canonical legislation was twofold. 
(1) The customary gifts in kind made to the local chaplain 
were now systematised and included among tithal obliga- 
tions under the name of altalage. (2) The disposal of what 
had hitherto been exclusively called tithes, that is the titho 
of corn and grain and of all things grown in the open field 
was taken out of the hands of the manorial lord, all that 
was left to him being the power with the bishop's consent 21 
to assign them to what church he liked. 

11 Concil. Westminster, a.d. 1127, Can. 9 : We forbid churches or 
tithes or ecclesiastical benefices to be given or taken by any person with- 
out the bishop's consent. Concil. Westminster, 'a.d. 1200, Can. 12 : 
According to the tenor of the Lateran Council we decree That no Brothers 
Templars, Hospitallers or any men of religion accept churches, tithes or 
any ecclesiastical benefice without the authority of the bishop. 

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Three alternatives in disposing of the tithe. 

Three alternatives now presented themselves to every 
dutiful patron of a Church who desired Christian burial. 
Either (1) he might appoint some trustworthy person 
(certa persona) 22 to undertake the. administration of his 
tithes who should become an officer of the church by 
being tonsured and admitted to minor orders. Or (2) he 
might bestow his tithes on the chaplain of his own church. 
Or (3) he might give them to some religious house or 
foundation with the bishop's consent. 

In places where the first course was adopted the place 
of the lord of the manor was taken by an officer of the 
church henceforth known as the trustworthy person (certa 
persona) or parson, 22 whose duty it was to receive and 
expend the tithes and other spiritual revenues in accord- 
ance with the canons. It will, however, be apparent from 
the quotations already made from the Walraund papers, 
that as the Lateran canons do not mention the church- 
shot, this source of income was in many places retained by 
the manorial lord. 

The earliest instance that I can quote for the use of the 
term parson in the sense of the man who is responsible to 
the bishop for the temporal administration of the church 
is the 20th canon of the 1st Lateran Council in 1123. It 
runs (Mansi XXI. 286) : " We ordain that churches 
together with their goods, as well parsons as property to 
wit clergy and monks and their lay brethren (conversi) 
also tillers of the soil and the implements they use shall be 
safe and free from molestation." The 12th Constitution of 
Clarendon in 1164 provides that when a church is vacant 
the king shall send his mandate to the chief parsons of 
that church and they are to make the election in the King's 
chapel " with the advice of the King's parsons whom he 
shall call for that purpose." Afterwards the term becomes 
common to designate the administrator of the temporalities 
of the church just as the term chaplain is used of the 
administrator of the spiritualities who has the cure of souls. 
The 13th Constitution of archbishop Langton in 1222 
forbids any " church to be committed to two rectors or 
two parsons." As the process of consolidation was then in 
full swing the use of the term parson in its proper sense 
soon disappears and it was generally in vogue as the 
equivalent of rector. 

" Lyndwood. IP; 


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Gifts to monastic or secular churches. 

Two or three instances of gifts to a monastic church of 
lands and tithes in Devon may be supplied from the 
Calendar of Documents in France : William de Poillei 
who in 1086 held Stoke Rivers, Beaworthy, Cadbury, 
Bickleigh, Buckland Monachorum and Sampford Spiney 
in Devon gave a third of the tithes of the corncrop from 
all his lands in Devon to St. Martin of S6ez (Cal. Docts. in 
France 235). Similarly Joslin de Pomeray in 1125 gave 
to the church df St. Mary du Val and to the canons there 
serving God according to the rule of St. Augustin not 
only land but also the tithe of his mares in Normandy and 
England . . . the tithe of his pigs and his mills at Berry 
[Pomeroy], his chaplain - dues (cwpdlaria) in England 
[i.e. his small tithes] to wit the tithe of wool and cheese 
and piglets and lambs at [Up]ottery (Otreuum) and of all 
belonging to his chaplain-dues in England (ibid., 536). 

Again William de Braose about 1160 in a charter ad- 
dressed to Robert [Warelwasst 1155-61] bishop of Exeter 
confirmed a grant made by Juhel his grandfather of lands 
and churches for the support of the monks of Clugny on 
the day when he founded [about 1080 a.d.] the dependent 
house (obedientiam) of St. Mary Magdalene, viz. Pilton 
and Pilland the churches of Bardestaple with the chapel 
of St. Salvius and all appurtenances, the mill of Barn- 
staple with milling-rights over the whole town and castle, 
the churches of Tawstock with all their appurtenances . . . 
two thirds of the tithes of Fremington and half the tithe of 
Tawstock together with the tithe of fish (ibid., 460). 

The instruments by which these gifts were assured 
usually specify the purpose of the gift. Thus bishop 
Bronescombe's appropriation of Dean Prior to Plymton 
Priory on 15 Oct., 1270 (Bronescombe 65), which is ad- 
dressed to the Prior and Convent of Plymton, sets forth : 
" Wherefore beloved in Christ, we being minded to further 
your humble devotion with paternal affection, in order to 
relieve the necessities of the poor and of strangers that 
flock to you, with consent of the dean and chapter of our 
church of Exeter . . . give and confirm to you in full 
right 23 the church of Dene with its fruits and obventions 
... to hold for ever to your own proper uses saving a 
suitable portion for the vicar to be canonically presented 

23 When a church was given in full right, the gift was a grant of the 
site, of the tithes and of the altalage or small tithes and offerings. 

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to us and our successors by you." When appropriating the 
church of St. Breward to the dean and chapter of Exeter 
on 5 Sept., 1278, the same bishop required that on the 
solemn anniversary every year the aforesaid dean and 
chapter should supply 50 poor invalids with food and 
drink to the value of one penny each (ibid., 243). 

Examples of gifts to the chaplain. 

Among examples of gifts to the chaplain of which docu- 
mentary evidence survives the majority no doubt being 
simply feof ments. "About 1 130 Simon bishop of Worcester 
(1125-1151) allowed and confirmed a gift of tithes made 
by the good men of Exhall (Eccleshale) in Worcestershire 
to the church which they had themselves built " (Dugdale, 
Hist. Warwick, 1656, p. 630). About the same date 
bishop Bernard of St. David's confirmed a gift of land and 
tithes to the church of St. Mary of Hay in Brecknockshire 
made by the lord of the manor William Revel with consent 
of his overlord Bernard de Novo Mercarto (Selborne, 
Ancient Facts and Fictions, 1892, p. 352). The deed sets 
forth that " he gave to the same church the tithe of his 
land of Hay in all things and of the land of Ivo and 
Malenianc and of all those who held of the fee of Hay. And 
lest there should be a doubt in future [about what was 
included] he gave and firmly granted the following 
tithes, viz. of the sheaf and hay, of fowls and calves, of 
lambs and piglets, of wool and cheese, of the fruit garden 
(virgvltum), of his rents in Wales, pannage and plea-dues " 
{ibid., 352). This was the gift of the entirety of the church, 
of the great tithes as well as of the small tithes to the 
chaplain of the church. 

The mass-priest becomes the chaplain. 

Turning to the spiritual side of the parish ; just as the 
manorial lord gave place to the parson in Norman times, 
so the mass-priest holding office at the will of the lord gave 
place to the chaplain instituted by and amenable to the 
bishop, in other words the incumbent became emancipated 
from lay control and was brought under episcopal control. 
This change involved three things, each of which was only 
gradually effected : (1) The recognition of institution by 
the bishop as necessary to obtain possession of a church ; 
(2) the limitation of the services or payments which a 
patron or other interested person could demand from an 

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incumbent ; and (3) protection against being disturbed in 
possession except by canonical process. 

Already in the 56th of Egbert's Excerptions, wrongly 
attributed to archbishop Theodore but which is far 
more likely a reproduction of a canon of the Council of 
Mainz in 813 a.d. (ap. Gratian, Caus. XVI., Qu. II., c. 37), 
we find it laid down that : " Without the authority and 
consent of the bishop let no mass-priest be appointed to 
any church or deprived of the same." But this was of no 
avail until the 1st Lateran Council in 1123 took the case 
up and by its 18th canon (Mansi XXI. 285) decreed : 
" Let presbyters be instituted by bishops (constituantur) to 
whom they shall be answerable for the cure of souls and 
for such things as belong to the bishop ; but let them not 
take over tithes or churches from laymen without the 
bishop's consent." Following this the Council of London 
in 1126, Can. 4, decreed: "Let no monk or clergyman 
accept a church, tithe or any ecclesiastical benefice without 
the bishop's consent." The same ruling is repeated in 
Can. 9 of the Council of Westminster in 1127, in Can. 5 of 
the Council of Westminster held in 1138 and presided over 
by Alberic legate of pope Innocent II. 

To prevent the chaplain suffering from the covetous 
demands of the manorial lord Lanfranc's Council held at 
Winchester in 1076 decreed (Can. 3) : That no clergy- 
man either in town or country pay any service for his 
ecclesiastical benefice other than what was paid in the 
time of King Edward. 

Manorial lords opposition to fixity of tenure. 

Notwithstanding the efforts made by the bishops to 
secure fixity of tenure against the patron for rural chaplains, 
the old idea that the lord of the manor, as o\*ner of the 
soil, could do what he liked with the church and therefore 
that if an estate changed hands it might also change 
chaplains still held its ground. Hence, when William Rufus 
gave the church of Sutton Courtney in Berkshire to the 
abbey of Abingdon, Aelfwij the priest appeared before 
the abbot and humbly prayed that possession of the church 
might be continued to him (Chronicon Monasterii de 
Abingdon II. 28). When Juhel gave the church of 
St. Mary at Totnes to the monastery of St. Sergius and 
Bacchus the presbyters Hubert and Anschetit appeared 
before the representative of the monastery and prayed to 

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be allowed to retain the fee which had been granted to 
them by Juhel (Trans. XXIX. 234, n. 17 ; Oliver, Mon. 
341). To prevent a chaplain being dispossessed by his 
patron Can. 9 of the Council of London in 1126 ruled : Let 
no abbot, clerk or layman oust any one from a church to 
which he was instituted by the bishop without the bishop's 
sentence. Alexander III. (1159-1181) found it necessary to 
protest against the view that the chaplain's tenure of the 
benefice depended upon the lord's tenure of the estate. 
To Henry II. he wrote (Mansi XXII. 440) : " We have 
received a letter of your majesty addressed to us on behalf 
of R. a knight as to the patronage-right of the church 
of . . . (Ligurgis al. Bligurd). . . . But seeing that it is 
contrary to the rules of the holy fathers were we to allow 
clergy to be put out of churches which they have canoni- 
cally acquired under cover of patronage, we cannot with 
good conscience oblige the said knight as requested." 
Another decretal of the same pope Alexander III. (Mansi 
XXII. 238 ; Decretals Lib. III., Tit. XXXVIIL, c. 9) 
declares : We have received a complaint addressed to us 
by f the prior and convent of Lanthony (Lanch) setting 
forth that R[oger] sometime earl of Hereford (1144-50) 
acknowledged before J[ohn de Pagham] of happy memory 
sometime bishop of Worcester (1151-58) the right which 
the said prior and brethren ought to have in the church of 
Wick by grant of H[ugh de Lacy] founder of the said 
church [in 1108] and father-in-law of the said Roger. . . . 
But after the aforesaid earl had divorced C[ecilia daur. of 
Payne Fitzjohn] his wife, the same C[ecilia] married 
W[illiam] of Poitiers who withdrew all the fruits of the 
benefice from the said prior and brethren and bestowed 
them on R. priest of the same place without the bishop's 
authority. Afterwards when on the death of W[illiam] the 
said C[ecilia] married for the third time W[illiam] de Mayne, 
this W[illiam] persisted in the same evil course on the 
ground . . . that what the bishop had done in the church 
which was his wife's advowson at the time when she was 
under coverture could not prejudice him, and that unless 
be could bestow the church as he liked his wife's patrimony 
would not come to him in its entirety. Now seeing that 
it is monstrous and unreasonable that appointments to 
churches should be made to depend on changes of patrons 
... we enjoin upon you, etc. 
Abuses, however, still continued, as is evidenced by 

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Canon 14 of the 3rd Lateran Council in 1179 (Mansi XXII. 
226; Decretals, Lib. III., Tit. XXXVIII., c. 4) which 
declares : " Seeing that the audacity of some has got to 
such a pitch that setting at naught the authority of 
bishops they institute clergy to churches and remove them 
at their own sweet will and also as they list dispose of their 
property and other ecclesiastical goods ... we ordain 
that they who in future shall be guilty of such conduct 
shall be struck with anathema." 

In 1180 Alexander III. wrote to the archbishop of 
Canterbury (Mansi XXII. 378) : From constant com- 
plaints of persons we learn that in your parts a bad and 
abnormal custom prevails of clergy out of sheer avarice 
taking over churches and ecclesiastical benefices without 
the consent of the diocesan bishop or his officials. . . . We 
therefore command that every bishop in his bishopric 
shall at least 4 times a year renew the sentence of ex- 
communication against such as do so, and do ye cause 
[this command] to be carried out barring cavil and 

Even after the civil legislation of Henry II. we find the 
4th Lateran Council in 1215 in its 32nd Canon (Mansi XXII. 
1021) complaining : An evil and corrupt practice which 
ought to be put down has grown up that in some places 
patrons of parish churches and others claim for themselves 
their entire income leaving so slender a portion for the 
presbyters told off *to serve them that they can scarcely 
subsist upon it. We therefore ordain that notwithstanding 
any custom pleaded by bishop or patron or by any other 
person a portion shall be assigned to the presbyters 
sufficient to maintain them. 

The possession of land. 

The most effectual thing, however, whereby the 
chaplain's fixty of tenure was secured was the possession 
of land and the legislation of Henry II. 

According to the evidence of Domesday very few 
parochial chaplains were in 1086 holders of land. Even 
the site of the church was still regarded as the possession of 
some lay lord or else as held as a tenement of some manor. 
At Wantage, however, both the parson and the chaplain 
had an estate in land. Peter the bishop had 4 hides as 
parson not belonging to his see and William the deacon as 
chaplain had 1 hide free of geld. The church of Hanney 

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held by Turold the priest was endowed with one hide. At 
Compton the church was endowed with £ hide ; at Lockinge 
with i hide, at Sparsholt Edred the presbyter had 1 hide. 

In Devonshire in a list of 12 estates " given to God in 
alms," only two were held by the chaplains of non-collegiate* 
churches. Sawin the queen's priest had at Swymbridge an 
estate of 3 virgates. Algar had at Braunton one hide of 

The legislation of Henry II. 

If by gifts of land fixty of tenure was secured to a small 
number of rural chaplains, the legislation of Henry II 
(a.d. 1154-1189), which made possession nine points of the 
law, affected all but a very few. This legislation following 
that of the Civil Law, the knowledge of which had been 
lately introduced by # Vacarius at Oxford distinguished 

between proprietary and P ossess i ve ac ]|ons ^ s P r °f essor 
Maitland observes (Constitutional History, 12) : " Pro- 
prietary actions still went to the feudal court. But Henry 
by some ordinance that we have lost took under his royal 
protection the possession, or seisin as it was called of all 
freeholders." " He provided in his own court remedies 
for all who were disturbed in their possession. These 
remedies were the possessory assises [or sittings of the King 
and his barons to try actions] concerning Novel Disseisin 
and Mart d'Ancestre. There was a third assise that of 
Darrain presentment or East presentation. The machinery 
was in the first place intended to protect possession only, 
but it was gradually extended to all other actions. Henry 
himself extended it to proprietary actions for land in the 
form of the Grand assise. By means of this writ the person 
sued might refuse trial by battle, the usual method in the 
feudal court, and have the question " Who has the best 
right to this land ? " submitted to a body of his neighbours 
sworn to tell the truth." Hence, whereas in Saxon times 
the right to the church followed the property in the manor 
of which it formed part, by Henry's legislation possession 
was the important thing. When once put into lawful 
possession of freehold land, the possessor could not be 
disturbed by the claim of the stronger but only by legal 
action. As Glanvill writing about 1180 expresses it 
(Lib. XII., c. 20) : " A fit person instituted by the bishop 
shall retain his benefice during his life whatsoever may 
afterwards happen in respect to the advowson." 

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Inquests of patronage. 

Inquests of patronage held at a somewhat later date 
illustrate the effects of this legislation. They state that the 
incumbent of a benefice is a life-tenant because he is in 
lawful possession by induction or seisin, though the' 
property in the land of the benefice may still be in the lord 
of whom the land is held. They also explain why ordinary 
village churches are not mentioned in the pages of Domes- 
day, because the land or site of the church to which the 
chaplain-dues belong, was like other unrecorded freeholds 
included in the manor. Thus on 28 Feb., 1445, the 
chapter of the deanery of Trigg minor make return upon 
oath (Bronescombe 471) : The true patron of St. Tudy 
for this turn is John Nantan, and the right of presentation 
belongs to him for this turn by reason of a grant made to 
him in fee simple of lands and tenements within the manor 
of Trethywelle and St. Tudy, together with the glebe and 
all appurtenances ... to which the right of presentation 
is appurtenant " (Lacy, 294). 

Again on 16 Feb., 1448, the chapter of North Tawton 
return upon oath : The most illustrious King Henry VI. 
last time presented to North Tawton by reason of the 
minority of Thomasia daughter and heiress of Richard* 
Hankforde, lord of a certain glebe within the parish of 
Cheping Tawton to which the right of patronage is appur- 
tenant " (Lacy, 330). 

In almost the same words the chapter of Shirwell 
deanery state upon oath : " On the last occasion the 
right of presentation to Laxhore belonged to sir Richard 
Chichester, knight by hereditary right by reason of a 
certain glebe existing within the parish of Lokyshore to 
which the right of patronage in the said church is appur- 
tenant " (Lacy, 330). 

In all these cases-— and many more to the same effect 
might be quoted — the finding is that the glebe being held 
of the lord as part of his fee and the church being appur- 
tenant to the glebe, give to the lord the right of presentation 
whenever there is a vacancy. 

IV; The Consolidation of the Parish. 

Of the three varieties of persons to whom grants of 
tithes might be made pursuant to the decrees of the Lateran 
Councils, those made to religious houses were by far the 

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most satisfactory. Those made to individuals who were 
admitted to minor orders in order to take them proved 
-eminently unsatisfactory. An example of such unsatis- 
factoriness is the way in which William Tracy disposed of 
his churches and tithes " before his crime against 
St. Thomas." As lord of the barony of Braneys William 
de Tracy was patron of a group of churches including 
Huntshaw, Countesbury, Lynton, Combe-in-Teignhead, 
Ouwys Morchard and Whipton. All of these he made 
over by one grant to Alan de Tracy, presumably a relative 
but not his heir, a clerk in minor orders, and Alan de Tracy 
granted them to one Thomas, a clerk at a fixed pension. 
From a charter executed by William's nephew Hugh de 
Coterna between 1186 and 1191 we learn that on William's 
death Hugh confirmed his uncle's grant to Alan de Tracy 
and that Alan appeared before John bishop of Exeter 
(1186-1191) to have possession assured to him after the 
death of Thomas the clerk in possession (KaL, Docts. in 
France 194). 

To prevent abuses such as this the bishops encouraged 
the consolidation of benefices that is the union of the 
parsonship and the chaplaincy in the hands of one and the 
same person ; and although the record is wanting con- 
solidation must have proceeded apace before the time of 
bishop Bronescombe whose registers are only evidence of 
the practice at the finish. 

Examples of consolidation. 

Among other churches consolidated in the diocese of 
Exeter in the time of bishop Bronescombe (a.d. 1257-1280) 
'" Richard de Hydone was admitted to the whole church of 
Meshaw on 3 Sept., 1263, by consolidating the portion 
which the presbyter Juvenal long held in it with the 
parsonship (personatus) or portion of 2 shillings " (Brones- 
combe, 155). On 19 Oct., 1258, the vacant vicarage of 
the church of Churchstaunton was " consolidated with the 
parsonship on condition that the rector of the same church 
should keep personal residence in the same " (ibid., p. 124). 
On 28 August, 1260, the same bishop " on the presentation 
of Richard de Trendelesho admitted Henry a presbyter 
for some time vicar of the said church to the vacant rent- 
charge of 2J marks in the same church, and considering 
that the resources of the church were insufficient for [the 


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support of] two, instituted him to the entirety (ibid., 188). 
On the same day the bishop on the presentation of William 
de Raleghe " consolidated the vacant vicarage of Laxhore 
with the parsonship and instituted Roger a presbyter there 
as rector of the said church in its entirety " (ibid., 152). 
On 25 April, 1261, the bishop " consolidated the then 
vacant vicarage of the church of Hamme (Georgeham) 
with the parsonship of the same, saving to the dean of 
Exeter and his successors a rent-charge of 20 shillings by 
reason of the church of Braunton [of which Georgeham 
formed part] being annexed to the deanery of Exeter " 
(ibid., 93). On 26 April, 1261, the bishop consolidated the 
church of Lawhitton and assigned it to the rector of the 
same to hold by the title of perpetual commendation 
(ibid., 149). On 26 Dec, 1262, William de Membiri 
subdeacon was admitted to the entirety of the church 
of Methe in which he previously had 5 marks yearly by 
the name of the parsonship (ibid., 155). On 1 March, 1264, 
the bishop admitted Roger de Sancto Constantino, clerk, 
to the parsonship of 2 marks in the church of St. Newlyn 
with right to succeed to the entirety on the death of the 
chaplain [in possession]. Again on 25 January, 126|, the 
bishop admitted Richard de Bamfeld to half a mark of 
silver (6/8) by name of the parsonship of Thoverton with 
right of succeeding to the entirety on the death of Richard 
de Chipestable and instituted him as rector in the same 
church (ibid., 185). A later instance of consolidation 
occurred in July, 1282, when bishop Peter Quivil decreed 
the consolidation of the vicarage of St. Phillack with the 
parsonship there into a rectory (Quivil, 366). 

The effect of consolidation was to unite the temporal 
and the spiritual administration in the same person and to 
establish in rural districts an officer exercising all the 
powers previously exercised by a bishop in his see-church, 
barring those requiring episcopal order. This officer is 
henceforth known as the rector. 24 

24 The term rector or ruler was originally confined to the bishop, and 
then given to the head of a collegiate church owing to the strange 
prejudice current since the 5th century of not having a bishop except 
in a large city. It is used of the bishop in the Constitution of Otho, 
a.d. 962 ; ap. Gratian, I. Dist. LXIIL, c. 33 ; to the head of a collegiate 
by Concil. Clevesho, a.d. 747, Can. 24 : Let bishops of churches and 
rectors of monasteries know, etc. It is used of the head of a rural church 
in 655 by Concil. Tolet. IX., Can. 2, and in 675 by Concil. Brae. III.,. 
Can. 7. 

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Vicars temporary and perpetual. 

It was obviously impossible for a religious house or a 
collegiate church to which a distant rural church or its 
tithes had been given to discharge either its temporal or its 
spiritual duties except by deputy, and such a deputy 
when appointed with the bishop's sanction was commonly 
called a vicar, but sometimes a prior, for instance at 
Ipplepen, Woodland and Otterton. When a religious 
house held a church in full right, it usually served it by 
sending a monk who was a priest to act as temporary 
chaplain or vicar with one or more members to bear 
him company and the chaplain was constantly changed. 
Where a vic&r was perpetual, a religious house often only 
allowed him what seemed to secular clergy a very diminu- 
tive allowance. Hence Alexander III. (1159-1181) was 
fain to address a decretal to the bishop of Worcester 
(Decretals, Lib. III., Tit. V., c. 12 ; Mansi XXII. 397). "As 
to monks who so grind down the vicars of parochial 
churches that they cannot exercise hospitality and have 
not even enough to support themselves, be pleased to 
give heed not to admit any one on the monks' presentation 
unless in your presence a sufficiency has been, assigned to 
him from the revenues (proventus) of the church wherewith 
to discharge episcopal-dues and to supply him with 
adequate support." Some religious houses, however, 
preferred to make a grant of the rectory for life to the 
vicar upon terms satisfactory to both parties. Exminster 
church, for instance, which William de Vernon earl of 
Devon had given on 8 June, 1208, to Plymton priory 
(Devon Fine, No. 59) and which in 1288 was valued at 
£17. 6. 8. (Bronescombe, 452) was given by that priory to the 
chaplaiiv of Exminster who thus became rector at a 
reserved rent of £6. 13. 4. (ibid., 453). Afterwards the 
reserved rent was reduced to 66 shillings and 8 pence and 
this sum continued to be paid by the rector of Exminster 
to Plymton priory until the dissolution (Oliver, Mon. 149). 
Similarly the rectory of Down St. Mary valued in 1288 at 
40 shillings (Bronescombe, 455) was granted by Buckfast 
abbey, the impropriators to the chaplain of Bucfast at a 
reserved rent of 24 shillings (Oliver, Mon. 377). In most 
cases the bishop settled what the vicar was to receive and 
so protected him against the caprice of the rector. Such a 
settlement was termed a taxatio. On 17 August, 1269, 


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bishop Bronescombe settled all the Cornish vicarages in 
the deaneries of Trigg major, Trigg minor, East and West 
(Reg. 269) ; on 28 August, 1269, all the vicarages East of 
the Exe and on 26 August all the vicarages in the arch- 
deaconry of Barnstaple (ibid., 270). Particulars of a large 
number of those settled after 1259 are to be found in the 
Episcopal Registers, but only a very few of those made 
before that date are extant. Attention may be drawn to 
two points about them all, viz. : (1) the distinction 
between tithe from the curtilage and garden and tithe 
from the open field ; and (2) the way in which parochial 
charges are usually thrown on the vicar who by way of 
compensation usually receives a good deal more than the 
small tithes. Thus, for example, the tithe of peas grown 
in the garden or curtilage is usually assigned to the vicar 
together with offerings under the name of altalage, whilst 
the tithe of peas grown in the open field goes to the rector. 25 
The charges which are commonly thrown on the vicar are 
the archdeacon's procuration, the bishop's cathedraticum 
or see-due, a sum fixed not to exceed 2 shillings 26 and the 
bishop's synodaticum or synodals, 27 often confounded with 
procurations. It is also worthy of note that although much 
abuse has been lavished on the monks since Henry VIII.'s 
time, yet to judge by the recorded settlements the vicar 
of an English parish fared much better at their hands than 
at the hands of a secular collegiate church. So carefully 
had the monasteries discharged their duty to the poor, in 

25 Thus at East Budleigh all the altalage and the whole tithe of beans, 
peas or vetches growing in gardens was on 28th August, 1269, assigned 
to the vicar {Bronescombe, 40). On the same day at Halberton the whole 
altalage and the whole tithe of hay, flax, beans and peas growing in 
gardens was assigned to the vicar (ibid., 99). At Kingsteignton the vicar 
was to have the tithes of beans and peas from the curtilage, however 
grown, and master Thomas the parson was to have the tithe of beans and 
peas grown in the open field (ibid., 191). At St. Issy the vicar was to have 
the tithe of hay of the whole parish together with the tithe of beans and 
peas growing in gardens and hitherto cultivated as such (ibid., 250). At 
St. Kea he was to have the atalage of the mother church and its 2 
chapels but not the tithe of beans and peas growing in the open field (in 
campis) ibid., 250. At St. Keverne the vicar was to have the tithe 
of beans and peas " in the ancient curtilages existing at the date 
of the present settlement, but not the tithe of beans, peas and 
vetches growing in the open field of the whole parish (ibid., 251). 
See also St. Marychurch (ibid., 253), Yarcombe (ibid., 285) and Zennor 
(ibid., 285). 

*• See the case of Antony (in Stapeldon, 32), Barnstaple (ibid., 41 and 
Trans. L.), Upottery (ibid., 397). At Rattery the vicar was to pay one- 
third and the appropriators two -thirds of both ordinary and extraordinary 
charges (Bronescombe, 370). 


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nursing the sick and exercising hospitality that notwith- 
standing the shortcomings of individuals most of them had 
incurred liabilities in meeting their expenses and were 
deeply in debt at the time of the dissolution. 

Statutory requirement that vicars shall be perpetual and be 
adequately endowed to exercise hospitality and almsgiving. 

Although the bishop's institution was necessary to put 
a man in possession of a cure of souls, yet such institution 
might be given either for a limited term of years or for life 
as a perpetuity. The universal requirement of institution 
for life, whereby an incumbent acquired a freehold was the 
result of a statutory enactment at the end of the 14th 
century. But even when a man had been instituted for 
life, a parish might still be exposed to perpetual changes if 
the vicar were a man of religion under a vow of obedience 
to his abbot, because the abbot might at any time call upon 
him to resign. Moreover, church property even when 
conscientiously administered by a religious house, did not 
always benefit the poor or the sick of the parish from which 
it was forthcoming. The religious house usually lay far 
away ; the villagers were not benefited by its well-kept 
infirmary, its hospitality to strangers, or the excellence of 
its library. Hence the local tithe-payer had a grievance 
intensified possibly by the tradition of times when the 
dispensation of tithes was in the hands of the manorial 
lord. These grievances made themselves felt in time, and 
in 1391 found expression in an Act of Parliament which 
among other things ordained (15 Ric. II., c. 6) : 

" Whereas divers losses and inconveniences have oft- 
times happened and do happen from day to day to the 
parishioners of divers places by the appropriation of the 
benefices of the same places, it is agreed and allowed 
that in every license to be henceforth made in the 
chancery, for the appropriation of any parish church, it 
shall be expressly contained and set forth that the 
diocesan of the place upon the appropriation of such 
churches shall ordain, having regard to the value of such 
churches, a convenient sum of money to be paid and 
distributed yearly out of the fruits and profits of the 
same churches by those that shall have the said churches 
in proper use and by their successors to the poor 
parishioners of the said churches in aid of their living 

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and sustenance for ever ; 27 and also that the vicar be 
well and sufficiently endowed." 

Not content with this statute, 11 years later in 1402, 
Parliament passed a further Act (4 Hen. IV., c. 12) which 
after re-enacting the above made the following additions : 

." From henceforth in every church so appropned or 
to be appropried a secular person shall be appointed 
perpetual vicar, canonically instituted and inducted 
and adequately endowed at the ordinary's discretion, 
to do divine service, to instruct the people and to keep 
hospitality there ; and that no man or religion be in any 
wise made vicar in any church so appropried for the 
time to come." 

To sum up, the elaboration of the English parish took 
more than 700 years to complete. It began as a private 
institution among the Saxons and for 300 years it con- 
tinued more or less a private institution, created and 
endowed by the manorial lord and treated as an appur- 
tenance of the manor. During the next 200 years under 
Norman administration and as a result of the decisions 
of three of the Lateran Councils it attained a canonical 
position.. The manorial lord gave place to the parson 
as administrator, and the mass-priest-at-will to the 
chaplain, whose tenure was dependent on the bishop, not 
on the caprice of the manorial lord. Finally, at the end 
of another 200 years, by the intervention of the State, Jhe 
incumbent acquired the benefice as a freehold, and some 
provision was secured for the local poor out of the resources 
of the parish. The parish, as we know it, was complete in 
1402, and its canonical position was not altered by the 
passing of the first Poor Law Act in 1601 rendered neces- 
sary to provide a substitute for the charitable offices 
previously provided by the religious houses gratuitously. 

* 7 When I was vicar of Sparsholt, Co. Berks, of which the rectory was 
appropriated to Queen's College, Oxford, in 1387, I received every year 
from the college 13/4 or 1 mark under the heading Pawperibus, i.e. For 
the poor. 


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(Read at Totnes, 22nd July, 1920.) 

It is thirty-four years since Edward Parfitt read before this 
Association a paper dealing with the Fresh- water Algae of 
Devonshire. Since that time the study of this group of 
plants has assumed an importance and dimensions that no 
one could have foreseen. It has passed almost entirely 
from the hands of the amateur botanist into the hands of 
the professional and specialist, and the literature that has 
grown up around the subject in all languages is little short 
of gigantic. Nor can one be surprised that the group 
commands such attention from scientific men when it is 
remembered that it holds the answers to some of the most 
important biological problems, and that its converging 
lines meet in the Volvocineae those o£ the Flagellata and 
thus connect through the Protista the two great kingdoms 
of the vegetable and animal worlds. The fact that the 
study of Fresh-water Algae has become a highly specialized 
and academic one has an unfortunate aspect for the 
amateur working at local floras ; this is, that such a worker 
oannot hope to determine with anything like certainty a 
very large proportion of the species he collects. Existing 
systematic works on the group are hopelessly out of date ; 
nomenclature, classification and terminology are widely 
different now from what they were when Parfitt compiled 
his paper, and it is only by being in touch with a well- 
equipped algological library that any considerable work can 
be accomplished, and such libraries rarely exist away from 
university centres in which some professor specialises as 
an authority on the group. It may be asked why the 
amateur algologist should attempt investigations with such 
a severe handicap. The answer is, that by constant and 
patient work, aided by the help professional specialists 
usually generously give to enquiries, some knowledge of 

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the local algal flora may eventually be obtained. And it 
must always be remembered that a knowledge of the dis- 
tribution and conditions of life of these miscroscopic plants 
often sheds more light on the problems of the biologist 
than does that of the higher flora to which so much atten- 
tion has been paid in census records. Again, the minutest 
alga is just as much a member of the county flora, and as 
much entitled to be recorded, as an oak-tree or an 

The first list of Devonshire Fresh-water Algse appeared 
in The Flora Devoniensis (1829), in which they were in- 
cluded with the Marine Algse. In this list about 31 species 
are indicated as fresh- water, but from this number several 
would have to be deducted at the present time ; for in- 
stance, the Conferva orthotrichii of the Flora Devoniensis is 
not an alga but the gemma of the moss Orthotrichum 
Lyellii H. & T., and the species of Chara included in the 
list are not now regarded as Fresh-water Algse, so that 
probably not more than 25 species of the list given would 
now be regarded as true Fresh- water Algse. Next in chrono- 
logical order, if one excepts various local lists which con- 
tributed practically nothing of importance, came Parfitt's 
paper in the Transactions of the Devonshire Association 
for 1886. This contained 239 species, 85 of these being 
members of the Desmidiacese. Several species included 
in Parfitt's list would now be regarded as marine, but apart 
from this it is a notable contribution to the flora of the 
county, and is, I believe, very accurate. I have found 
nearly all the species given in Parfitt's list in some part of 
the county. With regard to the Oscillatoria given in the 
list, a modern revision would doubtless considerably 
modify this portion, as the genus is an extremely difficult 
one to satisfactorily work out, so few of the species lending 
themselves to ready and certain determination. In 1889, 
A. W. Bennett contributed a paper to the Journal of the 
Royal Microscopical Society, " The Fresh- water Algse and 
Schizophycese of Hampshire and Devonshire." This, 
after deducting species already recorded in Parfitt's list, 
brought the total up to 263 species. Following Bennett 
came Professor G. S. West and his father (W. & G. S. West) 
with a paper, " A Contribution to the Fresh-water Algse 
of the South of England," also published in the Journal 
of The Royal Microscopical Society, October, 1897, in which 
Devonshire was one of the included counties. This is by 

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far the most inportant paper that has appeared in connec- 
tion with the Fresh-water Algae of the county, as it was 
written from a modern stand-point by scientific men who 
specialized in the group. The publication of this list 
brought the number of Fresh-water Algae recorded for the 
county up to about 350, including of course the Desmid- 
iaceae. In the Victoria County History Vol. I (1906), is a 
list of the Fresh-water Algae of Devon, which it is difficult 
to believe was intended as a representative list of the group 
as worked out for the county at that date. It contains a 
list oi72 species of Desmids given in the West's Monograph 
of the British Desmidiaceae as occurring in Devon, one 
species only being given for the genus Staurastrum ! 
Apart from this fist of Desmids and a fist of about 50 
species of Diatoms, only 25 species of Fresh-water Algae 
are given for the county. No mention is made of the papers 
by Parfitt and the Wests, so presumably the writer was 
unacquainted with them. In the Journal of the Quekett 
Microscopical Club, April, 1917, I myself published a 
paper, "The Desmid Flora of Dartmoor." This dealt 
exclusively with the Desmids of that portion of the county, 
and added about 212 species and varieties to the algal flora 
of the county, bringing the Census list up to about 562 
spp. & vars. A paper that is appearing in the Journal 
of the Quekett Microscopical Club (October, 1920) on the 
Desmid Flora of East Devon will add a further 122 species 
to the list, and about 130 new records are contained in the 
Census List, at the end of this paper. The recorded algal 
flora of the county may, therefore, be estimated to total 
about 800 species, with some varieties. This total it should 
be remembered is quite exclusive of the Diatomaceae and 
Peridineae. The Diatomaceae (fresh-water) so far recorded 
may certainly be estimated at 100 species (vide J. B. Bessell, 
Vol. I, Transactions Torquay Natural History Society, 
1909-14). Of the total of 800 species, etc., 500 are members 
of the Desmidiaceae, about 80 belong to the Myxophyceae, 
and the remainder to various families of the Chlorophyceae. 
The material from which the Census List of this paper 
has been compiled was collected principally from Dartmoor 
and East Devon, Woodbury Common in the latter portion 
of the county contributing by far the most important 
gatherings. Owing to its undulating character Devonshire 
is very deficient in those small ponds covered with blanket 
algae that make such rich yields to the algologist. Nor are 

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wide, stagnant ditches particularly numerous. Large 
sheets of water, such as exist in Hampshire for instance, 
are very infrequent in Devonshire, if one excepts the 
artificially formed reservoirs and ornamental waters, so 
that the collecting is principally done from bogs and marshy 
places. Consequent probably upon the character of the 
habitat filamentous algae such as the Zygnemaceae, Spiro- 
gyrae, etc., are comparatively rarely found producing 
zygospores, hence specific determination is in most cases 
almost impossible. The bogs on Woodbury Common are 
particularly rich in Myxophycese and Desmidiacese, no 
less than 370 species, etc., of the latter having been re- 
corded for this locality. Stigonema ocellatum (Dillw) Thur. 
here occurs in extensive dark-brown mats, and the enor- 
mous amount of mucilage exuded by this and other 
Myxophyceae is a marked feature of these shallow bogs. 
An interesting occurrence of the phenomenon known as 
" breaking of the meres," or " Water-bloom," happened in 
the hot, dry summer of 1919 in a large sheet of water in 
Bicton Park, and to some extent in the Exmouth Reservoir 
also. The phenomenon in this case being due to prodigious 
quantities of the alga Microcystis aeruginosa (Kiitz) West 
which gave to the water a decided milky appearance when 
a gathering was viewed in a glass collecting tube. In 
connection with this instance of " water-bloom " it may 
be remarked that it would be of considerable interest if 
those botanists having ready access to considerable sheets 
of water in Devonshire would conduct seasonal observa- 
tions on the plankton and publish the results. Much in 
this direction has been done in the midland and northern 
parts of England, but as far as I am aware nothing what- 
ever has been done so far south as Devonshire. Such 
observations could be usefully linked up with the reports 
issued by the meteorological sub-committee of the Devon- 
shire Association. 

In connection with the discovery of an alga new to 
science in Devonshire, Oongrosira Scourfieldii G. S. West 
(see Special Notes on Some Species), it is interesting to note 
that several other species of Fresh- water algae were added 
to science from the county. Inactis ( =Schizothrix) Cress- 
wdlii was originally discovered at Sidmouth ; Amma- 
toidea Normannii W. & G. S. West on Dartmoor ; and at 
least one new species and several new varieties will be 
found in the paper on East Devon Desmids referred to 


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above. With regard to the Desmidiaceae, a group that 
has occupied the writer's special attention for some years, 
it may be said that more species and varieties have been 
recorded for Devonshire than for any other collecting 
ground known to algologists. Professor G. S. West gives 
the Desmid Census of the British phyto-planktori as 236 
species and 68 varieties, or a total of 304 species and 
varieties, while that of Devonshire stands at 500 spp. & 
vars. The number of species of the British Desmidiaceae 
is about 680, of which 360 species, or over 50%, have been 
recorded for Devonshire. 

It has already been said that the zygospores of such 
genera as Spirogyra, Zygnema, and Mougeotia are seldom 
produced in any quantity in Devonshire, except with some 
few species, and that as specific determination without 
the presence of zygospores is practically impossible a large 
number of species of these genera remain unnamed. It is 
gratifying to note, however, that in spite of this handicap 
11 of the 15 British species of Mougeotia, 9 of the 12 
British species of Zygnema and 15 of the 24 species of 
Spirogyra have been recorded for the county. The same 
difficulty presents itself in determining species of the genera 
(Edogonium and Bulbochsete as oogonia are not commonly 
met with. In Bulbochaete 9 of the 14 British species are 
recorded for the county, but with the difficult genus (Edo- 
gonium we fail miserably, only 13 out of the 80 British 
species having been recorded ! In connection with these 
figures a comparison with Professor G. S. West's records 
in his paper on the Fresh-water Algae of the South of Eng- 
land (vide ante) is of interest. His records cover the whole 
of the southern counties (8 counties). For Devonshire no 
-species whatever are recorded in the genera above men- 
tioned. Among the remaining counties are distributed, 
Mougeotia 7 ; Zygnema 5 ; Spirogyra 15 ; Bulbochsete 5 ; 
(Edogonium 14. It is manifest from this comparison that 
Devon algologists have little to reproach themselves with 
in respect to these genera. 

Owing to the necessity that exists at the present time of 
keeping papers in the smallest possible compass I have 
felt that it was desirable to content myself with giving the 
Census List that follows in its simplest form, that of a plain 
list without any systematic classification. This, of course, 
seriously impairs its value from a scientific point of view, 
but as it is desirable that the recording of additions to the 


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county flora should be continued in spite of adverse econo- 
mic conditions I have felt that a plain list published was- 
better than a scientific systematic list remaining buried 
in one's writing desk ! Owing also to this same necessity 
for the conservation of space the localities given are only 
those from which the species was first collected, and it must 
by no means be inferred that it has not also been found 
in other Botanical Divisions of the county. I have con- 
sidered it sufficient for the present to make a first record 
for the county. Included in the list are several Desmids- 
which have been added to the county flora from Dartmoor 
since the publication of my paper on the Desmid Flora of 

In conclusion I would state that the whole of the material 
with which this paper is concerned was collected and 
worked out by myself , and that I must accept all responsi- 
bility for any errors therein. Some species were sent to the 
late Professor 6. S. West of Birmingham University for his- 
opinion, but for the majority I have relied on my own 
determinations, leaving the species unrecorded where I had 
any doubt. 

Special Notes on some Devon Fresh Water 

Hammatoidea normanii 6. S. West. This alga was dis- 
covered on Dartmoor, and I believe so far has not been 
collected outside the county. It was found by T. Norman 
and described and figured by W. & 6. S. West in their 
paper on the Fresh-water Algae of the South of England 
(Journal of the Royal Micro. Soc., October, 1897, page 506). 
It is the only species of its genus. The exact locality on 
Dartmoor is not stated, but I myself collected it from a 
small back-water of the river Tavy at the bottom of Tavy 
Cleave under Ger Tor, where it was growing in some 
abundance on its host Batrachospermum moniliforme. It 
probably has a wider range than the record indicates, aa 
it is a very difficult alga to detect even under the micro- 
scope, owing to its growing so closely interwoven with the 
moniliform branches of the host, and this fact doubtless 
has caused it to be overlooked. 

Volvox aureus Ehrenb. and Volvox globator (L.) Ehrenb. 
These two species appear to have been much confused 
one with the other in the records for Devonshire. F. 

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globator is the species invariably recorded, when in all 
probability it should be V. aureus, which is much the 
commoner species. The most certain means of determining 
the species is by means of the zygospores, and these may 
nearly always be observed. Volvox aureus Ehrenb. was 
present in enormous quantities in the Exmouth Reservoir 
in the summer of 1919, in company with Ceratium hirun- 
dinella and Microcystis aeruginosa (Kiitz) West. To such 
-an extent was the Volvox present in the water that it was 
•coloured green by its presence. 

Palmodictyon viride Kiitz. Interest attaches to this alga 
•as it was first found in England by Parfitt, who collected 
it in the Exeter Canal in 1874, and included it in his paper 
on the Fresh-water Algae of Devon (see Transactions 
Devonshire Association Vol. XVIII* page 390). Professor 
<J. S. West in his Treatise on the British Fresh-water Algae 
/(Cambridge Biological Series) refers to it as, "a very 
rare British alga which I have only observed from the 
extreme south-west of England." I have collected it 
•on Dartmoor and on Woodbury Common, but never 
in the profusion Parfitt's note suggests that he found 
it in the Exeter Canal. Recently when collecting in the 
New Forest I obtained it from the botanically celebrated 
bog near Lyndhurst, so that it may have a wider range than 
it was thought to have. In all specimens I have collected 
the mucous investment is not hyaline but of a delicate pink 
colour, and the green cells imbedded in their pink integu- 
ment make this alga a very attractive object. 

Hydrurus penicellatus (=H fcetidus (ViU.) Kirchn). Two 
Devonshire stations are given for this alga in Parfitt's 
paper previously referred to, the river Walkham near Tavi- 
stock and in the Meavy, the collector in the one instance 
being the well-known algologist Balfs, and in the other a 
Rev. W. T. Hoare. These two records are those given in 
HassalTs British Fresh-water Algce (p. 302) and it is evident 
that at the time they were the only known British stations 
for this alga ; moreover, one may safely assume that the 
-alga was originally discovered in England at one or the 
other of these stations. It is difficult to understand the 
late Professor G. S. West's statement that this alga in 
the British Islands is "known only from Yorkshire and 
Scotland " (Treatise B. F. W. Algce, p. 46) when he must 
have been acquainted with HassalTs references. 

Trentepohiia aurea Mart. This wideshread alga, so 


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well known even to those botanists who do not specialize 
in the group, is only mentioned here because of a quite 
extraordinary growth of it in an old mine adit near Lydf ord. 
The growth literally draped the wall of the adit to the extent 
of many square yards with its golden colour, and in luxuri- 
ance of habit was quite unlike the dwarf growths seen on old 
palings, rocks, etc. Zoogonidangia were plentiful in the 
gatherings made. 

Ccelastrum reticvlatum (Dang.) Senn. This rare alga haa 
hitherto only been recorded from Ireland. It was gathered 
in a small stream flowing off Woodbury Common near 
" The Gap." 

Kirchneriella obesa (West) Schmidle. The only station 
known to me in Devon for this alga is a small boggy spring 
on the side of Beacon Hill near Sidmouth where a spring 
breaks out at the junction of the Greensand and Keiiper 
Marl. It is, according to algologists, more or less a plankton 
species and principally met with in the plankton of the 
larger lakes. 

Hildenbrandtia rivvlaris (Liebm.) J. Ag. Hilden- 
brandtia, belonging as it does to the Rhodophyceae, ha& 
of late been excluded from recent works on Fresh- water 
Algae, but as it has not hitherto been recorded for the county 
it has been included in the Census List in order that it 
may be placed on record. It grows especially fine on stones- 
in the Meavy river underneath Great Mis Tor, and also in 
Lydford Gorge. 

Botryococcus Braunii Kiitz. Considering . the wide- 
spread occurrence of this alga it is somewhat surprising 
that hitherto it has not been recorded for the county by any 
of those who have worked at this group, and more especi- 
ally by Parfitt who appears to have devoted himself very 
closely to the collection of the Fresh-water Algae. It is. 
often present in profusion in small ponds, as, for instance, 
in a moorland pond near Bennett's Cross on Dartmoor, 
where in the summer of 1915 it was present in extraordinary 
quantities!. In the Exmouth Reservoir in the summer of 
1919 it assumed the golden yellow colour due to the pre- 
sence of an oily material, which is said to be characteristic 
of it when occurring in the plankton of considerable sheets 
of water. It can readily be understood that in such a state 
it forms a valuable food for the animal life of the water. 
The colonies in the Exmouth Reservoir were noticeable 
for their pronounced development of branched spines, a 

Digitized by 



feature which probably influenced W. & G. S. West when 
instituting the genus, subsequently dropped, of Ineffigiata, 
as these branched spines seem more or less undeveloped 
in the individuals collected from small weed-grown pools 
and bogs, where, of course, such flotation devices would not 
benefit the plant to any great extent. 

Desmidium cylindricum Grev. This desmid although 
generally distributed in the county is by no means common, 
but during the summer of 1919 it multiplied in the Exmouth 
Reservoir to such an extent that masses of it could be 
lifted out resembling massed growths of Spirogyra or 

Gongrosira scourfieldii G. S. West. sp. nov. This new 
species of Gongrosira was found by Mr. D. J. Scourfield 
and myself and sent to the late Professor G. S. West for 
determination. We collected it in a small calcareous stream 
at Weston Mouth near Sidmouth, where it grows on stones, 
etc., subjected to a swift flow of water. When growing it 
has the appearance of small emerald green buttons at- 
tached to the surfaces of the stones. Professor West's 
description and remarks will be found in a paper on it 
contributed, with a plate, to the Journal of the Royal 
Microscopical Society, No. 242, March, 1918, " A new 
species of Gongrosira." 

Staurastrum orbiculare Ralfs. Typical S. orbiculare is a 
rare desmid which I have only collected from one place 
in Devonshire, a bog on Dartmoor near Lydford ; the 
variety Ralfsii West is, on the contrary, widespread in 
the county, and often locally abundant. The type has been 
included in the Census List of the present paper as it was 
collected after the publication of the paper on Dartmoor 
Desmid's had taken place. 

Batrachospermum atrum (Dillw.) Herv. Appears to be 
very rare in Devonshire. I have only once met with 
it and sent a specimen to the late Professor G. S. West 
for his confirmation. He wrote " widely distributed but 
apparently rare." 


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Stigonema hormoides (Kiitz) Born. & Flah. Woodbury Common. 
Hapalosiphon Hibemicus W. & 6. S. West. Woodbury Common. 
Anabcena incequalis (Kiitz.) Born. & Flah. Woodbury 

Common : Dartmoor. 
Anabcena variabilis Kiitz. Sidmouth. 
Aphanizomenon Flos-aquce (L.) Ralfs. Dartmoor. 
Nodularia spumigenia Mertens. Woodbury Common. 
Gylindrospermum stagnate (Kiitz.) Born. & Flah. Woodbury 

Common : Dartmoor. 
Schizothrix Mullerii Nag. Woodbury Common. 
Dasygloza amorpha Berk. Woodbury Common. 
Lyngbya vulgaris Kiitz. Sidmouth. 
„ major Menegh. Otterton. 
„ rupestris Ag. Tavy Cleave. 
Phormidium tenue (Menegh.) Gom. Postbridge. 

„ ambiguum Gom. Budleigh Salterton. 

„ molle Gom. Aylesbeare Common. 

„ svb-fuscum Kiitz. Bicton Lake. 

Oscillatoria princeps Vauch. Woodbury Common. 

„ rubescens de Candolle. Woodbury Common. 

„ splendida var. acuminata West. Woodbury Common. 

„ sub-fusca Vauch. Otterton : Bicton Lake. 

„ irrigua Kiitz. Sidmouth. 

Spirulina turfosa Kiitz. Woodbury Common. 
Dichothrix interrupta W. & G. S. West. Aylesbeare Common, 
Synechococcus major Schroet. Beacon Hill, Sidmouth. 
Merismopedia elegans A. Br. Woodbury Common. 
Microcystis stagnalis Lemm. Woodbury Common : Lydford. 

„ aeruginosa Kiitz. Exmouth Reservoir : Bicton 


„ marginata Menegh. Exeter Canal, Countess Weir. 

„ roseo-persicinus Kiitz. Awliscombe. 

Aphanocapsa Orevillei (Hass.) Rabenh. Dartmoor. 
Glceothece confluens Nag. Woodbury Common. 

„ granosa Rabh. Ilfracombe (J. Burton.) 
Chroococcus giganteus West. Woodbury Common : Post- 

„ cohcerens (Breb.) Nag. Sidmouth. 

„ macrococcus Rabenh. Dartmoor. 

Digitized by 




(Edogonium fonticola A. Br. Lydford (Jorge. 

„ rhacrandum Wittr. Dartmoor. 

„ undulatum (Br6b.) A. Br. Aylesbeare Common: 


„ Braunii Kiitz. Woodbury Common. 

„ Itzigsohnii De Bary. Dartmoor. 

„ tapeinosporum Wittr. Woodbury Common. 

„ Gleaveanum Wittr. Harpford Common. 

BuCbochcete setigera Ag. Beacon Hill, Sidmouth. 

„ nana Wittr. Woodbury Common. 

„ intermedia De Bary. Lympstone Common. 

„ insignis Prings. Aylesbeare. 

„ polyandra Cleve. Beacon Hill, Sidmouth. 

Coleochcete pulvinata A. Br. Woodbury Common. 
Herposteiron pilosissima (Schmidle) West. Woodbury Common : 

Ulothrix cequalis Kiitz. Woodbury Common. 
„ subtilis Kiitz. Woodbury Common. 
JJlceotila protogenita Kiitz. Woodbury Common. 
Myxonema protensum Dillw. Harpford Common : Postbridge. 

„ amosnum (Kiitz.) Hazen. Cut Hill, Dartmoor. 

<3ongro8ira scourfieldii 6. S. West, sp. nov., Weston Mouth, 


,, viridis Kiitz. Axmouth. 

Microspora amosna (Kiitz.) Lagerh. Lydford (with aplanos- 

Mhizoclonium hieroglyphicum Kiitz. Woodbury Common. 
Mougeotia capucina (Bory) Ag. Aylesbeare Common : Dart- 

„ parvula Hass. Woodbury Common. 

„ recur vus Hass. Woodbury Common. 

Debarya glyptosperma (De Bary) Wittr. Woodbury Common : 

Zygnema Vaucherii Ag. Postbridge. 

„ parvulum Kiitz. Woodbury Common. 
„ insigne (Hass.) Kiitz. Sidmouth. 
Spirogyra mirabilis (Hass.) Petit. Beacon Hill, Sidmouth. 

„ crassa Kiitz. Bicton Park. 
Chasto8phaeridium Pringsheimii Kleb. Sidmouth. 

„ „ var. depre8sum West. Post- 

Chlamydomonas De Baryana Gorosch. Honiton. 
Gonium lacustre West. Honiton. 

Eudorina elegans Ehrenb. Woodbury Common : Sidmouth. 
Volvox aureus Ehrenb. Aylesbeare. 

vol. Ln. s 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Chlorochytrium Lemnce Cohn. Broad Down, Farway. 
PhyUobium sphagnicola West. Dartmoor. 
Characium ensiforme Herm. Sidmouth. 

„ 8ubulatum A. Br. Sidmouth. 

Dicranochcete brittanica G. S. West. Woodbury Common. 
Trochiscia hirta (Reinsch) Hansg. Dartmoor. 

„ reticularis (Reinsch) Hansg. Dartmoor : Woodbury 

Trochiscia paucispinosa West. Woodbury Common : Sidmouth. 

„ aspera (Reinsch.) Hansg. Lydford. 
Protoderma viride Kiitz. Sidmouth : Woodbury Common. 
Urococcus insignia (Hass.) Kiitz. Woodbury Common : 

Pediastrum tricornutum Borge. Postbridge : Whit Tor. 

„ rotula Ehrenb. Postbridge. 

„ glandulifera Benn. Haytor. 

„ Ehrenbergii Br. Woodbury Common. 

Ccelastrum reticulatum (Dang.) Senn. " The Gap/' Woodbury 

Sorastrum spinulosum Nag. Woodbury Common : Dartmoor* 

„ Hathornis (Cohn) Schmidle. Aylesbeare Common. 
Scenedesmus denticulatus Lagerh. Woodbury Common : Poet* 

Scenedesmus quadricauda var. maocimus West. Sidmouth. 
Dimorphococcus lunatus A. Br. Aylesbeare Common : Post- 
Auhistrodesmus Pfitzeri (Schrd.) West. Woodbury Common. 

„ fahatus var. tumidus West. Woodbury Common 

„ falcatus var. mirabilis West. Whitchurch, 

Selena8trum gracih Reinsch. Woodbury Common : Postbridge- 

„ acuminatum Lagerh. Sidmouth. 

Kirchneriella obesa (West) Schmidle. Beacon Hill, Sidmouth. 
Oocystis gigas Arch. Woodbury Common. 
Nephrocytium Agardhianum Nag. Haytor : Lydford. 
Ghlorella vulgaris Beyr. Dartmoor : Woodbury : Sidmouth. 
Teiraedron enorme (Ralfs) Hansgr. Woodbury Common : 


„ horridum West. Postbridge. 

„ regulare Kiitz. Woodbury Common. 

„ caudatum (Corda) Hansgr. Woodbury Common. 

Cerasterias longispina (Perty) West. Woodbury Common : 

Dictyosphcerium pulchdlum Wood. Aylesbeare Common : Post- 

„ Ehrenbergianum Nag. Postbridge : Lydford. 

Botryococcus Braunii Kiitz. Generally distributed. 
Sphcerocystis Schr&teri Chod. Woodbury Common : Postbridge . 

Digitized by 



Gloeocy8tis infusionem (Schrank) West. Dartmoor : Lydford. 
„ vesiculosa Nag. Woodbury Common : Postbridge. 

Dactylothece Braunii Lagerh. Woodbury Common. 

Stipitococcus urceolatus W. & 6. S. West. Dartmoor : Wood- 
bury Common. 

GJtiorobotrys regularis (West) Bohlin. Woodbury Common : 

Ophiocytium majus Nag. Dartmoor. 

BumiUeria pumila W. & 6. S. West. Woodbury Common. 


Batrachospermum atrum (Dillw.) Harv. Aylesbeare Common. 

Hildenbrandtia rivularis (Liebm.) J. Ag. Meavy River, Great 
Mis Tor. 

fam. desmidiacejE. 

Staurastrum orbiculare Ralfs. Lydford. Very rare. 
Gosmarium decedens. Racib. Lydford. 

„ isthmochondrum var. pergranulatum Nordst. Lyd- 

Gosmarium obliquum forma major. Nordst. Lydford. 


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BY B. A. S. ELLIOT, M.B.C.S., L.B.C.P. 

(Bead at Totnes, 22nd July, 1920.) 

The migrations of the salmon are perhaps not more wonder- 
ful than many other species of fish, such as the pilchard or 
herring, but being valued so much as an article of staple 
food in all ages, and being a fish common both to the Old 
World and the New more observations on their move- 
ments have been bestowed upon this species of fish than 
any other. The salmon is still a fish of great mystery, and 
what it feeds on, if it feeds at all, in fresh water is quite 
unknown. In the sea its food is the sand eel, various kind 
of echinadermata and some of the Crustacea, the salmon 
colour of the fish being due to the pigment derived 
from these lowly organisms, the action of the gastric 
juice turning such pigment red in the same manner as 

Even in such a narrow field of observation as Devon- 
shire, it is notorious some rivers are early and others late, 
i.e. as regards the movements of the salmon towards the 
source of such river on the moor, and the Avon is con- 
sidered a late one ; the Dart, on the other hand, is an early 
one, the fish seldom reaching their spawning ground before 
the end of November or even later, whilst all are ready to 
leave, the duties of spawning being over in the fifteen 
miles' length of water by February. 

As to its economic value we cannot do better than 
quote a description written nearly a hundred years ago 
and which is equally true at the present moment. 

" Salmon fisheries are copious and constant sources of 
human food : they rank next to agriculture. They have 
indeed one advantage over every other produce, their 
increase does not lessen other articles of human subsistence. 

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The salmon does not prey on the produce of the soil, nor 
does it owe its size and nutritive qualities to the destruc- 
tion of its compatriot tribes. It leaves its native river at 
an early stage of growth and going, even naturalists know 
not where, returns of ample size and rich in human nourish- 
ment, for a salmon will leave the river a smolt, six inches 
in length in the spring and return the next autumn eight 
to ten pounds in weight." 

In every stage of savageness and civilization the salmon 
must have been considered as a valuable benefaction to 
this country. Being rarely caught except in estuaries or 
rivers, the salmon may be considered in a great degree as 
private property. 

This reminds me of a great haul at Slapton Sands many 
years ago. The net, which had been shot for a supposed 
school of mackerel, on being hauled in just above Slapton 
Cellars, was found full of salmon. They were quickly 
buried in the shingle, and when the coastguard officers 
arrived, who had been watching through glasses from 
Torcross — it was before the days of bicycles — not a fish 
was to be seen but offal. In a few hours they were safe on 
the train at Kingswear. 

Within the memory of many now living salted salmon 
formed a material article of household economy in many 
farm-houses bordering a river : insomuch that indoor 
servants used to stipulate that they should not be obliged 
to take more than two weekly meals of salmon. This 
statement has been treated with contumely by many, for no 
indentures are forthcoming to prove it, but there is strong 
presumptive evidence of its being a fact as I know from 
my own personal observation. The price of the fish was 
then two shillings a stone of nineteen pounds, and in 
London in July even at eightpence, now we are lucky to 
get the fish at that price for a single pound. As to this 
fish's migration from salt to fresh water and back again 
much has yet to be learnt. 

In April the yotmg salmon, known as parr, drop down 
the river over the. weir and He a short time below getting 
accustomed to the salt water perhaps. It was in the pool 
here as boys we used to catch scores, often five or six 
dozen of a morning, whilst the old chaps up the river used 
to catch as many more, of course all horribly out of order 
and illegal ; they were fish about six inches in length and 
delicious eating. There was one old fellow the keeper 

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could never catch, for he never found any of these fish in 
either his basket or pockets. However, one day the wind 
being high his stove-pipe hat blew off, and on our retrieving 
it we found the lining covered with samlet scales, the old 
gentleman used to put his fish in there ; however, on our 
pointing this out he promised to be more careful in the 
future. With the first floods in May myriads of these 
lovely little fishes start on their . downward journey to- 
wards the sea. It is a beautiful sight to watch their 
movements when descending, and for many days the 
river teems with them, not a square foot of water being 
without one where the stream is at all rapid. As fry the 
parrs were exposed to many dangers, but they were 
nothing to those which beset them as smolts on their 
journey towards the sea. Their enemies are legion. 
Trout and pike devour them : gulls swoop down and 
swallow them wholesale. Herons standing mid-leg deep 
in the water pick them out as they pass, and even their 
own kindred devour them without scruple. Unluckily, 
too, for them, a certain number of great hungry kelts 
having recovered to a great extent their condition, accom- 
pany them on their seaward journey, and prey upon their 
young companions as they travel, and we believe a hungry 
kelt will devour upwards of fifty smolts a day. When they 
get to the sea they are met with a fresh array of enemies, 
whole armies of gulls, cormorants, divers and other sea 
birds await their arrival, so that it is a wonder any survive 
at all, and were it not for the extraordinary fecundity of 
the female fish, which is estimated to produce ova suffi- 
cient to hatch fifteen to twenty thousand young, and 
their rapid — extremely rapid — progress to maturity from 
a smolt to a grilse of seven or eight pounds in a few months, 
there is no doubt the salmon would long since have become 

We scarcely dare touch on the subject of the movements 
of the salmon in Alaska, the subject is too lengthy and 
fascinating to be dealt with in a short paper such as this, 
but we know all our canned salmon comes from North 
America, so we can quite believe the following : — 

"In so great abundance do the different species of 
salmon come up the Kamschatkan rivers as to force the 
water before them and even to dam up the stream in such 
manner as sometimes to make them overflow their banks. 
In this case when the water finds a passage, such multitudes 

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of salmon are thrown and left upon the dry ground as 
would, but for the violent winds so prevalent in that 
country, assisted by the consumption of the fish by the 
bears and dogs, soon produce a stench sufficiently powerful 
to cause a pestilence." 

The statement that the Indians sometimes cross the 
river ^dry-shod over the backs of the shoals of salmon 
need not be taken seriously, but tends to show the 
multitude of fishes as if it was believed to be quite 

Primarily, of course, the fish's reasons for returning to 
thejriver of its origin and birth is that the female may 
deposit its ova in fresh water and the freshest at that, for 
the parent fish ever strives to reach the moorland freshet 
atjits source, and ten times the number of fish used to be 
taken out in the first few miles of the river's course than 
ever were taken out in the pools below, i.e. by the poachers. 
All this business is a thing of the past : first the old hands 
are all passed over to the silent land, and there is no need 
now to whip a hovering fish out with a gaff or spear, yes, 
or with a three-toothed prong known as an evil, with its 
teeth jjturned down, attached to a rein which was flung 
over the fish laying mid-stream, which was then dragged 
in willy-nilly and wrapped up in a faggot of sticks cut 
from the bank so as to carry him piddly-back to the cottage 
or mill, for there is absolutely no desire to eat fish that 
are unclean, i.e. back fish, and besides, what with disease, 
drainage of land and consequent lowness of water not one 
salmon runs up the river where fifty did a few years ago, 
although they run in considerable numbers now sometimes. 
Salmon poaching forty years ago was a fine art and some- 
times too a bloody one. Watchers used to be posted on 
the hills, whilst the snatchers or gaffers worked the lower 
pools in open daylight. On the slightest alarm and the 
party — they usually worked in twos or threes on both 
banks — would disappear as if the ground had swallowed 
them up. We remember once when the watchers and 
keepers were engaged with a case of poaching before the 
bench somewhere (it was a put-up case done deliberately 
to get these same keepers off the river) a raid was made 
on a pool in which it was estimated lay nearly a hundred 
fish and which has gone ever since by the name of Slaughter- 
house Pool : well, all the fish were captured, as the water 
was low and clear, and despatched within an hour under 

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a straw-laden wagon to a market that need not now be 

There were two old codgers who always returned home 
with a fish apiece and were the envy of all their piscatorial 
brethren, but never would they say what fly they caught 
the fish with, whether with a Jock Scott, Silver Doctor,, 
or a Dusty Miller, so it was resolved to watch them. One 
would go one side of the river and the other old chap the 
other ; when the dinner, hour came and all was quiet, with 
the keeper a mile or two away with his knees under the 
table and the labourer thinking more of his bit of spotted 
dog and pint of cider than the price of fish, these old 
chaps would set to work and one would throw his line over 
to the other, who quickly tied the end to his own line and 
then attached a small weight and a triangular hook fit to 
hang a leg of mutton on, then they would travel slowly 
down the banks till catching sight of a fish in mid-stream, 
the great hook would be cautiously manipulated till it came 
right under the fish's belly, when with a — now, then — and 
a strong jerk upwards the barbed weapon would be firmly 
fixed in the fish ; it was then the matter of very few 
moments before the fish was reeled in either under one 
bank or the other, for the rods used were as big and stiff 
as barge poles, when the gaff would quickly deposit the 
fish on the grass and his quietus given. There was generally 
time to secure two fish and then it was a case of Johnnie 
Walker before the keeper came. 

The river-bank seems to offer an irresistible charm to 
the peripatetic sportsman on the day of rest especially, 
and 'twas on a Sunday afternoon us seed two chaps looking 
in over the bank, so us went down and axed 'em if they'd 
lost anything ? " No," they said ; but us saw 'em still 
looking, so us looked too, and there was a gurt salmon 
right in under the bank. " Oh," us said, " shouldn't us 
like to have 'e." "Well, you can," said one. "How," 
us says. " Go and cut one of they ash sticks and bring 
un to us." Then he takes the stick and whips on a gaff ; 
" then," says he " put un under his belly and pull un out."^ 
This us did. "Now," he said, "kick un over the head 
and take un up home and shut the doors and winders, 
for you'm as bad as we now." Us never thought of that, 
but us tooked the fish up home and watched 'em thro' the 
blind, and they took out over thirty fish in the pool below, 
for the keeper had gone to chapel and they chaps knew it. 

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So much for the migration of the salmon from the 
moorland to the sea, or as often as not into the poacher's 
bag, and we can only tell you this, a steak cut from a 
fish just out of the water and grilled over a wood fire 
takes a lot of beating, because we have tried it on the 


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Hon. Secretary of the Committee for Collecting and Recording Information concerning 
Place-names and Field-names in Devon. 

(Read at Totnes, 22nd July, 1020.) 

In an address to the Annual Congress of Archaeological 
Societies a few years ago, that gifted historian, Dr. J. 
Horace Bound, our chief authority on the history^ of the 
eleventh and twelfth centuries, quotes the late Prof. 
Maitland's words in his great work Domesday Book and 
Beyond' " The map of England is the most wonderful of 
all palimpsests, could we but decipher it " : and then points 
out that much of our history that is still dark is written in 
the names that our remote forefathers gave to their homes 
here in Britain. He urges the great importance of the 
scientific treatment of our place-names on a uniform 
system throughout the country ; and says it is practically 
impossible to attain much in the department of research 
on our early history " until the place-names of England 
have been classified and traced to their origin." 

The British Museum has, he says, rendered a great 
service to antiquaries by the publication of an index to the 
Place-names contained in its collection of Bolls and 
Charters : and he praises the splendid Dictionary of the 
place-names of France, which has been issued " by order 
of the Minister of Public Instruction and under the 
direction of the Historical Works Commission." 

The body of this work consists of the place-names in 
alphabetical order — including hamlets, manors, fiefs, farms, 
streams, hills, and similar objects — but not mere field- 
names. -\ 

Upon this last he comments that " genuinely anoient 
field-n&mes are often of great interest ; but the modern 
ones, o^little or no value, now swamp them." 

To my mind it will be desirable, in our work for this 
county,^to make the same distinction, and keep Place- 

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names and Field-names in separate lists. Each is, in itself, 
a very large subject for research. The assistance of local 
societies was sought and readily given in France, and I 
feel sure that, here in Britain, the same help will be forth- 
coming when asked for. 

Several years ago I began compiling an index to place- 
names of Devon, feeling assured that as complete a list as 
possible is a necessary preliminary to fruitful investigation 
into the derivation and meaning of the names. This index 
now contains several thousand of names and their 
variants ; and is continually being added to. Each name 
is localised under the parish, or parishes, in which it occurs. 
Fuller detail in topography can only be derived from 
personal knowledge of each place : and this will necessitate 
the wide co-operation of local students with members of 
your Committee. In the first place I desire to invite all 
those — whether Corporations, Public Bodies, or private 
individuals — who own ancient Charters, Deeds, and other 
documents, to follow the example of the British Museum by 
compiling indexes of all place-names (and personal names 
also) mentioned in each document, giving, of course, its 
title and date. If it is said this is impracticable on account 
of the cost involved, and the time and learning required, 
I would reply that, if the actual owners are unable, there 
are in nearly every community persons qualified to do such 
patriotic work, and with sufficient public spirit to do it 

In this age of feverish hurry, and of craving for amuse- 
ment pure and simple, the introduction of a more methodi- 
cal arrangement of duties and pleasures would enable far 
more to be done satisfactorily, and with more lasting 
benefit to the individual and to the community, than at 
present. There is a great deal to be said for King Alfred's 
division of the day into three definite periods : (1) for 
sleep ; (2) for needful work, either mental or manual ; and 
(3) for recreation, including hobbies and such occupations as 
are not void of good in regard to the spiritual, moral, mental, 
and bodily needs of ourselves and also of those around us. 

Prof. Skeat, in his Place-names of Cambridgeshire, said 
that in one respect he was at a disadvantage for he had 
made no extended study of English place-names in 
general ; and one place-name is likely to throw light upon 
another, though the places may be in different parts of 
England : but that, on the other hand, as a student of 

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etymology and linguistic phonology he had a wide experi- 
ence which was of great use, since the phonetic laws* 
regulating place-names are precisely the same as those 
which regulate other native words in common use. It 
must be pointed out, however, as Dr. Round says, that 
unless the philologist makes due allowance for that influ- 
ence, which he terms " folk-etymology " — the effect of 
which has been far greater than is generally supposed — 
the application of phonetic laws will often lead to erroneous 

Places, the names of which, in Domesday Book or other 
early documents, are precisely the same in spelling, are 
often represented in modern days by names widely differing 
in form and pronunciation. 

Allied also to folk-etymology is a marked tendency to 
introduce the syllable ing into names,' which in their early 
forms did not contain it. In many cases the ing was a 
corruption of sgme other sound : so that its presence ia 
often no evidence whatever of a clan-settlement, as in other 
instances is undoubtedly the case. 

Another consideration of much importance, mentioned 
by Prof. Skeat, is that in numberless ancient records 
the spelling of names is that of Norman clerks who so 
altered the appearance of many Anglo-Saxon place-name^ 
as to render them difficult of interpretation even by 
experts in Anglo-Saxon. Many investigators in the past 
have been in almost complete ignorance of the sounds 
which such spellings denote ; though nowadays the points 
wherein the phonetic value of a Norman scribe's spelling 
differs from that of an Anglo-Saxon one are well defined. 
After all, it is the spoken word which really matters. The 
written forms are merely symbols and will guide only those 
who understand them. 

It is, therefore, of great importance that the local, rustic 
pronunciation of words should be recorded ; for in them 
is often enshrined an ancient phonetic value which is a 
real guide to the true interpretation of the word. The 
erratic spelling and the sounds which it suggests obscure 
this. It will, therefore, be necessary, in written communica- 
tions to the [Hon. Secretary to spell certain names with 
definite symbols which are each used for one sound only* 
Our present twenty-six letter alphabet is inadequate and 
confusing, because most of the letters are constantly used 
to represent different sounds in different words ; and also- 

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because there are in our language thirty-six simple sounds, 
-each of which should have a sign of its own, never to be 
used for any other purpose. The real remedy would be to 
-devise new letters to supply the deficiency ; but as this is at 
present out of the question, a temporary method must be 
invented, utilising the present twenty-six letters (or some 
-of them) together with certain well-understood marks, 
viz. w over certain letters, and the accent mark 7 . 

The following scheme of signs to represent the sounds is 
recommended as being the simplest. 

The analysis of sounds is that used as the basis of 
Pitman's shorthand, viz. twelve vowel sounds (long and 
short), and twenty-four consonants. The 

'Six lory vowel sounds) ah> j^ leek> hawk> oh , rood) 

are neard in ' 

to be represented in) , 

writing by l ah ' a > e ' aw ' °> °°- 

Six short vowel sounds) ,,,,,., * , 1 

are heard in I bat ' ***' blt ' rot ' rat > rook ' 

to be represented in) w w „ x „ w 
writing by ) a ' e ' l > 6 > "' °°- 

'Sixteen consonantal sounds, go in pairs — respectively hard 
and soft — p and b, t and d, ch (as in chip) and j (as in 
jib), k and g (as in gay), f and v, th (as in thin) and dh 
(as in then), s and z (as in zeal), sh (as in ash) and zh (as 
in azure). 
Three other consonantal sounds are m, n, and ng (as in sing). 
Two more consonantal sounds are 1 and r. 
Three more, completing the twenty-four, are w (as in way), 
y (as in yea), and h (as in hay). 

Five diphthongal sounds 7, . ,. •, , ^ . . ., 

are heard in j^eight, suit, lout, Kaiser, foil, 

and are represented (withl . . 

underlining stroke) } ^> ™> ™> *»' °-i- 
The special Devonshire u sound (also a diphthong) may be 

represented by eu. 

The accented syllable in a word may be indicated in the 

usual way. 
It will be noted that c, q, and x are not used in this scheme ; 

and this is because — 

c stands for sounds represented by either k (as in cat), or 
s (as in city). 


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qu represents the sound of kw. 

x is equal in sound to either ks (as in box), or kz (as in 

exert), or ksh (as in noxious). 
Some examples are appended in illustration. 

Aveton Gifford 




Bovey Tracey 


Clyst St. George 

Cruwys Morchard 



Heanton Punchardon 

Holcombe Bogus 



Homeavy * 









Newton St. Cyres 













Avtdn Giford, or Jifurd. 

Alzfurd, or Eilzford. 

Awliskoom, or Awliskum. 

Bridisto, not Breidsto. 

Buvl Trasl. 

Brawntdn, not Brountdn. 

Klist St. Jorj. 

Krooz Morchard. 



Hentdn Punch&rdon. 

Holkum Rogus. 


Hiuish, not Hooish. 


Eidford, not Idiford. 

Natlburu, or Natlburg. 

Kingz-wer, not King-swar. 

Ldks-hor, not L6k-shor. 

Malburu, not Mahlburu. 

Marianz-16, not Mari-anzli. 

Maristo, or Maristo. 

Mort-ho, not Mor-tho. 

Niutdn St. Seierz. 

Nordham, not Nort-ham. 



Pouhil, or Pohll, or Pufhil. 

Rail, or Rawli. 

Rouzdun, or Roosdon. 

Spratdn, or Spreitun. 

Tops-ham, not T6p-sh&m. 

Up-dteri, hot U-p6t&i. 


Whitstdn, or Wheitston. 

Woolf ardiswurdhi, or Woolseri 

In regard to the multitude of spellings of the same place- 
name, so often met with, it is quite unnecessary to make a 

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permanent record of all, for numbers of these vary only 
slightly, and are largely due to the personal fancies of the 
various scribes. In the following examples those enclosed 
within brackets are merely slight variations of one or more 
of those which precede : — 

Beaworthy =Begeurda (Begevrde), Beghworthy. 
Dartington =Darentune, Dertrintona (Derentun)„ 

Dertingthon, Dartyngton. 
Holsworthy =Haldeurdi (Haldeword), Haldesworthy 

(Houldsworthy), (Hollesworthy). 
Ilsington =Ilestintona (Ustinton), (Ylstington), Ilsen- 

ton, Lestintone. 
Netherexe =Nitheresse, Niressa (Niresse). 
St. Budeaux =Budockshide, Bucheside, Butshed, St* 

Bude (St. Budock), (St. Budox). 
Widworthy =Widworde, Inudeborda (Wydeworth). 
Yarcombe =iEartancumb, Erticoma, Artycombe 

Yearcombe (Herticome), (Yarkcomb). 
Yarnscombe =Ernescumbe, Yernescomb, Herlescoma 


The source and date of each important variant would, 
of course, be recorded, as in the example — Ottery St. Mary 
— given by Mrs. Rose-Troup in her suggestive paper 
printed in our Transactions of 1919, page 179. 

Interest in the meaning of the names of our birthplaces 
and of places and people with whom we are well acquainted 
is innate in most of us. Even at the very dawn of English 
scholarship we find the venerable Bede, twelve centuries 
ago, indulging in a little speculation on the subject. 

In 1605, Verstegan published his Restitution of Decayed 
Intelligence, part of which deals with personal names, 
which are so closely allied to the names of places. In the 
year preceding (1604) Camden had issued his Remains 
Concerning Britain, in which the same subject is dealt with 
much more fully. Philology was not then a science : 
nevertheless, there is far less untrustworthiness in these 
two books than in those of far later writers on the same 

About the middle of the nineteenth century and subse- 
quently, mkny books on personal names appeared, the 
most important being Bardsley's Dictionary of English 
Surnames (1901). The fascinating, though unscientific, 

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speculations of nearly all these writers have had to give 
way, since then, to sounder methods of investigation, 
enunciated by the late Prof. Skeat in 1901, when he 
laid down for the first time, in this country at least, the 
principles which must guide us in the study of place-names : 
(1) They can be interpreted only in the light of earlier 
forms, and (2) The interpretation must be the work of 
trained philologists. 

Since then a large amount of work has been done on 
these lines. Essays, and also more comprehensive works, 
have been printed, dealing, more or less fully, with the 
place-names of twenty-three out of the forty counties of 
England. Of similar work in Scotland, Wales, and 
Ireland, I have no definite information. There is, of 
course, still an immense amount of work to be done, even 
in regard to these twenty-three favoured districts ; and it 
is high time that we Devon men and women put our 
shoulders to the wheel. Union is the source of strength ; 
and we must not be content to leave the whole burden of 
the work to a mere handful of individuals, however willing 
they may be. Your Committee needs the active and 
persistent co-operation of recorders and other helpers in 
every part of this — the largest but two of the English 
counties. All our Association members are capable of 
helping, if not personally then by interesting friends and 
acquaintances in some part of the county who may be 
able and willing to contribute something to the common 
fund of knowledge (about every parish), upon which we 
confidently hope to draw. 

It is intended to compile carefully certain simple forms 
of enquiry, and to distribute them widely, but with 
circumspection, partly by the kindness of members of our 
Association, and partly through other channels. This 
work will be mainly of a preparatory character : but the 
wider and stronger we make our foundations, the firmer 
and more lasting will be the building if it be constructed 
in the right way. With abundance of selected and useful 
material ready to hand, the progress should then be rapid, 
and also satisfactory to true lovers of dear old Devon. 

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(kead at Totnes, 12nd July, 1920.) 

The subject of the present communication is a brief 
account of the formation and work of the Hill Observatory, 
Salcombe Regis. This Observatory was started privately 
in 1913 by Sir Norman Lockyer and Lieut. -Colonel McClean, 
and in July, 1916, was formed into a Corporation under 
the Companies (Consolidation) Act. 

The object in the first place was to provide a suitably 
situated and equipped observatory for the advancement 
of the study of Solar and Stellar Physics. It is essential 
in work of this nature to have telescopes of fairly large 
aperture, together with good atmospheric conditions. A 
smoke-laden atmosphere, the glare of artificial lights, and 
such-like inevitable adjuncts of a town form serious draw- 
backs, and it is considerations such as these which have 
led to observatories on the Continent and elsewhere being 
erected on or transferred to sites at a considerable altitude 
above sea-level. 

England alone up to the present has not possessed such 
a, favourably situated observatory, and it was largely in 
order to remove this deficiency, and to enable England 
to rank high among the nations in the realm. of Astro- 
physics, as it undoubtedly has done in the older science 
of Astronomy, that this Observatory was erected. 

The site of the Observatory, which was presented to the 
Corporation by Sir Norman and Lady Lockyer, is excel- 
lently situated on the top of Salcombe Hill, near Sidmouth, 
at a height of 560 feet, and possesses an unbroken horizon 
in every direction. The meteorological conditions are 
very favourable, and it is well away from the tremors due 
to traffic and night glare and will always retain these 
advantages, the contour of the hill being unsuitable for 


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the erection of many dwelling houses. It is thus eminently 
suited to the objects in view, and the results which have 
been obtained up to the present have fully justified the 
choice of its position. It is free from the occasional low- 
lying mists of the adjacent valleys, which rarely cover 
the top of the hill at night-time, and the purity of the sky 
on a cloudless night is extremely good. On the land are 
gravel quarries which have allowed of the buildings being 
constructed of concrete blocks made on the spot. Those 
at present erected consist principally of the following : 

(a) The laboratory, a building 104 x 21 feet divided into 
five rooms as follows : directors' room, spectro- 
scopic laboratory, library, photographic^ room 
and a workshop. 

(6) A store room, lavatory, etc. 

(c) Power house. 

(d) Porter's lodge — a single story cottage of five rooms. 

(e) The " Rusthall Observatory " with annexe and dark 

(/) The " Kensington Observatory " with annexe and 
dark room. 

There are also other constructions for housing some of 
the smaller instruments, and there is ample room for 
erecting further buildings both on and lower down the 
observing site. 

At the foot of the green sand many springs issue, giving 
a good supply of water both summer and winter. One of 
these springs is led into a concrete reservoir through a 
filter bed and is pumped into a large concrete tank on the 
site of the Observatory, thus supplying the offices and 
buildings, by gravity, with water. 

The instrumental equipment has been supplied largely 
through the generous gifts of Sir Norman Lockyer, Lieut.- 
Colonel McClean and others. The first instrument to be 
brought into use was a 21-inch siderostat (lent by Lieut.- 
Colonel McClean) worked in conjunction with a 9-inch 
prismatic camera. 

This was erected for experimental purposes prior to 
the setting up of the Rusthall Equatorial, and was in con- 
tinuous use for the first few months. The Rusthall Equa- 
torail, presented by Lieut.-Colonel McClean, consists of 
a twin telescope with object glasses of 12 and 10 inches 
aperture. The former is fitted with a 12-inch prism of 

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« c 

•2 £" 


^ o 

' C £ 

© p 

5 pc 

= a: 

The Hill Observatory.— To Jace p. 2i»0. 


zed by G00gk 


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fcC 50 

.5 § 

| * 


Thk Hill Observatory.— To face j>. 2iK). 

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zed by G00gk 


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The Hill Observatory.— To face p. 291. 


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Fia. 4. — The Kensington Twin Equatorial. The 9-inch prismatic camera is the tube 
on the left, the 10-inch refractor being a little to the right. 

The Hill Observatory.— To face p. '291. 


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The Hill Observatory.— To face p. 291. 


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20 degrees' angle and at the eye end a camera is in position. 
The 10-inch is for visual purposes only. The instrument 
is fitted with a Grubb control and pendulum and electric 
illuminations. This instrument is used chiefly for securing 
photographs of the spectra of the fainter stars. 

In the Kensington Dome is another twin telescope of 
which the 9-inch prismatic camera, originally mounted in 
connection with the 21-inch siderostat, forms a part. It 
has a larger dispersion than the Rusthall telescope and is 
used for obtaining spectra of the brighter stars. The 
remaining part of the Kensington instrument is a visual 
telescope of 10-inches' aperture mounted on the same 
pillar with the 9-inch prismatic camera already mentioned. 
This instrument is also fitted with electric illuminations 
and its motion electrically controlled. 

The laboratory is equipped with spectroscopic and 
photographic apparatus, and wireless receiving apparatus 
is installed for the purpose of receiving time and weather 
signals daily from the Eiffel Tower and other sources. 

In the power house is a 12 h.-p. Crossley oil engine, 
together with a single phase generator and a storage 
battery of 60 cells. 

In addition to the above instruments a large reflecting 
telescope with a 30-inch mirror by Common is ready to be 
installed as soon as the requisite dome has been built; 

The routine work carried on in the Observatory at the 
present time consists chiefly in photographing the spectra 
of stars and classifying them according to their tempera- 
ture and chemical composition. There is also a line of 
research, suggested by the American astronomer, Professor 
Adams, who has found it possible from an examination of 
the spectra of stars to deduce with some accuracy the 
distances of certain classes of stars, and work of this nature 
is also beipg carried out at the Observatory. In addition 
special stars showing unusual or peculiar characteristics, 
new stars, comets, nebula and other interesting objects are 
photographed and discussed as occasion arises. 

Already six Bulletins have been published, recording 
the work so far carried out, including classified catalogues 
of stellar spectra photographed at the Observatory. 

A valuable research library is in process of formation, 
Sir Norman Lockyer having given his astronomical 
library to the Observatory and Lieut. -Colonel McClean 

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has also added a number of useful volumes. It is hoped 
that from time to time astronomical students from some of 
the universities, desirous of carrying out some research at 
an observatory, may be admitted for short periods, when 
an instrument might be placed at their disposal. This 
procedure, however, has not yet been organized. 

The Hill Observatory fortunately has a very strong 
Council to look after the welfare of the Institution, and 
in addition to a number of distinguished astronomers who 
are foreign members of the Corporation, a Research 
Committee of representative British astronomers has been 
formed to advise on the present and future work of the 
Observatory. This committee consists of the following : 

Sir Frank W. Dyson, f.r.s., Astronomer Royal, Royal 

Observatory, Greenwich. 
Prof. A. S. Eddington, f.r.s., University Observatory, 

Prof. A. Fowler, f.r.s., President, Royal Astronomical 

Prof. H. H. Turner, f.r.s., University Observatory, 



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Part II. 

(Read at Totijes, July 22nd, 1920.) 

IX. The Early Inhabitants of Devon. 

In the preceding part we have traced the Saxon Conquest 
down to 710, when a substantial portion of Devon, 
perhaps one-fifth of its area, was in Saxon occupation. 
We may now interrupt the story by inquiring what was 
the nationality of the conquered people. 

Archaeological research has demonstrated that there 
were dwellers in Devon even during the Interglacial 
Periods, but there is no need for us to go further back than 
the last Ice Age, which may be located at about 50,000 B.C. 
Any of the primitive savages, known as Drift men, who 
had previously lived here, almost certainly either perished 
or were driven out by the intense cold. When the land 
again became habitable new races took their place. We 
can trace at least five of these in Devon. 

(1) The Cave men of the Latest Old Stone Age, who 
probably arrived about 40,000 B.C., when the island was 
physically connected with the continent of Europe, and 
the South Devon rivers were tributaries of the Seine, as 
the Thames was of the Rhine. These men were in their 
habits not unlike the Esquimaux of Greenland. 

(2) The Hut men or Ivernians of the New Stone Age, 
who arrived about 10,000 B.C., five or ten thousand years 
after Britain had become an island. These, being more 
resourceful and more skilful in the making of stone weapons 
than their predecessors, easily conquered them. They 
were nimble hunters, kept flocks and herds, and it has 
been suggested that in their racial characteristics they 
had a close affinity to the Basques of Northern Spain, 

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being short, agile, dark-haired and long-headed. Phil- 
ologists, however, have hitherto been unable to detect in 
the early vocables and place-names any resemblance to 
the Euskarian language which the Basques speak. 

(3) The Goidels, or Earlier Celts of the Bronze Age, who 
came here about 1500 B.C. They tilled the soil, knew the 
use of copper and tin, and enslaved or drove out the 
preceding races, to whom they exhibited a marked physical 
contrast, being tall, slow-witted, fair-haired, and round- 
headed ; also they spoke an Aryan language, of which 
three modern dialects are still in existence : Irish, Scottish, 
Gaelic, and Manx. The three races just described make 
up what may be called the Prehistoric or Goidelo-Ivernian 
group. For evidence of the first member of this group 
we are restricted to cave-remains, for the second we have 
race-features and folk-lore as well, while the third, in 
addition to these things, has left us a language. 

(4) The Brythons, or Later Celts of the Iron Age, who 
came about 500 B.C. As the bronze weapons were more 
effective than those of stone, so the iron weapons enabled 
these men to beat the Goidels armed with bronze. Thus 
another Aryan nation prevailed, not vastly unlike their 
predecessors in race and language, but differing sufficiently 
to constitute a separate nationality. A still later wave of 
Celts, the Belgians, settled in Britain about 150 B.C., but 
did not spread so far west as Devon. 

(5) The Romans, whose conquest began in a.d. 43. 
Their settlement was little more than a military subjuga- 
tion, and in Devon there is very little evidence of any 
occupation by them west of Exeter. They made no 
attempt to exterminate or enslave their predecessors, but 
tried to make them peaceful and prosperous, and when the 
Roman legions departed, about a.d. 410, they left behind 
them a higher standard of civilization and industrial skill, 
and a knowledge of the Latin language among the upper 
classes, but really a very small proportion of people of 
Roman descent. 

The last two races may be termed the Historic or 
Romano-Brythonic group, consisting mainly of Brythons, 
but deriving a portion of their culture from the Romans. 

As each invading race in turn subjugated or drove back 
its predecessor, the survivors of the conquered race, so far 
as they escaped enslavement, seem to have f ound refuge in 
the less accessible and less fertile regions. When East 

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and South Britain passed into the possession of the victori- 
ous race, Ireland, Wales, the Scottish Highlands and the 
south-western peninsula became the abodes of the dis- 
possessed, whose companionship in misfortune tended to 
unite them into one common nationality under the leader- 
ship A and speaking the language of the race most recently 
overthrown. The Roman Conquest was an exception ; 
to apply the law of " the one before " to the Brythons 
we have to eliminate the Roman occupation and regard 
the Saxon Conquest as the event which fixed the Brythonic 
hegemony in South-Western Britain And in Wales. 

Thus from 500 B.C. to a.d. 500 the inhabitants of Devon 
and Cornwall were in the main of the Goidelo-Ivernian 
group, ruled over by Goidels and speaking a Goidelic 
language, with a large proportion of Ivernians among the 
shepherds, herdsmen, and serfs, and perhaps some traces 
of descendants of the Cave men. The Ivernian language, 
there is reason to believe, survived for some centuries 
longer among the Picts of North Britain, but in the 
south-west it Was probably not represented by more than 
a very few place-names and common terms. That the 
preponderating element in language and customs through- 
out the south-west was Goidelic and not Brythonic during 
these ten centuries is proved by (a) the prevalence of 
Goidelic place-names in the references of Roman and 
•Greek geographers to this region ; (b) the recorded tribal 
name, " Dumnonii," which is of Goidelic origin and is 
also found as a tribal name in Ireland and Scotland ; 
(c) the early church dedications to Irish saints ; (d) the 
Goidelic names found on inscribed stones of post-Roman 
date ; and (e) the traditions recorded by early Irish 
historians as to the kinship between the Irish and the 
south-western peoples. There is also a passage in an 
obscure Latin writer, Caius Julius Solinus, whose date is 
given in the Monumenta Historica Britannica as a.d. 80, 
but may have been later : 

" Siluriam quoque insulam ab ora, qu» gens Britanna 
Dumnonii tenent, turbidum fretum distinguit; cujus 
homines etiamnum custodient morem vetustum ; mini- 
mum refutant ; dant res, et dccipiunt ; mutationibus 
necessaria potius, quam pretiis parant ; Deos percolunt ; 
scientiam futurorum pariter viri, ac feminse ostentant." 
[Polyhistoriae, c. 22. See M.H.B.] 

In plain English this tells us that, while the Brythonic 

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tribes in other parts of the island had a coinage of their 
own, these Dumnonii conducted their business by exchange 
and barter. This is what we might expect from a race in 
an earlier stage of civilization. It is noted to their credit 
that they reverenced the gods, and that men and women 
alike professed a knowledge of future events. 

Between 500 and 710 a great change of population and 
language occurred. Once more Devon and Cornwall 
became a place of refuge for the last-conquered race. 
The Brythons, fleeing in terror from a wave of conquest 
which swept over the land with possibly greater fierceness 
than any that had preceded it, settled among their 
Dumnonian neighbours in large numbers, and soon their 
superior civilization and greater industrial aptitude enabled 
them to impose their language on the region. It is prob- 
able that a linguist, if he could have visited the south- 
western peninsula during the sixth or seventh century 
would have found a struggle going on between the two 
Celtic languages, of which the Brythonic alone survived, 
and continued under the name of Cornish until modern 

Thus the conquered people of Devon in 710 consisted of 
Ivernians, Goidels, and Brythons, speaking a Brythonic 
language with much the same root-words as Welsh. 

X. The Ancient Name of Devon. 

Some curiosity may have been aroused by the discrep- 
ancies in the* spelling of the ancient regional name as given 
in this paper. Thus in Section VI we have Damnonia 
(quoted from Gildas), and in Section VIII Domnonia 
(quoted from Aldhelm), while in Section IX the tribal 
name (quoted from Solinus) is given as Dumnonii. There 
are also other spellings. 

The regional name is really dependent on the tribal 
name. It is true that in a very limited area, such as a 
township or parish, the people take their name from that 
of the locality, which is usually a composite word formed 
from roots describing a physical peculiarity or aij. important 
event or an important person connected with the place. 

But in a large area the process of naming is in marked 
contrast with this. At some early time this area may 
have been peopled by a body of settlers who described 
themselves in their own language by some primitive word 

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meaning "The People," or "The Kinsmen," or "The 
Speakers," and those of other races as " The Barbarians," 
or "The Jabberers," or "The Strangers." Thus their 
expression of preference for those of their own clan became 
a tribal name which they conveyed with them to the place 
in which they settled, and which, if the settlement con- 
tinued for a sufficiently long period, gave that place, by a 
slight change in the word, a regional name. 

We shall now give the references, arranged as far aa 
possible in chronological order. 

(1) Dumnonii — Caius Julius Solinus (Polyhistoriae, c. 22), 
circa a.d. 80 (already quoted). 

(2) Doumnonioi (Greek) — Claudius Ptolemaius (Geo- 
graphic II, 3), circa a.d. 120. Damnonion akron — ibid. 
(referring to the Lizard). 

(3) Isca Dumnuniorum — Itinerarium Antonini Augusti, 
circa a.d. 215. 

(4) Isca Dumnoniorum — Tabula Peutingeriana (fourth 

(5) Scadumnamorum (sic) — Anonymus Ravennas Geo- 
graphus (seventh century). 

The last three refer to Exeter, then called Isca. 

There are also references in the Latin geographers to the 
Damnonii or Dumniones, $ tribe dwelling in the Clyde 
region of North Britain. 

It will be noticed that with one exception the preceding 
names are all tribal. The next set are mainly regional. 

(6) Damnonia — Gildas, circa 545. 

(7) Domnonia — Aldhelm, 705. This version is adopted 
in a charter of date 964 (" Ordgarius, dux Domnoniae "), 
and by William of Malmesbury (circa 1125), the biographer 
of Aldhelm. 

(8) Domnania — Asser, 893. This version is copied in 
the Annals of St. Neots (circa 1110), by Florence of Wor- 
cester (ob. 1118), and by Simeon of Durham (ob. 1129). 
Asser and Florence also give Domnanii, and Florence 
Domnani and Domnanienses. 

(9) Defna, Defnascire, Defena, Defenascire, Defenan, 
Defenanscire — Anglo-Saxon Chronicles (892-1154). Ethel- 
werd (circa 994) also gives Defna and Defena ; Henry of 
Huntingdon (circa 1135) gives Davene, Davenescire, 
Davenescyre, and Davenscyre. 

(10) In early Welsh poems the regional name is^Dyf- 
naint. ** 

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(11) In Irish legendary history we read of an invading 
tribe called the Fir Domnann (Domnann men). The 
ancient name of Malahide (near Dublin) is Inbher Dom- 
nainn, and the tradition is that the invaders landed there. 

There was an ancient Irish word Domun (later Doman 
or Domhan), meaning " the people of the world." A 
derivative or diminutive Domnan, meaning "the lesser 
world of the tribe," is quite conceivable. The name 
Domnann or Domnand in a recent Irish lexicon is rendered 
as " a fragment or portion broken off from a greater whole." 
These Domnan or Domnand men may have originally 
been Goidelic tribes detached by the pressure of the 
Brythonic conquest about 500 B.C. 

There is a suggestion of the same root in Dumnorix 
(domun +rig=ruler), the Aeduan chief who troubled 
Caesar ; in Domnocoveros (domun +fer=man), the title 
found on the coins of a chieftain named Volisios, who 
lived near the Humber ; and in Dobunni, the name 
assigned to a Brythonic border tribe dwelling along the 
Severn valley, and possibly adopted by them from the 
Goidels whom they displaced. But we have now gone 
quite far enough along a dangerous path of conjecture. 
Stated in chemical metaphor, our intention is to exhibit 
the name of this county as a Goidelic product, filtered 
through the Brythonic into the Anglo-Saxon, and thence 
slowly crystallized, under medieval Latin influence, into 
its modern English form. 

XI. The Phonology of the Name. 

When a name is adopted from one language into another 
whose letters do not possess the same sound-values, the 
process of adoption may be phonetic, or orthographic, 
or a fortuitous combination of the two. Typical examples 
are the phonetic sepoy and the orthographic sipahi for 
the native soldier of India, and the phonetic Lucknow 
and the orthographic Lakhnau for the town of the famous 
siege. We know that the Romans usually accorded phonetic 
treatment and added Latin terminations to words adopted 
from the Greek. They changed ou into u, u into y, ai 
into ae, and the terminals os and oi into us and i. This 
process has been commonly followed by other nations, 
but the learned' writers of this country at certain stages in 
its history have 3hown a preference for orthographic 


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treatment. From the conflicting operations of these two 
processes much confusion has arisen. 

It is a far cry from the Domnan or Dumnonii of two 
thousand years ago, scattered over regions four hundred 
miles apart, to the Devonians of the present day, inhabit- 
ing a large county in one of those regions ; the wonder is 
not that the name has changed so much, but that it has 
changed so little. We can trace its history letter by letter, 
representing the whole of the versions by the set of symbols 
D (2) (3) (4) n* (6) (7) (8). Broadly speaking, we can dis- 
tinguish five stages : (a) the Goidelic and Classical Latin 
up to a.d. 500 ; (b) the Brythonic, Anglo-Saxon and 
Early Medieval Latin (500-900) ; (c) the Old English 
and Middle Medieval Latin (900-1200) ; (d) the Middle 
English and Late Medieval Latin (1200-1500) ; (e) the 
Modern English (later than 1500). 

The results of research may be thus stated : 

(1) The first letter is invariably D. 

(2) The second letter is ou (the Greek phonetic equiva- 
lent of Latin u) in Ptolemy ; u in Classical Latin ; a in 
Ptolemy's reference to the northern tribe, in his name for 
the Lizard peninsula, in Gildas and in Henry of Hunting- 
don ; o in Aldhelm, Asser, and their copyists ; y (sounded 
like u in fur or e in her) in Medieval and Modern Welsh ; 
e in Old English, Middle English and Modern English, and 
in Late Medieval Latin. 

These vowel discrepancies present very little difficulty. 
The a is a Northern Gaelic variant of the Southern Gaelic 
o ; to the Irish cos, a foot (Greek, pous), corresponds the 
Scottish cas ; the tendency was for the Northerners to 
substitute the broad a sound for the less broad o sound ; 
compare lang for long and saft for soft in modern Scottish 
dialect. Also there is a tendency to give o the close sound 
which it has in the English word come. This sound is 
represented in Welsh by y except in a final syllable, and 
in some English words by e. The change of o to y in Welsh 
adoptions is frequent ; thus we have Gymry (Gombroges), 
Cystennin (Gonstantinus), and Emrys {Ambrosius). A 
variant may sometimes arise also from the ignorance or 
perversity of the writer. One would be loth, for instance, 
to support the turbulent Gildas, even with the commenda- 
tion of an earlier date, against staid scholars like Aldhelm 
and Asser. The most probable conclusion is that the 
letter was originally o, pronounced in the South-West 

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like o in come or dove, perhaps even sometimes like o in 
tomb. The letter u is less probable, and a much less. 

(3) This is the letter which has caused most confusion. 
The confusion could have been avoided by a little common 
sense. The letter was invariably m in ancient times, 
/ or v in medieval times, and v in modern times. The 
consonant which followed it was n. 

Now the sixteenth century antiquaries transposed m 
and n in order to support a false derivation, that from 
dun, a hill, and moina, mines ; a feeling of delicacy, 
arising from the resemblance of the first syllable, particu- 
larly in the Northern and Gildas versions, to an English 
expletive, may have made the transposition more accept- 
able to polite ears. But it is a gross blunder nevertheless. 
And the pity is that it has disconnected the ancient from 
the modern name, and given for the latter a second false 
derivation from dwfn, deep, and riant, a valley, or some 
equally hopeless combination. Worse than this, worse also 
than the suggestion of the wicked first syllable, is the 
deliberate misreading of Solinus and Ptolemy which the 
transposition involves. There is not a shred of justification 
in any ancient or medieval writing for placing the n 
before the m, unless what can be obtained by supposing 
it to occupy that position in one partly obliterated manu- 

Besides committing two false derivations and several 
misquotations the transposers also miss an important 
feature in Celtic phonology, the treatment of the letter m. 
This letter, unless it begins a word or an accented syllable, 
or is reinforced by another labial (p, b, ph or m), usually 
suffers a more or less marked change in process of time* 
The nature of this change is best seen in the case of Celtic 
words borrowed from the ancient Latin ; thus remits (an 
oar) becomes rhwyf in Welsh, rev in Cornish, ram in Old 
Irish, and ramh (pronounced row, as if rhyming with cow) 
in Modern Irish ; columna (a column) becomes colofn in 
Welsh ; dominus (lord) becomes dofydd in Welsh ; humilis 
(humble) becomes hufyll in Welsh, huvel in Cornish, 
humal in Old Irish, and umkall (mh like w) in Modern 
Irish ; and Dominica (Sunday) becomes Domnach in Irish 
(later Domhnach and Donagh). 

There are five phases of the letter : (1) retained as m 
under the conditions already mentioned, and in some other 
instances ; (2) flattened as 6 or 6m ; (3) aspirated as v 

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(written mh in Irish, / in Welsh and Anglo-Saxon, v in 
Middle English) ; (4) vocalised as u or w (also written mh 
in Irish) ; (5) elided. The first, fourth, and fifth phases 
are most frequent in Irish ; the second, third, and fourth 
in Cornish ; the third in Welsh. The change in this case 
has not gone farther than the third phase ; this seems to 
imply that the word was taken over by the Anglo-Saxons 
from a Brythonic speech (Welsh or Cornish), and that 
the Brythonic language had replaced the Goidelic some 
time before the Saxon Conquest, perhaps between 550 
and 650. 

The Latin writers up to 1135 retained m with two excep- 
tions, Ethelwerd and Henry of Huntingdon, both of 
whom give a contemporary English spelling. The Welsh 
use / and so do the Old English writers up to 1066. There 
was no v in these languages, but the letter / represented 
the v sound, and ff the modern / sound, as in our preposi- 
tions of and off. After the Norman Conquest / was re- 
placed by u or v in English, and in more modern times by 
v only. Cornish seems to have copied this change, but 
Welsh has retained the pre-Conquest spelling. 

Camden, writing at the end of the sixteenth century, 
notes a tendency to use bm ; this may be due to Cornish 
influence ; also another tendency to drop the v altogether, 
and say Denshire. Fortunately the invention of printing, 
which largely stereotyped spelling and thus helped to 
retard changes in pronunciation, came in time to prevent 
these mutilations. 

(4) Unless we take into account the supposed root- 
word domurty there is no evidence of any vowel after m 
in the ancient name, nor is there in Welsh or Cornish. 
In the Old English of the ninth and tenth centuries 
e occasionally appears, and after the Conquest there is 
invariably a vowel in the fourth place. Side by side with 
the normal English form Devenescire, which persists from 
the Conquest to the fourteenth century, a late medieval 
Latin form Devonia begins to appear about the fourteenth 
century, and in the late fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, 
when English again comes into general use as a spoken 
language the fourth letter in the Middle English version 
also becomes o. A satire published about 1449 on the 
Present Discontents (Political Songs, Vol. II, p. 223 ; 
Rolls Series) gives the word Devynshire in a note, but after 
this date we invariably find o as the fourth letter. 

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(5) The third consonant, once the fourth letter, but 
always the fifth since the Norman Conquest, is n. This 
is the letter for which third place has been wrongly claimed. 
One living supporter of the claim (may he leave no suc- 

. cessors !) suggests that it is based on the descent of our 
early inhabitants from the Israelite tribe of Dan. 

(6) There is a conflict of evidence about the vowel that 
followed n. The Itinerary of Antoninus (already cited) 
gives u, but the other Classical references give o ; so do 
Gildas, Aldhelm, the Charters, and William of Malmesbury. 
On the other hand, the letter a is given by Asser and his 
copyists, and is supported by the Welsh and Anglo-Saxon 
forms ; also it fits in with the Fir Domnann of Irish 
tradition. The long a in Irish is pronounced like a in call 
(compare the pronunciation of Donegal and Malin) and 
there is in Southern Irish a tendency to treat short a in a 
similar manner, sounding it like a in what. It is, therefore, 
possible that the Goidelic a (especially if long) was phonetic- 
ally represented by the Latin o, that Asser, .who was 
himself a Celt, gave the soundest orthographic rendering, 
and that Aldhelm's version represents a compromise 
between this and the phonetic rendering of the Greek and 
Latin writers. The Welsh ai is possibly modernized 
from an earlier a form. After the Conquest a is replaced 
by e, which disappears during the Middle English period. 

(7) The next letter, n, may have been nd or nn at one 
time ; it is represented in Welsh by nt, but the t may 
have been a late addition, although nt is also found in 
one MS. copy of the Itinerary. The letter was gradually 
dropped by the Anglo-Saxons, and seems to have dis- 
appeared before the Norman Conquest. 

(8) The remainder of the word consists of a termination 
suited to the inflexions of the language in which it appears, 
and varied or augmented so as to distinguish between the 
people and the region. 

On summing up, the weight of evidence points to a 
Goidelic original Domnan with a Latin phonetic equivalent 
Dumnon. During the sixth and seventh centuries this 
was Brythonized into Duvnan, which branched out into 
the Welsh Dyfnaint and the Old English Defenan. Before 
the Norman Conquest the English form had shed its 
final n, and changed its final a to e; it was then re-spelt 
Devene. About two centuries later a new Latin version 
Devonia, quite distinct from the phonetic Dumnonia of 

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the classical writers and the orthographic Domnania of 
Asser, was invented. The modern name is taken from the 
intermediary of this neo-Latin. It should be added that 
in the earlier stages, as has been already explained, the 
simple word is the tribal name, and some such affix as 
terra or scire has to be added or understood in the expres- 
sion of the regional name. But in modern times the 
practice has, of course, been reversed. 

This is a lengthy digression, but may be justified as an 
earnest attempt to clear up a doubt in the minds of many 
respecting the origin and evolution of the County name. 

As we have already mentioned, its history can be set out 
in five stages : 

In (a) it is the appellation of a Goidelic tribe scattered 
over the South-Western peninsula (500 b.c.-a.d. 500). 

In (b) its use is restricted to the people dwelling between 
the Axe and the Tamar (500-900). 

In (c) it ceases to be tribal and becomes purely regional 

In (d) its spelling is modified under Latin influence 

In (e) it has assumed its present form (after 1500). 

XII. A Wessex Chronology. 

In Section VIII allusion was made to the need for 
revising several of the dates given by Davidson and the 
writers from whom he quotes. The simplest method of 
dealing with such a problem is to construct a table of 
year-numbers for the accessions of the kings of Wessex, 
and to adjust the occurrence of other events in the light 
of these. Many of the kings had no connection with 
Devon, but a useful table cannot be constructed without 
taking them into account. 

The sources for such a chronology may be arranged under 
five heads : 

(1) The year-numbers given in the Anglo-Saxon Chron- 
icles, of which there are seven versions extant, . called 
respectively by Thorpe A, B, C, D, E, F, and W (Wheloc's 
version). Really only three of these, A, C, and E, can be 
regarded as independent. B in some parts is almost 
identical with. A, and in the other parts with C. D is a 
mixture of C and E, with a few independent facts relating 
to the North. F is a late compilation based on A and E, 

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and W is for the most part identical with A. The year- 
numbers in A, C, and E do not always agree, and A has 
usually been taken as the basis of what is called the 
Southern Chronology. Other Southern writers, including 
Ethelwerd, Florence of Worcester, William of Malmesbury, 
and Henry of Huntingdon, have substantially followed 
this Chronology, which until about fifty years ago was 
generally taken as authoritative. 

(2) The regnal periods given in the Anglo-Saxon Chron- 
icles, which often disagree with the year-numbers, as in 
the cases of Ine, who according to Chronicle A succeeded 
in 688, reigned 37 years, and resigned in 728 ; Cuthred, 
who according to the same succeeded in 741, reigned 
16 years, and died in 754 ; Egbert, who is said to have 
succeeded in 800, reigned 37 years and 7 months, and 
died in 836 ; and Alfred, who is said to have succeeded 
in 871, reigned 28 J years, and died in 901. One Southern 
Chronicle, the Annals of St. Neots, an early twelfth-century 
compilation, which draws its material largely from the 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, differs from them in the year- 
numbers in such a way as to confirm the regnal periods, 
and to suggest that it was based on a version earlier than 
any now extant, and that the year-numbers of the extant 
versions have been to a large extent misplaced by careless 

(3) The year-numbers given by Bede, his continuator, 
and Simeon of Durham (who had access to a lost Northum- 
brian Chronicle of the eighth century). Simeon, though not 
an attractive writer, seems to have been the most accurate 
arithmetician of all the chroniclers, and where he and the 
Southern chroniclers differ in their references to continental 
events, his dates are invariably confirmed by outside 
contemporary sources. The dates given by him and his 
copyists have been called the Northern Chronology, and 
their value was clearly demonstrated by Stubbs in his 
introduction to Roger of Hoveden (Rolls Series). 

(4) The external sources, of which the Welsh are almost 
useless as regards dates, being often wrong by many 
years, the Irish give no assistance until the tenth century, 
and the Papal and other continental records merely enable 
us to compare in certain instances the Northern and 
Southern Chronologies, with the result, as has been stated, 
of vindicating the former. 

(5) The Charters and Royal Letters, which often give 


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the regnal year side by side with the calendar year. These 
have to be used with caution, as the medieval monks, 
especially in the century following the Norman Conquest, 
were apt forgers, and employed much ingenuity to magnify 
the extent of their possessions, the antiquity of their 
monastery, or the reputation of its founder or patron 
saint. But even in a forgery of this sort, a falsification 
of the main statement might, and probably would where 
possible, be accompanied by correctness in incidental 
details such as dates. Hence even forgeries are, in matters 
of chronology, not always bad evidence. Here again the 
Northern Chronology is substantially confirmed. 

One source of confusion which has frequently to be 
taken into account is the want of unif ormity in commencing 
the year, which at various times in our history began on 
such dates as 24 September, 25 December, and 25 March, 
instead of as now on 1 January. Sometimes there were 
different New Years in neighbouring states. 

A few of our recent standard histories have evolved a 
Revised Chronology based on an apparent compromise 
between the Northern and Southern Chronologies. Thus 
for the death of Alfred, where the Southern Chronology 
gives 901, and the Northern 899, they take 900 as their 
date. But the Northern Chronology is in most instances to 
be preferred, and as far as can be discovered, in no instance 
After the sixth century does its error, if any, exceed one 
year. The dates before 600 are not given in it, and can 
only be vaguely inferred by the aid of regnal tables in 
Chronicles A and B. Beginning with Cynric, the list of 
Wessex kings and dates up to the end of the tenth century 
is as follows (the crosses denoting date-limits in doubtful 
<5ases) : Cynric (530x546), Ceawlin (556 x 572), Ceol 
(588x591), Ceolwulf (594x597), Cynegils 611, Cenwealh 
642, Sexburg (queen) 673, Aescwine 674, Centwine 676, 
Ceadwalla 685, Ine 688, Athelhard 725, Cuthred 739, 
Sigebert 755, Cynewulf 756, Bertric 786, Egbert 802, 
Ethelwulf 839, Ethelbald 858, Ethelbert 860, Ethelred I 
866, Alfred 871, Edward the Elder 899, Athelstan 924, 
Edmund I 939, Edred 946, Edwy 955, Edward the Martyr 
955, Edgar 959, Ethelred II 979. 

A few additional notes on the fixing of these dates may 
be helpful. There is one undisputed landmark in the 
seventh century, the accession of Ine. His predecessor, 
Ceadwalla, granted charters in the August of 688, and 

vol. lii. u 

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left for Rome in the same year, probably within a month 
or so. Egbert's accession is fixed by reference to several 
charters as occurring between Christmas 801 and April 802 r 
probably in January 802. Between these dates there is 
an interval of 113 years and about 4 months ; the sum of 
the regnal periods given is, however, 115 years. If, follow- 
ing a precedent alluded to by Bede (H. E. Ill 1), the one 
year of the incapable Sigebert was included in the thirty- 
one years of his successor, Cynewulf , the total of regnal 
periods becomes 114 years, and if we allow for incomplete 
years, fits in fairly well with the interval given. 

Two other instances of agreed dates are those of the 
accessions of Alfred and Edred, which have between them 
an interval of 75 years. Alfred's regnal period is given as 
28£ years, his death is said to have occurred 40 years and 
a day before that of Athelstan, and the regnal period of 
Edmund is given as 6£ years. Thus the accession years of 
Edward and Edmund can be determined. There are 
ten charters which help us to date the accession of Athel- 
stan ; fortunately so, for in this particular instance 
Simeon of Durham displays less than his usual accuracy. 

The last sixth-century king, Ceolwulf, was wrongly 
given* as " Ceolric " in Section VI. Also in one place 
Ceawlin was spelt " Crawlin," and Deorham, " Deerham."* 
The spellings of several of the other names here given are 
open to criticism, but in most cases simplicity has been 
preferred to meticulous precision. Erudition of the sort 
which uses the form " Aelfred " for the great king's name 
and then misdates his reign by two years is not deserving 
of much sympathy. 

XIII. The Wars of Ine. 

We can now resume the narrative which was interrupted 
at the year 710. At that time the power of Wessex under 
King Ine stood high. Earlier in his reign (694) he had 
humbled the men of Kent. Sussex was practically a 
vassal of his, for we read that he was aided in his expedi- 
tion against Gerunt by his kinsman, Nun, king of that 
country. The result of the expedition is not stated in the 
Chronicles. Later writers, like Henry of Huntingdon, 
represent it as a great Saxon triumph, and taking into 
account what we know of Ine's prowess, with the fact that 
the conflict is mentioned by Saxon and not by British 
writers, we have no reason to doubt this statement. 

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It is a fair inference, then, to suggest that Ine on this 
occasion added to his territory in the South-west, and 
that about this time, if not before, the portion cut off 
from the Domnanian or West Welsh kingdom was given 
the name " Defnanscire." The division into shires, 
formerly attributed to Alfred the Great, is of much earlier 
origin. The organization of Wessex into sub-kingdoms, 
ruled by noblemen of royal descent, is known to have 
existed in the seventh century. Thus in the time of 
Centwine we read of sub-kings named Egwald and Baldred, 
the latter of whom seems to have exercised authority in 
Somerset. These sub-kings seem to have frequently 
disturbed the peace of Wessex by their strivings for supreme 
power, and at a later period their positions were filled by 
magnates bearing the less exalted and less dangerous 
titles of " ealdormen." 

The later years of Ine's reign were less fortunate. In 
715 he was at war with Ceolred of Mercia, and his troops 
suffered heavily in a battle fought at Wanborough. Six 
years later Wessex was involved in a rebellion which was 
suppressed with difficulty. The rebels, who included 
some princes of royal blood, seized Taunton, which was 
captured and destroyed by Queen Ethelburg's forces in 
722. Ine in 725 (S.C. 728, R.C. 726), following the ex- 
ample of his predecessor Ceadwalla, resigned his crown and 
spent the remainder of his days in Rome. He was succeeded 
by Athelhard, Ethelburg's brother, whose nomination by 
Ine as his successor may have been the origin of a strife 
which reads somewhat like an eighth-century War of the 

There was little to envy in Athelhard's position as the 
new king of Wessex. The pretensions of a rival claimant, 
Oswald, with a strong hereditary title to the crown, gave 
Ethelbald of Mercia an opportunity to set up a claim of 
suzerainty which he succeeded in enforcing. Also the 
Britons had again risen and won a victory at the battle of 
Hehil, a place in the South-west that cannot be identified. 
Welsh historians give the date as 720 or 722 (these dates 
are both too early), and they name the British leader, 
Roderic Molwynoc. 

By the death of Oswald in 730 Athelhard was relieved 
of one trouble. His attempt to rid himself of the Mercian 
yoke ended disastrously in or about 733 with the capture 
of Somerton by Ethelbald. His submission to Ethelbald 

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followed, and really improved his position, because the 
two now made common cause against the Britons of Wales 
and Domnania. Race hatred was stronger than provincial 

XIV. The Chabter of Athelhard. 

The Britons, no doubt, had recovered some of their lost 
ground, but Davidson is hardly correct in adopting the 
prevailing opinion that Athelhard was an unwarlike or 
an unsuccessful king. He had an able adviser in his brother 
or kinsman, Cuthred, who ultimately succeeded him. If 
we possessed fuller particulars of the affairs of Wessex 
during this period, we should probably find that these 
two men, and particularly the latter, handled a critical 
situation with considerable skill. Speculations of this 
sort are, it must be confessed, not easy to justify, but 
they are perhaps nearer the mark than the glowing accounts 
of battles with which Henry of Huntingdon embroiders 
the bald entries in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. 

Athelhard, under the terms of his vassalage, was obliged 
to lead his forces into Wales. But there is no reason to 
suppose that there was any further yielding of ground on 
his own Western border. What happened was probably 
quite the contrary ; military prestige was in those days 
vital to a monarch's security of tenure. With troops 
inured to conflict there was the strongest possible tempta- 
tion to recover the shattered prestige of Wessex at the 
expense of his weaker Domnanian neighbours ; in addition 
to which the pressure of Mercia on the Northern border 
may have forced some of the West Saxons elsewhere in 
search of new habitations. History, ancient and modern, 
affords numerous examples in which nations, driven back 
on one frontier, have expanded on another. 

In 1891 there was discovered among the Crawford 
Collection of Documents a charter of Athelhard dated 
10 April, 739. This recites a grant by him to Forthere, 
Bishop of Sherborne, of 20 hides of land around Crediton, 
on which a monastery was to be built. The donation is 
witnessed by Queen Frithogyth, Cuthred, the two bishops, 
Daniel of Winchester and Forthere of Sherborne, Abbot 
Dud, and three reeves named Herefrith, Egfrith and 
Puttoc. There seems to be no reasonable doubt as to its 

A monastery charter in those days was usually granted 

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for one or other of two motives, or possibly a combination 
of both. The first was to commemorate the site of a 
victorious battle and to atone for the bloodshed by pro- 
viding masses for the souls of those slain there. The 
second was to place an indefensible position, which no 
layman would care to hold, under the protection of the 
Church and so outside the pale of legitimate military 
operations. The absence of any reference to a battle, 
though it does not rule out the first motive, makes the 
second the more probable. From the circumstance of 
this charter it is therefore fair to deduce that Athelhard 
in his later years held his own against the West Welsh, 
that his dominions included what are now the parishes of 
Crediton, Newton St. Cyres, Upton Pyne, Brampf ord Speke f 
Hittesleigh, Drewsteignton, Colebrooke, Morchard Bishop, 
Sandford and Kennerleigh, with parts of Cheriton Bishop 
and Clannaborough, the places indicated in the grant, and 
that these places were not far from the Wessex boundary 
of 739. 

Later, in 739 (R.C. 740, S.C. 741), Athelhard died and 
was succeeded by Cuthred. His achievements and those 
of his successors must be deferred for another paper. 


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PART III. (1330^1440.) 

(Read at Totnes, 22nd July, 1820.) 


Alford's Abbots of Tavistock. 
Archbishop Chicheley's Register. 
Bacon's Liber Regis. 
Canons of Legatine Council, 

Chronicle of Exeter Cathedral. 
Compton, Lord Alwyne, in J.A.I. 
Dr. Cox's English Parish Church. 
Papal Decretals. 

Reichel, Rev. C, Rise of the 

Parochial System. 
Register of Master James Cars- 

Statute of Mortmain. 
Thompson, A. H., Historical 

Growth of the English Church. 
Thompson, A. H., The Ground 

Plan of the English Church. 

The Archdeacon Family (continued). 

In the chancel of Haccombe Church is a collection of 
very beautiful encaustic tiles in a fine state of preserva- 
tion. Their arrangement has suffered much through 
various " restorations," but the colouring remains almost 
as vivid as when they were first laid down. Lord Alwyne 
Compton (J. A. I., Vol. Ill) gives an illustrated descrip- 
tion of these tiles, and mentions that " they are interesting 
as an instance of an arrangement of uncommon character, 
inasmuch as it is independent of plain tiles whether square 
or oblong," and adds, " the date can be determined from 
the arms to be about the middle of the fourteenth century. 
It is clear if they were laid down by Sir Warren Archdekne 
they could not have been designed later than 1370 ; so 
the probability is they were made twenty years earlier " 
(Crabbe, p. 65, fixes the date between 1342 and 1390). 

Now Warren did not become owner of Haccombe until 
1377 ; so the probability is that the tiles were laid down 
by Sir John Archdeacon soon after the foundation of the 
chantry. Similar tiles (not armorial) occur at Exeter 
Cathedral, Ipplepen, Buckland-in-the-Moor, and Win- 

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Chester, and are all distinguished by their careless execu- 
tion. The armorial bearings on the tiles are : — 

1. A lion rampant (see illustration), of which Lord 
Alwyne Compton says., " it "was probably merely orna- 
mental, e.g. those at Winchester, where there are no coats 
of arms or other devices that can be only heraldic." This 
device is borne by three Devon families : — 

(a) Nonant : Arg. a lyon rampant geules (Pole). 

(b) Pomeray of Bery : Or a lion rampant geules within 

a border ingrailed sable (Pole). 

(c) Red vers : Or a lion rampant azure (Pole). 

2. Arms of England placed diagonally with monstrous 
animals filling the corners (see illustration). 

Royal Arms of England : Gules 3 lions passant guardant 
in pale or (Boutell). 

N.B. — Arms of Carew : Or 3 lyons passant (in pale) sable 
(Pole). (See illustration of brass shields.) 

Powell (MS. in E. C. L.) naively says " Sir Henry Carew 
told me that those very ancient tiles about the church 
(which in fact is not so, for they are the Royal Arms of 
England) are the Carew Arms." Miss Cresswell, too, in 
her History of Teignmouth, speaks of them as " the Sable 
Lions of the Carews." 

3. Arms of Haccombe : Arg. 3 bends sable, with foliage 
or monstrous animals filling the corners. 

4. A shield bearing 3 chevrons each surmounted with a 
zigzag line, the top of the shield dancette, filled at the 
corners with small lions, their backs being turned towards 
the shield. This tile must have been meant for Archdeacon 
of Haccombe : Argent 3 chiverons sable (Pole), the zigzag 
lines representing a diaper. These arms are on a tile in 
Exeter Cathedral, see illustration in Rev. J. W. Hewett's 
Decorative Remains, etc., Appendix I, tile 43. 

5. A shield " bearing two bars embattled between seven 
fleurs de lys, 3, 3, and 1 " (Lord A. Compton). This is 
probably the Royal Arms of Prance : Seme de fleurs de 
lys (see illustration). 

Sir John Archdeacon left nine sons and one daughter : 
<1) Ralph, alias Stephen, (2) Warin, (3) Richard, (4) Odo, 
{5) John, (6) Robert, (7) Martin, (8) Reginald, (9) Michael, 
^(10) Isabella ; all named except the last in Cornwall F. of F., 
No. 693. 

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A striking analogy can be traced between John Arch- 
deacon and Edward III. They were born within a few 
years of each other ; both died in 1377. They succeeded 
within a short period of each other ; each left a large family 
of sons. In both cases the grandsons quarrelled over 
property, and in both cases the male line was extinct 
before 1500. 

It is difficult to account for the quick disappearance of 
so many of Sir John Archdeacon's sons. It is possible that 
some of them perished in the French disasters of 1370-77. 
Legend says that he was drowned with some of his children. 

Ralph, alias Stephen (6a) has already been mentioned. 
He died after his father's death but before probate, and 
Warin the second son succeeded. It would be interesting 
to discover which brother had priority, because it is quite 
possible that for a few months in 1377 Ralph Archdeacon 
was Lord of Haccombe. 1 

Warren (6b), Warin, Warine, Waryn, or Guarinus. Sir 
G. Carew (" Scroll of Arms") writes: "I find he (Warren 
Archdeacon) was a Knight in Devon in the tyme of K. E. i 
[Archdeckon Warinus miles, in my old book Archdeken. 
Haccombe, Ridmore, Okehampton, hund-Conibe, and South- 
tauton were his 2 Hen. IV. A Baron 17 E. 2]." Most of 
this is manifestly incorrect. Warren flourished c. 1332- 
1400 (Cokayne), while the " tyme of K. E. i " was 1272- 
1307, and " 17 E. 2 " was 1324— long before Warren was 

Polwhele, p. 134. " Warren, the second son, by Eliza- 
beth, one of the coheirs of John Talbot had issue 3 daugh- 
ters, of whom Philippe (ob. 1412) was the second wife of 
Sir Hugh Courtenay, son of the Earl of Devon." This 
John Talbot was John Lord Talbot of Richard's Castle, 
and sole heir of his brother John, last Baron Talbot, who 
died s.p. in 1388 (Maclean). Warin was M.P. for Cornwall, 
1380, 1382, and 1396. Rogers (Sepulchral Effigies, p. 227> 
states that " Waryn is said to have been a Baron by writ 
of summons " ; this was probably copied from a similar 
statement made by Pole, p. 223. 

At the Inq. p.m. held at Okehampton in 1397 on Thomas, 
Earl of Warwick, it was declared that " War. Archediakon 
Chiv. held of the Second Earl £12 rent in the manor of 
S. Tauton by military service." 

1 He was possibly an invalid. Note prominence given to Warren in 
1366 deed (Trans., 1919, pp. 206-7). 

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HACCOMBE. * 315 

Inq. p.m., No. 53, 2 Hen. IV (1401). " Warinus Lerce- 
dekne Chivaler, Devon' — Hacombe maner', Ridmore 
maner', Ockhamton honor', Combe maner', (Combe Hall, 
Drewsteignton), Stoke Intinhyde maner', Southta' maner'." 
Warren presented Sir Robert Toly to Haccombe in 1371-2 ; 
Sir Thomas Potel in 1387-8 ; Sir Henry Bole in 1390 ; and 
Michael Lercedekne in 1400 (Oliver). 

Some idea of his enormous possessions can be gathered 
from the Inquest held in 1386 (9 Richard II, No. 108) on 
the lands of " Warinus Lercedekne, miles et alii — appre- 
ciacio terrarum suarum. Cornub' — Rydworg maner' y 
Boddowen maner', Landegy maner', Elerky maner', 
Lanyhorn maner', Penpol maner', Tynerdauk maner', 
terr' et ten' Estanton maner', Penhale una messuag' et 
una carucata terr', Restyr terr' et ten', Carballa juxta 
Trewithosam terr' et ten', Tregorrek tenement', Seynt 
Austoll reddit, Trewyddel unum messuag' et una caruc > 
terr', Treveynon reddit', Bostonwall reddit', TaJgarrek et 
Trevanek unam messuag' et una caruc' terr', Carnu et 
Tresitney do, Beskinser et Treganwen do, Demylick 2 do. 
in paroch' de Sancto Denys, Tressell unum messuag' et 
dimid caruc' terr', La Pylle unum messuag' et parcell terr* 
etc." His wife, too, brought her husband such vast estates 
that it is no wonder that Haccombe appeared an insignifi- 
cant trifle, and we seldom find Warren mentioned in con- 
nection with it. There are three Inquests in existence on 
Elizabeth's estates: (1) 8 Henry IV., No. 39 (1407). 
" Elizabetha quae fuit uxor Warini Lerchedeken, Chivaler > 
Cornub' et Devon' — Tauton maner', Penpol maner', 
Shilingham maner' servie, Elerky maner', Lanyhorn 
maner' et advoc. ecclesic Haccomb advoc' cantar', (which 
she seems never to have exercised), Landege maner', 
Redworg maner', Bodewen maner', Dimylyok maner', ut 
de manerio de Carmynow." 

(2) The same year. " Elizabetha quae fuit uxor Warini 
Lerchedekin. Cornub' — Estanton maner', Penpol maner', 
Elerky maner', Lanyhorn maner'. Devon — Haccombe 
advoc'. Cornub' — Landege maner', Bodewen maner' 
Dymyly maner'." 

These were both preliminary enquiries, for we get a 

complete catalogue in (3) 9 Hen. IV., No. 39 (1408). 

" Elizabetha quae fuit uxor Warini Lerchedekne chivaler. 

\ Manors in Essex, Salop et March (Welsh Borders), Salop 

Hereford, Gloucester, Wigorn (Worcester, Warr' (War- 

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wick) (Talbot property), and in Devon — Hakcombe maner', 
Quedik advoc'. cantar, Ridmore maner' ut de honore de 
Okhampton, Combe maner' et de Castro de Tottness, South 
Tanton maner', Shokebrok maner', Samford Peverell 
maner, Whithbrigg mess' et terr' ut de manerio de Brode- 
clist, Colrigg mess' et ter' ut de manerio de Yelton, Mane- 
don tertia pars unius mess' etc, ut de Castro de Totness, 
Bokelon in the More tertia pars manerii, Maineston tertia 
pars unius mess' & \jert. terr' ut de manerio de Ekkebok- 
lond, Hoo juxta Dertmouth mess' & terr', Legham maner', 
Yelton maner' . In Cornwall — Estanton maner' , Westanton 
maner', Penpoll maner', Shillingham maner', Elerkye 
maner', Launceston castr', Lanihorne maner', Haccombe 
Cantar' in com' Devon', Quewike cantar', Landege maner', 
Redworye maner', Tregony maner', Bodewen maner', 
Ryalton maner?, Dymiliok maner', Carmynowe maner', 
Cadeston, Vorskinap, Dynnersdawik, Croft, Mainton, 
Cadbery, Heghflet, Cadeston duo cotagio etc. In Devon 
— Lygham, Colrygg, South Taunton, Lobba, Churchull, 
Pedykwille, Overhamme, Netherhamme, Asselond, Wythy- 
brigg, Hoo, Bokeland, Okeford, and Manyton — divers' 
mess' terr' reddit etc. Bokeland Inthemore tertia pars 
maner', Lagham tertia pars maner'." 

See also Writ of diem cl. ext. 3 Sept., 8 Henry IV. Inq. 
dated 21 Sept., 1407, states " dicunt quod prefata Eliza- 
betha obiit tertio die Augusti ultimo preterito." 

Stafford's Reg., I, 58 (23 July, 1401). Licence for an 
oratory to the Lady Elizabeth, relict of Sir Warine Lerce- 
dekne, K*, " in sua et familiarium suorum presencia." 

EUzabeth's Will is a document of considerable human 
interest. It will be found in the Register of Master James 
Carsleghe, Commissary General of Bishop Lacy, Vol. I, 
fol. 38, in Bishop. Stafford's Reg. Dated at Haccombe, 
12 Dec, 1406. " In pura viduetate mea." She commends 
her soul to God her Almighty Creator, the Blessed Virgin 
Mary, His Mother, and all His Saints in Heaven, directing 
her body to be buried in the choir of the Church of the 
Friars Preachers nearest to the place of her decease ; to 
whom she leaves 100s. that they may pray for her soul, 
and because of her burial in their church. Also to the 
Friars Minors in Exeter 13/4, and to those of Plymouth 
6 /8, to pray for her soul. To the Leper's House at Plympton 
and at Exeter 3/4 each. To the Hospital of S. John, 
Exeter 6/8. To the Leper's House at Totnes 3/4. To the 

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High Altar of the Church of S. Blaise at Haccombe, in 
-compensation for tithes and oblations forgotten or kept 
back, 6/8. She directs her executors to procure two 
priests to celebrate for her soul, and for all the faithful 
dead, continuously, in the church at Haccombe, and to 
pay them as they may jointly determine. To Robert Cary 
(Escheator in Devon and Cornwall) she leaves a silver-gilt 
cup with cover, gravatum cum ressents ypounsed cum 
rolles." To the Lady Alice Werthe 2 marks sterling, " de 
Corneworthy." The residue after payments of her debts 
and execution of her will, she bequeaths to her servants, 
to be divided among them all. Executors : Robert Scobe- 
hill, Thos. Norys, and Gilbert Smyth. Proved 7 Aug., 
1407, before the Bishop, at Crediton. (Preb. Hingeston 
Randolph has made the curious error of proving this Will 
7 Aug., 1406, i.e. more than four months before it was 

Scobehill was a near neighbour at Coffinswell. Smyth 
was another neighbour, who on 1 May, 1419, obtained, 
with Isabella his wife, a licence for an oratory " infra 
mansum sive habitacionem suam in villa de Nyueton 
Abbatis in parochia de Wolleburgh." Of the third executor 
the Reg. of Master James Carsleghe, Vol. I, fol. 38, records : 
" Thomas Norys ; Licencia celebrandi. Item (30 June 
1422), dictus Commissarius concessit Licenciam Thome 
Norys ut in quocumque loco honesto, Cultui Divino dis- 
posito, infra Diocesim Exoniensem situato, Divina possit 
per quoscumque presbiteros ydoness facere celebrari, in 
ejus presencia et uxoris sue ; dum tamen," etc. 

Warin and Elizabeth had no male heirs, but left three 
daughters: (1) Elinor or Elizabeth (7a) = Sir William 
Lucy. On p. 270 Pole speaks of " Elizabeth, wife 
of S r Will a m Lucy ; from whom discends . . . Corbet 
of Shrop-shire and Vaux," but on p. 398 he calls her 

Arms of Lucy : Geules 3 luces hauriant Or. (Pole). 

Vicary Gibbs gives Elizabeth as a separate daughter, 
who died s.p. 

(2) Philippa (7b)=Sir Hugh Courtenay. (To be the 
subject of a future paper.) 

(3) Margery (7c)=Sir Thomas Arundell. She is buried 
in Anthony Church. " On a flat stone in front of the 
^ltar is her effigies in brass, in excellent preservation. She 
has a la^ge pillow head-dress with coverchief, gown, and 

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long sleeves, the cuffs guarded with fur, and a girdle orna- 
mented with roses. At her feet this inscription : — 





There are the indents of two shields of arms above the 
figure. Margery Arundell dying without issue, Anthony 
passed to her sister Philippa, whose daughter Joan married 
Sir Nicholas Carew of Ottery-Mohun (ob. 1447)> who gave 
it to his fourth son Alexander. Numerous monuments to 
the descendants of this branch of the Carews are in the 
church, inclusive of Richard Carew (ob. 1620), author of 
the Survey of Cornwall (Rogers, p. 228). 

J. Furneaux, in Of Antony and Sheviocke Churches, p. 2 y 
writes, " In front of the altar may be seen perhaps the best 
brass in Cornwall, that of Margery Arundell, the probable 
founder of the church. She is represented under a remark- 
ably elegant canopy, in a long flowing robe and mantle, the 
former girt round the waist by a belt ornamented with 
trefoils slipped, and her head covered with a mantilla head- 
dress. At the head of the stone containing the brass are 
the matrices of two shields ; one doubtless Archdekne ; 
the other Arundell." 

Heraldic Church Notes from Cornwall, A. J. Jewers. 
Under the heading of East " Antony " we find : " The 
memorial of Margaret Arundell is by far the earliest 
sepulchral record in the church and marks the resting 
place of the coheirs of L'Erchdekne, from the younger of 
whom East Antony came to the Carew family. ' ' The writer 
adds, " her father's name is spelt * Erchedeken.' " A plate 
of this brass is engraved in Dunkin's Brasses of Cornwall. 

Richard (6c) of Dartington, third son of John, nu 
Johanna, dau. of Sir John Boson, or Bosowr, 1 and died 
Sep. 20, 1400, leaving a son named Thomas (6c. 1.), of whom 
Carew (Survey of Cornwall) says, " in whom the heirs male 
of this line multiplied hope took an end." Referring|ta 
this remark, C. S. Gilbert in his Survey of Cornwall com- 
ments : "Notwithstanding the assertion of Mr. Carew we 
are inclined to believe that there were collateral branches 
existing in these parts after that event ; and it is not 

1 Arms of Bosum or Boson : Az. 3 bird bolts argent. (Risdon's " Note- 

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unlikely that those humble persons of the same name who 
now reside in the parish of East Anthony may be descendants 
of the same house." A search of Kelly's Directory fails to 
reveal anyone now living there of the name of Archdeacon. 
There is an Inq. of 10 Hen. IV., No. 12, concerning Riciis 
Lerchdekne. "Devon' — Chirchill et Ursham-mess' terr' 
et reddit', Dertington maner', Lobba mess' et terr' in villa 
de." There is a reference in Trans., 1901, p. 417, to " Joan, 
wife of Thomas Larcedekne v. Richard Oxnam her servant, 
concerning certain messuages and lands in Lyham, Mana- 
ton, Bolbrydge, and Atteforde." (Early Ch. Pro. 15, 167, 
23 Hen. VI.). This Joan was the wife of Thomas (6c.l), 
son of Richard, who was born c. 1368 as he was aged 21 
years at his father's death, 1 and died 4 Feb., 1420-1. His 
wife, who survived her husband, bore him a son named 
John (6c.2.), aged 27 at his father's death, who appears to 
be the last of his line. Thomas was M.P. for Devon in 
1421. (See Alexander's Devon M.P.'s, 1914, p. 52.) Corn- 
wall F. of F., No. 453. 25 June, 1318. At Westminster. 
BetweenThomas le Ercedekne and Joan 2 his wife, claimants, 
by Simon Belde in Joan's place, and William de Mile- 
bourne, deforciant, as to 5 messuages, 7 mills, 10 plough- 
lands, and 4 score pounds worth of rent in Laundege, 
Reswory (in Gwinear), Ruvyer (in Phillack), Boseweyn 
(in Wendron), Talkarn, Trevalsa, Elerky, Trewyder (in 
Buryan), Dymnyliek (Domellick), and Lanrihorn and the 
advowson of the church of Lanrihorn. To have and to 
hold to Thomas and Joan and their heirs. A preliminary 
Inq. p.m., 8 Hen. V., No. 115 (1421) says: "Thomas 
Archedeken. Devon' Legham maner' cum membr' vocat' 
Manedon et Colrigge, Polesbye maner', Bokeland in the 
More, Hoo, Southtauton, Withebrigge, Okeford, Churchille 
VishametLobbe, divers' mess' terr' reddit' etc. Dynordawyk 
mess' et terr', S token Tynhide maner' membr', PidekewiH 
terr', Overham et Netterham divers' mess' &c, Ilfredecomb 
tenement, Barnstaple ibidem, Asland mess' et terr." 

In Trans., 1905, p. 326, Miss Lega-Weekes gives an 
abstract of a suit (10 Hen. IV) in which Thomas (6cl) 
contests the inheritance of his grandfather John (5b) 
against the daughters of Warin and their husbands, viz. 
Philippa and Sir Hugh Courtenay, Alianora and Sir W. 

1 He was probably over 30. See age of John (6c. 2) two lines 
below. Richard must have married about 1366 (Trans., 1919, p. 208). 
* A footnote says she was his first wife. 

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Lucy, and Margery and Sir Thomas Arundell, who entered 
upon and held it contrary to the provisions of a fine 
levied 39 Edw. Ill by John and Cecily (see F. of F., 693, 
supra). The note states that Odo, Warin, and Ralph died 
without heirs male ; but this is incorrect, for Odo left a 
son John (6d.l.) who carried on the succession. It is more 
probable that Thomas brought the action as being the son 
of an older brother. On the same page is a translation 
of an Inq. p.m. on Thomas Archdeken taken at Exeter 
1 Ap. 10 Henry V. This states that Thomas held no lands 
in Devon of the Kifig, but that a certain Joseph was 
enfeoffed of Legham, Manedon, and Colrygg, granted to 
Joan, late wife of the said Thomas and to her heirs, and 
that the manor is held of Philip Courtenay. It also states 
that Thomas held land, tenements, etc., in Bokeland, Hoo, 
Southtawton, Whythebrygge, Okeford, Churchill, Visham r 
Lobbe, as well as in Wyk (Cornwall). If Thomas should 
die without heirs male remainder to Henry Larchedekne 
son of John lerchedekne . . . remainder to Martin lerche- 
dekne, ' clerico,' and the legitimate heirs male of his body 
. . . remainder to Cecilia, late wife of John lerchedekne,, 
K*, defunct." All this is very puzzling, for nothing is 
known of Henry Larchdekne. Possibly Henry was an 
alias of John or Robert. Then again, it is highly im- 
probable that Martin ' clerico ' could have " legitimate 
heirs " ; and to make the confusion worse, Cecilia must 
have been at least 101 years old at the date of the deed 
quoted, 13 Oct., 3 Henry V. 1 

The manor of Treberveth was settled by Matilda, relict 
of Thomas (4a) on Odo (6d) her grandson. This Odo had 
a son named John (6dl.)=Matilda, who died Sunday next 
after the Feast of S* Clement the Pope (27 Nov., 1395). 
According to an Inq. p.m. No. 2, 20 Richard II., at his 
death he was seized of Treberveth, and in his lifetime gave 
it to John (6d2) his son at the rent of 100s. per annum, 
and after his death to be held of the Chief Lord of the Fee 
at the rent due and accustomed. In default remainder to 
Philippa (6d2a) sister of John (6d2) ; she appears to have 
died 8.p. The jury found that th£ said John (6d2) was 
aged 8 years and more. In default of issue to Philippa 
remainder to Matilda wife of John (6dl) for her life ; with 
reversion to John (6dl) son of Odo and his heirs for ever. 
This involved arrangement becomes quite clear on referring 
to the pedigree. 

See Addenda. 

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Another Inq. (No. 4, 20 Richard II) runs : " Joh'es 
fihus Odonis Archedekne (6dl). Cornub' — Trebernethe 
maner', Trevyan et Scorya, duo messuag' et tres ferlingate 
terr' ut de castro de Launceston, Oregentalan maner % 
Talgollan maner , . ,, 

" John (6d2) being seized in his demesne of one fee-tail 
in the same state died seized ; after his death the manor 
descended to John (6d3) his son and heir, who being seized 
in fee-tail assigned all the messuages and lands in Tregarne 
and Fentenfredell, parcel of the said manor of Treberueth 
to Margery who was wife of John his father in lieu of 
dower for the term of her life. He died 20 Dec, 1471, 
Margery his mother being still alive, and John Lerchdecne 
(6d4a) his son was found to be his nearest heir and 6 years 
of age and more " (quoted by Maclean). 

Inq. 12 Edw. IV., No. 28. Joh'es Lerchedekken (6d3). 
Cornub' — Treberveth maner', Launceston castr' membr', 
Trevyan et Scorya mess' terr, etc. Talgollan maner', 
Tregarn et Fentenfredell mess' et terr." 

We do not know what became of John (6d4a) who was 
born c. 1465, but he died s.p. and the manor descended to 
his sister Johanna, and this branch of the family became 
extinct in the male line. From the age of her son at the 
time of her death Johanna was probably born c. 1464, 
within a year or two of her brother. She m. Thomas 
Wynter of co. Warwick, and is described in the old pedigree 
of Winter as " daughter of John Lercedekne." At her 
death on Oct. 9th, 1509, her son, Sir Thomas Wynter is 
named as her heir, and aged 30 years or more. (Inq. p.m., 
1 Henry VIII, No. 6.) 

John (6e) fourth son of John (5b) ; name of wife un- 
known. He had two sons — Henry (6c. 1.) named in the 
Inq. p.m. of Thomas his cousin, 1 Ap. 1422, and Michael 
(6c2.), Treasurer of Exeter Cathedral. This Michael will 
be dealt with in connection with the Archpresbytery. 
John inherited a moiety of Pydykwille, Overhamme, 
Netherhamme, and Asselon. 

Robert (6f) inherited Withy brigg and Hoo, but appears 
to have died s.p. ; so his property reverted to his surviving 

Martin (6g), clericus, rose to some eminence in the 
Church. His story is told in the Episcopal Registers : 
Brantyngham, fol. 41b ; 1376, S. Ruan Lanyhorne, Rector^ 
Martin Lercedekne, Clerk, was collated by lapse (in London) 

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21 June, in the person of his proctor, Master Ralph Red- 
ruthe, Clerk. 

Idem., fol. 68. 16 July, 1377. S. Ruan Lanyhorne. 
Martin Ercedeakne, sub-deacon, Rector, gets a dispensa- 
tion for non-residence for two years to study (at Oxford). 

Idem., fol. 74. 15 July, 1379. Similar dispensation for 

2 years. 

Idem., fol. 77b. 14 Dec, 1379. (East Horsley) Letters 
Dimissory — Master Martin Ercedekne, sub-deacon, Rector 
of St. Ruan Laryhorne, " ad Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem." 

Idem., fol. 91b. 14 July, 1381, TVo years licence for non- 
residence to study. 

Idem., fol. 105. 23 March, 1382-3. At Clyst. Lett. 
Dim. Master Martin Lercedekne, " ad Sacrum Presbiteratus 

Idem., fol. 107b. 16 May, 1383. Two years licence for 
non-residence. (Reason not stated.) 

Idem., fol. 117. 1383-4. In the list of Canons of Exeter 
Oathedral — Magister Martinus Lercedeakne. 

Idem., fol. 182b. 16 June, 1388. Master Martin Lerce- 
dekne (S. Mawgan-in-Kerrier). Licence for non-residence 
for 2 years to study at Oxford. 

Stafford's Reg. (p. 319, Hingeston-Randolph). 24 June, 
1410. Martin Lercedekne (Canon of Exeter), S. Mawgan- 
in-Kerrier was licensed as a Public Preacher, and on the 
same day obtained licence of non-residence for a year ; but 
he was to reside at Exeter as Canon (I, 97). 

Idem. (p. 161, Hingeston Randolph). Martin Lercedekne 
to a Canonry and Prebend of Karswelle (in Crediton), 

3 Sept., 1419, vice Michael Lercedekne (see II, 186). This 
was the last official act of Bp. Stafford, who died the same 
day. The entry runs, " Item, eisdem die et loco (Clyst) 
dominus contulit, intuitu caritatis, Magistro Michaeli 
Lercedekne, Exoniensis Diocesis Capellano, canonicatum 
in Ecclesia Collegiata Sancte Crucis Creditonensi et Pre- 
bendam de Karswelle in eadem, ipsius domini patronatus 
et Diocesis, vacantes, et ad ipsius Domini collacionem 
pleno jure spectantes, et ipsium canonicum et preben- 
darium instituit et investivit canonice in eisdem cum suis 
juribus et pertinenciis universis, juribus, etc. Et, prestita 
canonice obediencia domino per eundem, mandatum fuit 
Precentori dicte ecclesie pro ipsius induccione, etc., et 
optinuit literas, etc." 

Idem. (Hingeston-Randolph, p. 240) states that Martin 

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Lercedekne, R. of S. Mawgan-in-Kerrier was Canon of 
Exeter ; collated to a Canonry in Glasney on the resigna- 
tion of William Rayney, 23 Feb., 1417-8 ; also in Bosham, 
which he resigned and was collated to a Canonry . in 
Crediton, and the Prebendary of Stowford, vice Richard 
Palmer, ob. 25 Ap., 1419. 

In S. Gabriel's Chantry in Exeter Cathedral is a flat 
stone inscribed : — 


QUI OBUT iiij A DIE mensis aprilis annodni, millmo cccc 



Rogers, p. 228, notes that he was " of contemporary 
date, and probably a near relation of Margery Arundell." 
Margery died in 1420, and was Martin's niece (see pedigree). 

Martin was M.A. and Fellow of Ex. Coll., Oxon., in 1372. 
His will, dated 1430, in Archbishop Chicheley's Reg., Vol. I, 
fol. 435d, shows that he was at one time R. of St. Rumon in 
Cornwall, for he leaves " 6/8 to the poor of his former 
church there." The document is interesting in showing 
how thoughtful he was of all his old friends. After direct- 
ing his body to be buried in St. Gabriel's Chapel, he leaves 
(amongst other bequests) 600 pence for 600 masses for the 
souls of his parents, of his brother Michael (6j), of his 
sister the Lady Isabella (6k), of Richard Alet, and all faith- 
ful dead. To the prisoners in the King's prison of Exeter 
he leaves 12 d , and 8 d to those in the Bishop's prison. To 
the lepers of Exeter " 3 canonical loaves," and 12 on the 
day of his funeral. To " nepoti Magistro Michaeli Repor- 
torium meum super vj tus et Clement." There were 
numerous other bequests ; even Nicholas his cook re- 
ceived 100s. — a very considerable sum in those days. 

Reginald (6h) inherited Bokeland and Okeford, and 
apparently died without heirs. 

Michael (6j), youngest son of John, 1 was M.P. for Corn- 
wall in 1383 and 1390 (Blue Book). He is mentioned in his 
father's will (Brantyngham, fol. 215), and with Warin his 
brother, was granted probate in 1390. Whitley says that 
this Michael was instituted to Haccombe in 1400 and to 
Grade in 1409. Oliver also refers to two Michaels at Hac- 
combe — one in 1400, and the other in 1409. The latter he 

1 Probably born after 1345 (Trans., 1919, p. 208). 
VOL. Ln. X 


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definitely states was " Treasurer " (6c2). The probability 
is in favour of there being only one Michael at Haccombe, 
and that one Michael (6c2) (see pedigree). The evidence for 
this will be given under the history of the Archpresbytery. 

It will be seen that the Haccombe branches of the Arch- 
deacon family have become extinct in the male line. 
Vicary Gibbs, Vol. I, p. 186, notes that the Continental 
family emigrated from Ireland to Bruges in recent times, 
and are descendants of the Cornish folk — not ancestors, 
as Lower in Family Names suggests. Among their repre- 
sentatives any hereditary Barony that may be held to have 
existed is in abeyance. 

It has already been noted that Sir John Archdeacon's 
great work at Haccombe was the carrying into effect the 
wish of his wife's grandfather, Stephen de Haccombe, to 
secure a foundation of Secular Priests. This custom of 
founding chantries in parish churches was very general 
from the latter part of the thirteenth century until the 
Reformation. Rich landowners, anxious to secure their 
own salvation and that of their friends, sought to gain 
their ends by endowing altars in their parish churches so 
that one or more priests should daily celebrate Mass for 
the souls of the donor and his friends. " Error came in 
when a man founded a Divine Service the sole object of 
which was to obtain prayers for himself ; it was mitigated 
by the association of family, benefactors, and friends, and 
the usual addition of all faithful souls." Dr. Cutts in 
Parish Priests in the Middle Ages, p. 441. The endowment 
usually came into effect after the death of the donor, and 
so pressed somewhat heavily on the heir who had little 
voice in the expenditure. This aspect of the case seems 
to have had a distinct effect' on Sir John Archdeacon's 
attitude, as will be seen later. 

The extensive alienation of property to religious bodies 
made such serious inroads upon estates that they became 
an actual menace to the king. To check this, the Statute 
of Mortmain was passed in 1297, which compelled a pros- 
pective benefactor to apply for Royal Letters Patent. An 
enquiry was then held, and if it could be shown that the 
property could be alienated without prejudice to the king 
or the lord from whom the fee was immediately held, the 
licence was granted. Hence the expression " Inq. ad quod 
dampnum." Again, the 12th Canon of the Legatine Council 
at Westminster, 1138, forbade " any man to build a church 

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or oratory on his own estate without the bishop's license " ;, 
but " if anyone has built a church with the bishop's consent 
he acquires in it a right of patronage." Decretal of Pope 
Clement III ; Tit. 38 (see Reichel's Rise of the Parochial 
System). And so close was the connection between the 
Lord of the Soil and the church built to serve it, that the 
Decretal of Lucius III (1181-5) declares " when an estate 
is bought the right of patronage is acquired also." These 
remarks will perhaps help to make clear what follows. 

Pat. Rolls, mernb. 2. Nov. 8, 1335. " Licence for the 
alienation in mortmain by John Lercedekne and Cicely 
his wife of the advowson of the churches of S* Blaise, 
Haccombe, and S* Hugh, Quedok, to an archpriest and 
five chaplains, celebrating divine service daily in the 
former church for the souls of the said John and Cicely and 
their ancestors ; and for the appropriation of the churches 
for the archpriest and chaplains." 

Pat. Rolls, mernb. 11. Nov. 18, 1335. Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. 4 " Licence for the alienation in mortmain by John 
Lercedekne to an archpriest and five chaplains," etc., in 
very similar terms to the previous one. 

Inquis. ad quod damjmum, 9 Edward III, No. 2. 
"Johannes Lercedekne dedit sex Capellanis in Ecclesia 
Sancti Blasii de Haccombe Advocacionem Ecclesie pre- 
dicte, Divina singulis diebus celebrantibus," etc. Writ 
tested at Cowick. 

Another Inquisition was taken at Lostwithiel on the 
Monday next before the feast of S. Peter (ad Vinculae) 
(31 July), for the same purpose and to qonvey the advow- 
son of the church of Quethiock ; which was worth £20 
yearly ; and was held of the Prior of St. German's 
in soccage and the service of 4/- yearly. (See footnote 
in Bishop Grandisson's Register, Hingeston-Randolph, 
p. 855) 

The reason for the inclusion of Quethiock becomes clear 
when' we remember that Stephen's mother, Cecilia de 
Penpol, was born in that parish, and he evidently wished 
to perpetuate her memory. 

Testa de Nevil, p. 203. " Cornub, Serlo de Penpol iij 
acr' & i j & omi svicio." Stephen de Haccombe is recorded 
as having possessed the advowson of Quethiock in Bishop 
Stapledon's Register, 200. Vacant " a die Jovis proxima 
ante Festum Sancti Edwardi Regis (17 March, 1316-7), 
Master Henry de Nywetone, clerk, was instituted 29 May, 


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1317. Patron, Sir Stephen de Haccombe." On whose 
resignation Sir William de Vautort was admitted 8 June, 

1318. Same patron. 

There is a reference to the advowson of Quethiock in 
Cornwall Feet of Fines, 718, 4 Richard II. (28 Ap., 1381). 
Between Ralph Carmynow chivaler, claimant, and Thomas 
Payn and Isabella his wife, deforciants ; as to 15 mess., 
etc., land, and 35 acres of wood in Treyage, Boterdown, 
Westquedyk, and Penacadek and the advowson of the church 
of Quedyk. Thomas and Isabella acknowledged the tene- 
ments and advowson to be the right of Ralph and rendered 
them to him at the court. To have and to hold to be the 
right of Ralph and his heirs for ever. For this Ralph gave 
to Thomas and Isabella 200 marks of silver. The sub- 
division of a manor with the consequent dispute as to the 
ownership of the advowson was a fruitful source of law- 
suits at this time, and x we find many examples in the • 
Archdeacon records as well as in the Feet of Fines. 

Inq. ad quod dampnum. 27 July, 1335. Taken at 
Lydf ord on the Thursday next after the Feast of James 
the Apostle, says " Haccombe church was worth 5 marks 
yearly, and was held by £ fee of Hugh de Courtenay, Earl 
of Devon, who was the intermediate lord between the 
King and John Lercedekne of the said advowson." 

Some idea of the value of Haccombe at other periods 
may be gained from the Chronicle of Exeter Church (Dev. 
N. and Q., Vol. IV, Part I, p. 16). " Particulars of the 
account of W m Malerbe, Hugh Walys, and their fellow 
collectors as to a moiety of fifteenths and tenths granted 
to the king by the laity in the 7 th year of Richard II (1384) 
in the co. of Devon. Hundred of Haytor. From the 
tithing of Haccombe 3/2." 

Bacon's Liber Regis says " First fruits of Haccombe 
£25. Yearly tenths £2 10s." 

Cornwall Register (1847), p. 332, " Quethiock, anciently 
Cruetheke, commonly Quithik. The tithes commuted at 
£680 are equally divided between the vicar of the parish 
and Haccombe, and there is a glebe belonging to each. 
In 1291 Quethiock belonged to the Abbot of Tavistock." 
This latter statement is doubtful, and is not confirmed in 
Alf ord's Abbots of Tavistock. 

Oliver's Bishops of Exeter, speaking of 1581, says, the 
living of Haccombe was then worth only £20 per annum. 

Kelly values it at £362 with 5 acres of glebe. 

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Rev. O. Reichel (Transactions, 1918, p. 381) says, " The 
Rector of Haccombe from extraneous sources has an 
income of £348 with 5 J acres of glebe, 2 ferlings appear to 
have been sold and the proceeds invested elsewhere." 

" It must be remembered that a Chantry is a Service — 
not the building in which it is held. It might be founded 
at the High Altar of a church, but more usually was con- 
ducted at one of the lesser altars " (Hist. Growth of the Eng- 
lish Church). When a chantry was founded it usually 
entailed enlarging the church, and the commonest form 
was the addition of an aisle. Stephen must have had the 
idea of a chantry in his mind when he beautified and 
enlarged his church by building the North aisle in 1328. 

Haccombe was at first simply a domestic oratory ; the 
status of the church before the foundation of the Chantry 
College seems to have been that of a free chapel in the 
patronage of the Haccombe family (see Decretal of Clement 
III), to which the Bishop had obtained the right of 
institution. This is indicated by the term " Capella de 
Haccombe" in Stapelden's Register of 1309 (Hingeston- 
Randolph, 220), where the first definite institution occurs, 
and shows that the Parish Priest had his origin as the 
chaplain of a landowner, to serve not only the lord but 
his tenants and retainers ; so by degrees he acquired the 
position of an ecclesiastical freeholder. Miss E. Carew, in 
a letter, says, " the Rectors and Archpriests of Haccombe 
were never inducted." It was thus always extra-parochial ; 
but the fact that the incumbent was regularly presented 
and instituted gave it a quasi-parochial status ; and when 
the College was founded the Archpriest remained Rector 
of the Chapel. 

It is not easy to say exactly when Haccombe could first 
be called a Parish Church. The custom was that the term 
" Parish " was never applied until a church had passed 
from the state of a private oratory into that of a burial 
church (see Rise of ike Parochial System, p. 126). In the 
case of Haccombe this had taken place before 1328, as the 
reference to " nee non cimiterium ejusdem " will show 
(Transactions, 1918, p. 342). A parish was the district 
* within reasonable distance of a church served by a duly 
appointed secular priest, and its bounds were laid down by 
the bishop — not by the manorial lord (see Dr. Cox's 
English Parish Church). 

A benefactor who wished to endow a chantry of more 

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than one chaplain usually reserved the appropriation of 
the advowson to his chaplains who held it in perpetuity 
and were incorporated as a College. This was done to 
secure a constantly resident ministry in the parish ; for 
unlike the holders of prebends in Collegiate Churches who 
were seldom resident, the Chaplains of Chantry Colleges 
were obliged to be always on the spot (see Historical 
Growth,, etc.). The head of such a college was called a 
Rector ; or in very rare cases as at Whitchurch (Abbots of 
Tavistock, p. 176), Slapton, S. Michael Penkivell, Beer 
FerrerS, and Haccombe, he was called an Archpriest ; and 
he was in the position of a resident incumbent. The title 
as used by modern Rectors is almost indefensible, as it 
was merely the Rector's distinctive title as head of a 
Chantry College. In France it was commonly used to 
signify a Rural Dean, and it is still applied to cur6s of 
important parish churches. The Rector's duties were by 
no means similar to those we expect from an incumbent 
to-day. In order to augment his income he often held 
several benefices ; very often he did not proceed to full 
orders ; and he usually found little difficulty in obtaining 
a licence of non-residence " for study," or on the grounds 
that he had to be attendant on the king or some great 
personage. We find many examples of all these conditions 
amongst the Archpriests of Haccombe. 


The puzzling clause in the Inq. p.m. of Thomas 
Lercedekne may be explained as a recital of the con- 
ditions set out in Cornwall F. of F., No. 693, quoted in 
Trans., 1919, p. 206. Thomas was the senior male of the 
family, his father and most of his uncles being dead, and 
under the grant he was entitled to all the property 
described except Georgeham and Hasland. Henry (6cl) 
and Martin (6g) were next in order of succession. 

There is still one difficulty : the male heirs of Odo (6d) 
are not mentioned ; and it is just possible that this Odo 
died s.p., and that John who died in 1395 was the son 
of another Odo, perhaps a cousin. 


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pabt vn. 


(Read at Totnes, 22nd July, 1920.) 

Subdivided Cushion, or Scalloped Bowls. 

In the last section of this paper we considered twelve 
examples of the cushion-bowl font ; these, as well as all 
the pedestal fonts previously described, are of hemi- 
spherical form in the lower part of the bowl, and they are 
classified as " cup-fonts."- It was noticed that though the 
earlier examples were formed from the circular bowl, and 
retained the circular outline at four points of the rim, 
later cushion-bowls are square at the rim, though rounded 
below, so that they are still cup fonts. 

The next stage of evolution is the scalloped or sub- 
divided cushion bowl, which follows the scalloped capital 
of the later Norman period, and is definitely square in 
plan. The original design of the capitals became speedily 
modified in the fonts ; at first the cones, rising from the 
necking, slope to meet the sides of the bowl, in the same 
way that on the capital of a pillar they slope towards the 
abacus. The best example is at Berry Narbor ; Dfracombe, 
though a modernised font, follows somewhat the same 
lines ; so do Christow and West Down, though the slopes 
of the cones are much shorter. These four are the only 
examples showing the cones which are so conspicuous on 
the subdivided cushion capital ; in all other cases they are 
made horizontal, placed under the bowl, and are scarcely 
visible at all : the only evidence of the cone is the semi- 
circular end, and to a casual eye the square bowl simply 
appears to be finished by a row of scallops at the bottom. 
This is especially noticeable at Stoke St. Nectan (Hartland), 
Netherexe and Ashford ; the cones are so completely 

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under the bowl that the fonts come into the " tabular ,r 
category. Perhaps it is well to mention that this term is 
used when the under portion of the bowl is flat, whether 
the upper part is square or round, whereas, if the bowl is 
hemispherical at the lower part, it is a " cup font," again 
whether the upper part is round or square. Later we shall 
see a few instances of the true " table font," a rectangular 
block resting on a central shaft. 

85. Berry Narbor. 

This seems to be the earliest of the scalloped bowls. 
Each face has three cones, the slopes of which are con- 
spicuous, as in a scalloped capital ; at each corner is one 
large cone with two scallops, one on each face ; at the 
point where these join the edge is carried well up towards 
the rim of the bowl, showing clearly its derivation from the 
plain cushion bowl. The slopes of the middle cones 
measure 6 inches, the corner ones 12 inches. The cones are 
separated by darts ; there is a bold round moulding for 
necking, and a circular Norman shaft, which seems to be 
built up of several stones ; this is shown clearly on the 
south side, the rest is thickly plastered. The circular base 
is composed of three mouldings, the lower one round, with 
two shallow curved chamfers above. 

The opening of the bowl is square, the edges both out- 
side and inside are chamfered. There are patches of new 
stone on the north and south sides, and on the east and 
west the surface has scaled off. There is no lining, there is 
a 6-inch square of cement round the drain-hole. On the 
north side a triangular gap in both base and plinth show 
where at some time it was roughly cut away and fitted to 
a pillar, as may be seen now at Sherwill. 

86. Ilfracombe. 

Although all of this font that is now visible is modern 
work I feel it must not be omitted, for under its present 
guise the stone is still the kernel, if it may so be called, of 
the original Norman font. The Rev. F. Nesbitt in a history 
of the church, observes : " The font is a relic of the old 
Norman building, ruthlessly scraped in 1861. It was 
previously much larger, but having been injured by its 
removal to different positions, it was cut down to its 

Digitized by 








Baptismal Fusts of Dkvon.— To /««• t>- 328. 


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present size, and one of its most characteristic features 
was utterly destroyed, for the bowl was filled up with 
stone, leaving only a shallow basin. The present pattern 
was recut from the old design." 

Possibly, as far as the pattern goes, it may have been 
copied from the original design, but modern work, pro- 
duced by different tools and a different method, cannot 
reproduce old work. More than this, there are elaborations 
which could never have found place on the original font. 
It is to be noted that the diagonals of the cones are always 
left plain, but here there are arum leaves, naturalistically 
carved in relief , crossed one over the other. Each cone 
terminates in a medallion enclosing a star of six petals, 
which are overmuch undercut, and between each two 
medallions is a cluster of berries, possibly derived from the 
wild arum, whose leaves appear on the cones. There may 
have been a dart there originally. The stem of berries, 
like the rest of the modern work, is too much undercut. 

No doubt it was with the best intentions that over- 
elaboration was bestowed on the ornament of this bowl, 
which is of Bath stone, and easy to work, but it is to be 
deplored none the less. 

The slopes of the cones are shown as at Berry Narbor, 
though there the cones are simply finished by vertical 
scallops instead of circular medallions. 

87. Christow. 

Although this is a scalloped bowl it is abnormal in 
design. In every other instance it will be seen that the 
sides are flush with the vertical face of the cones, though 
sometimes there is an incised line which only breaks the 
continuity very slightly. The cones on the Christow font 
display their diagonals plainly ; above them is a chamfer 
sloping inwards^ to meet a strip of stone edged above and 
below by a square moulding 1 \ inches wide ; the strip 
including the mouldings measures 6 inches : the cones 
project beyond it, producing a curious effect. It is, in fact, 
an entablature, which ought to have rested on an abacus, 
which abacus would have projected beyond both cones and 
entablature, and, to my mind, the bowl seems to cry aloud 
for the missing member. I strongly suspect that this strip 
is the work of modern times ; the stone is thick enough 
to allow of these pranks, and a glance at the print of Berry 
Narbor font will show how it could be done. 


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There is a substantial round moulding as necking, and 
the cones die into it. There are three cones on each side ; 
the vertical faces measure about 9x4£ inches, the slopes 
2£ in the middle cones, and the corner cones 5 to 5£ inches. 
The basin is circular, and it has a lead lining. The bowl is 
painted drab, but from a few spots where the paint has 
scaled off I judge it to be of Salcombe stone. 

88. West Down. 

Mr. Hussell, in North Devon Churches, states that this 
font was found under the floor of the church during the 
restoration of 1874. Evidently it was originally a sub- 
divided cushion bowl, in which the diagonals of the cones, 
though shorter than at Berry Narbor, showed in the same 
way. Whatever was its condition before it was buried it is 
not now very easy to describe. It appears that the bowl 
on all four sides was cut into in an horizontal line about 
2 inches above the necking, to the depth of 1£ inches, and 
the intervening stone removed, the lower surface forming 
a very rough chamfer. It is impossible to say with what 
object this was done ; the result is that the lower part of 
the cones is destroyed ; the first impression gathered is 
that there was an attempt to break up the cones into two 
orders, one behind the other. On the eastern face the 
central cone is almost perfect, except for the horizontal 
gash, and of the north-western corner only a little of the 
scallop is gone, so the original form can be deduced ; it 
was a subdivided cushion, but it has been so much hacked 
about that some parts are almost amorphous. 

The stone appears to be limestone, but it is thickly 
coated with yellow ochre. There are some axe markings 
on the upper part. The shaft is cylindrical ; the plinth is 
circular where it receives the base, then slopes and becomes 
an irregular octagon. 

The basin is square, and it is lead-lined. 

89. Ashford. 

This font has a unique feature. The corners are 
chamfered off, producing a plain space 3 inches wide at 
the rim, spreading out lower to the width of about 
5 inches, and following the curve of the scallop. This 
feature forms a link between the plain cushion bowls of the 
early type as described in last year's paper and the 1 

Digitized by 



scalloped cushion bowl with which we are now dealing. 
I have not found it in any other example. 

There are three cones on each side, and between each 
two cones is a dart. The cones are completely hidden 
under the bowl ; this arrangement and the presence of the 
darts shows that it is among the latest of the group, but the 
transitional character of the sides of the bowl, with their 
resemblance to the plain cushion has a significance which 
must not be overlooked. 

Between bowl and shaft is a necking, a flattened round ; 
the base is similar ; the form is that known as " pudding 
moulding.' ' The font is made of the grey stone of the 
district ; there is a great deal of paint on it. The hollow of 
the bowl is square ; it is lead-lined. 

90. Molland. 

The cones are no longer placed obliquely, but are hori- 
zontal on the under surface of the bowl ; they still number 
three on each side. The corner cones extend 4£ inches, the 
centre ones only 1£ inches as the shaft is very thick. The 
upper edge of the cones is defined by an incised line ; 
between each two cones is a dart-shaped ornament. A 
shallow moulding forms a necking. 

The shaft is composed of two blocks, 4 and 6 inches 
deep respectively ; it has a circular base which merges into 
a square plinth ; this is raised now on a block of cement. 

The hollow of the bowl is Square ; it has a lead lining 
which covers the entire edge and 1£ inches outside. The 
stone appears to be grey limestone, but it is coated with 
various kinds of wash and paint. In other respects the 
font has not suffered very much at the restorer's hands. 
On the north-west corner it is supported by an iron clamp. 

91. Halberton. 

This font is of freestone. In form it is very similar to 
Molland, but has been more restored. The bowl has on 
each side three cones separated by darts ; an incised line 
marks the depth of the bowl ; below it the cones recede 

A half-round moulding forms a necking ; the thick 
cylindrical shaft has a circular base, a shallow slope, 
4 inches wide, on a square plinth, which is placed on a 

Digitized by 



lower plinth ; the whole is raised on a modern platform of 
limestone, which is extended on the north side to form 
a step. 

About 15 inches of the base and the adjoining south- 
east corner of the plinth show disintegration of the stone. 
The eastern face of the plinth bears traces of incised 
diamond pattern ; the western side has a strip of stone 
about 2 inches wide, joined in along the whole length. 

The bowl is patched on both eastern and western faces ; 
the eastern patch is 11x4x2 inches, the western 7x2£ 
inches. The bowl is not lined ; there is a square of cement 
round the drain-hole. 

92. Wear Gifford. 

Similar to Molland and Halberton, with three cones 
separated by darts. on each side, and incised line above. 
It has been very drastically restored, and has a good deal 
of new stone, including patches on all four sides, varying 
from 8 to 13 inches wide by 4f deep. The circular base 
seems to be original, it is a sloping chamfer 4 inches wide. 
The necking is a round moulding. The angles of the bowl 
are chamfered off vertically, probably by way of restora- 

The material is Bath stone. i 

93. Merton. 

In this font a new feature appears ; on the western side 
of the plinth the corners have masks lying face upwards ; 
we shall meet with similar though larger ones presently at 
Stoke St. Nectan. On the eastern sides instead of masks 
there are two lozenge-shaped bosses ; the one to the south 
is moulded. 

The bowl has three cones on each side, with darts 
between ; the necking and base are round mouldings. The 
shaft and plinth are each composed of two courses of stone ; 
the plinth is chamfered. As in most similar examples, 
there is an incised line above the cones, which are recessed 
about I inch behind it. The unlined basin is square-shaped, 
the rim has been hollowed to receive the cover (a good 
carved pyramidal Jacobean one) ; the outer edge of the 
bowl is chamfered. 

The material of the font is freestone. 


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Baptismal Fonts of *&$&$. &TtrfQQ&& 


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94. Burrington. 

Hitherto the scalloped bowls have had three cones on 
-each face ; Burrington has four, which are recessed to the 
depth of i inch below a horizontal line such as we noticed 
at Halberton, Merton and Wear Gilford. There is a dart 
between each two cones. The bowl is cracked, and has 
been cemented, not very efficaciously ; an iron band 1 \ 
inches wide encircles the whole. It would be well if a better 
mode of holding it together were adopted ; the iron must 
corrode the stone. The hollow of the bowl is square ; there 
is no lining, and there are marks of axe dressing inside. 

It has a round moulding as necking, varying from 1 \ to 
2 inches in width. The base is of thirteenth-century type ; 
it consists of two half-round mouldings with a curved . 
chamfer between. There is a square plinth, 2 feet square 
and 3 \ inches deep, on a modern platform, part of which 
serves as a standing-stone. 

95. Netherexe. 

Distinctly a table font, though the under surface of the 
bowl is cut into cones, five on each side ; they are of 
irregular width, and at the south-east corner there is a 
small quirk to fill up the space. The four sides of the bowl 
are quite plain, but the ends of the cones produce the 
effect of a scalloped edge. The shaft is cylindrical, resting 
on a modern plinth, which by a very egregious bit of bad 
taste, repeats the design of the bowl, inverted ; a series of 
cones appearing on the upper surface. 

The whole font is of red local stone. 

96. Stoke St. Nectan. 

A beautifully ornamented table font of freestone. The 
bowl is square in plan both outside and inside. On the 
east and north sides is a series of interlaced semicircular 
arches : on the north side the crowns of the arches have 
perished, no doubt because the stone is soft. The arches 
are edged by an angular moulding, and enriched by a rbw 
of nail-head ornament. Above is a row of smaller arches, 
they are from 2£ to 3 inches deep ; on the eastern face 
some enclose a pellet ; other pellets have perished. The 
southern and western sides omit this course of arches. The 

Digitized by 



under side of the bowl is filled with cones ; on the east and 
north sides the semicircular vertical faces on the trun- 
cated ends have an ornament of two reversed scrolls or 
curls, raised on a sunk background. On the other sides the 
ends of the cones are plain. At each corner the cone is 
transformed into a bearded head, facing towards the 
ground. A piece of new freestone is inserted to repair the 
eastern face. 

The cylindrical shaft has three courses 3 inches deep of 
incised diagonal lines, each course alternating, producing 
the effect of zigzag or chevron. At the head of the shaft is 
a necking composed of a bold chevron 2£ inches wide, 
with 1£ inches projection ; at the foot is another chevron 
If inches wide, with 1 inch projection. 

The circular base, 4£ inches wide, is adorned by inter- 
laced half-circles, the interspaces enclosing three large 
pellets. It stands on a square plinth ; at the corners are 
foot ornaments consisting of grotesque masks looking 
upwards towards the bearded heads on the bowl. It has 
been suggested that the heads on the bowl represent the 
baptised and regenerate, and the masks on the plinth the 
unbaptised and unregenerate. It is true that a beard was 
held to be a sign of sanctity, but the interpretation though 
attractive is not based on any precise evidence, indeed it 
is practically shattered on observing that on the plinth of 
Merton font there are two masks, lying flat and looking 
upwards ; exactly as at Hartland ; there they are clearly 
ornament, and nothing else. 


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(Communicated by Corydon Matthews, f.z.s., f.e.s.) 
(Read at Totnes, 22nd July, 1920.) 

Attention has been drawn in the first part to the ex- 
pediency of the irregular opening therein adopted, so further 
remark on the subject is unnecessary, and the compilation 
of the lists of the Orthorrapha Nematocera and Orthor- 
rapha Brachycera can be at once proceeded with. 

The Orthorrapha Nematocera is of interest, as this 
sub-order contains many biting pests — midges, gnats and 
sand flies — but, contrary to the usually accepted idea, biting 
flies are meagrely represented in the county, e.g. among the 
sand flies Simvlium latipes alone occurs, and as a biter 
this species has the record of non proven to its credit. 

Among the biting midges Ccratopogon (Culicoides) 
pulicaris is another singleton. 

Among the gnats — all the species of the Anopheline 
group occur, but of the other biters of this family Culex 
pipiens and Ochlerotatus salinus are alone recorded. 

That this paucity of record is due to an actual deficiency 
appears to be improbable, and familiarity may confirm the 
original idea of abundance. 

In the sub-order Orthorrapha Brachycera are found the 
Asilidse Bombyledge and other showy families, and in the 
Tabanidse it holds a family with its full quota of biters, 
though, unlike the Orthorrapha Nematocera, these are 
" meagre " neither in numbers nor in species ; as an 
example of the numbers of these biting pests to be met 
with in the South Devon river valleys the following extract 
from an old diary is of interest : — 

" 30th June, 1896. Avon Valley between Gara Bridge 
and Loddiswell — 47 Hsematopota killed flying round me." 

Digitized by 


list op deptbra. 337 

Orthorehapha Nbmatoobra. 
(No records.) 


Sciara thomce Linn., Budshead Wood, 1st July, 1889. 

Crownhill Fort, 7th July, 1889. Tamerton Folliot, 

8th August, 1889. 
Sc. carbonaria Mg., Plymouth (Collin). 
JSc. sp. inc. Several specimens have been recorded by 

Professor Poulton in " Predaceous Insects and their 

Prey," Trans. Ent. Soc., Jan., 1907, as the prey of 

various species of Empidce, but in no case has a 

specific identification been given. 
Odontonyx flavipes Pz., Ivybridge, 18th May, 1893. 

Sheviock (Cornwall), Sept. and Oct., 1912. 
Bolithophila cinerea Mg., near Plymouth (Collin). 
B. saundersii Curtis (=B. fusca Mg. ?), Sheviock (Corn- 
wall), 3rd Sept., 1912. 
Macrocera lutea Mg., Lynton, 17th June, 1883. 
M . fasciata Mg., Holne, 3rd July, 1896. Exmouth, 31st 

August, 1888. Lynton, 19th June, 1883. Sheviock 

(Cornwall), 4th Sept., 1912. 
M . crassicornis Winn., Ivybridge, 18th May, 1914 (Collin). 
M . stigma Curt., Crownhill Fort, 20th May, 1889. Lynton, 

no date. Lynmouth, no date (Collin). 
M . phalerata Mg., Lynton, 17th June, 1883 (Collin). 
Mycomyia marginata Mg., Sheviock (Cornwall), 12th Sept., 

M . winnertzii Dzd., Sheviock (Cornwall), 4th Sept., 1912. 
Platyura semirufa Mg., Plymouth (Collin). 
P. nigriceps Winn. (=atriceps Edw. ?), Slapton, 8th Sept., 

1888 (Collin). 
Empalia vitripennis Mg., Ivybridge, 27th August, 1888. 
Anaclinia nemorcdis Mg., Ivybridge, 18th May, 1914. 
Boletinia basalis Mg. (=B. plana Walk., apud Edwards, 

I.e., p. 363). Ivybridge, 18th May, 1890 (Verrall, 

E.M.M., Vol. XXIII., p. 20.) Ivybridge, 18th May, 

B. trivittata Mg., 14th June, 1893, and 18th May, 1914 

Phthinia winnertzii Mik., Sheviock (Cornwall). 
vol. lh. y 


zed by G00gk 


Neoglaphyroptera fascipennis Mg., downhill, 20th August, 

N. pvlchella Curt. (Allocotocera pulchdla of VerralTs List), 

27th July, 1887. 
Brachypeza spuria Verrall MS., Ivybridge (Sp. nov* 

Edwards Notes on British Mycetophilidae, Trans. Ent. 

Soc, 26th Sept., 1913, p. 365). Paralhdia, spuria 

apud Collin, Ivybridge, 15th May, 1914. 
Bhymosia discoidea Mg. ( =R. fasciata Mg.)> Ivybridge, 18th 

May, 1914 (Collin). 
B. plaeida Winn., Salcombe (Verrall). 
B. angusta Verrall MS., Ivybridge, 18th May, 1914. 
Allodia caudata Winn., Exmouth, 21st August, 1888. 

Apud Edwards, this species is in VerralTs List as 

Brachycampta griseicoliis Staeg. 
A. lugens Wied., Ivybridge, 22nd August, 1887. "The 
commonest fungus-gnat in the Country " (Edwards, I.e.)* 
A. ornaticollis Mg., Ivybridge, 18th May, 1814 (=A. lugens- 

Wied ?). 
A, crassicornis Mg., Ivybridge, 18th May, 1914 (Collin). 
Trichonta submaculata Staeg., Sheviock (Cornwall), 9th and 

10th Sept., 1912. 
Anatdla incisurata (=Sciophila incisurata Zett.?), Verrall 

MS,. Sheviock (Cornwall), 10th Sept., 1812. 
Phronia tenuis Winn., Sheviock (Cornwall), 13th and 14th 

Sept., 1912. 
P. vitiosa Winn., Sheviock (Cornwall), 4th, 9th, 10th and 

12th Sept., 1912. 
P. forcipula Winn., Plymouth (Verrall). 
P. dubia Dz., Sheviock (Cornwall), 4th Sept., 1912. 
Exechia parva Landstr., Sheviock (Cornwall), 7th and 13th. 

Sept., 1912. 
E. trivittata Staeg., Sheviock (Cornwall), 13th Sept., 1912. 
E. subulata Winn., Sheviock (Cornwall), 10th Sept., 1912. 
E. guttiventris Mg. (=E. lateralis Mg.?), Salcombe, 25th 

Feb., 1908. Sheviock, 10th Sept., 1912. 
Zygomyia valida Winn., Sheviock (Cornwall), 10th and 

12th Sept., 1912. 
Z. pictipennis Staeg., Sheviock, 10th and 13th Sept., 1912. 
Sceptonia nigra Mg., Exmouth, 21st August, 1888. Sheviock 

(Cornwall), 6th and 10th Sept., 1912. 
Mycetophila semifusca Mg., Sheviock (Cornwall), 10th and 

12th Sept., 1912. 
M . dimidiata Staeg., Sheviock (Cornwall), 4th Sept., 1912w 


zed by G00gk 


M, lineola Mg. Sheviock. (Cornwall), 20th Oct., 1911. 
M . curviseta Landstr., Plymbridge (Bignell). 
M. unicolor Stan., Sheviock (Cornwall), 20th Oct., 1911. 
M . rudis Winn., Sheviock (Cornwall), 10th Sept., 1912. 
Dynastoma nigricoxa Zett., Cornwood, 29th Oct., 1890 

Gordyla fasciata Mg., Sheviock Wood (Cornwall), 9th 

Sept., 1912. 
O. crassicornis Mg., Ivybridge, 18th May 1914 (Collin). 

Sheviock (Cornwall), 3rd Sept.,. 1912. 


Scatopse brevicomis Mg., Exmouth, 31st Aug., 1888. Tor- 
cross, 3rd Sept., 1903. The prey of Cyrtoma spuria, 
vide. Prof. Poulton's " Predaceous Insects and their 
Prey," Trans. Ent. Soc, 23rd Jan., 1907. 

Sc. halterata Mg., Torcross, 12th August, 1903. 

Sc. inermis Ruth6., Exeter, 7th June, 1883. 

Dilophus febrilis Linn., Cremyll, 18th April, 1889. Crown- 
hill, 15th Aug., 1889. Very common and generally 

Bibio pomonce Fab., Crownhill, 30th Aug., 1889. Common. 

B. marci Linn., Tamerton Foliot, 5th May, 1889. Crown- 
hill Fort, 17th May, 1889. Very common and gener- 
ally distributed. 

B. venosus Mg., Cornwood, 23rd April, 1893. Beer Ferrers, 
11th April, 1893. Ivybridge, 8th, 20th and 30th 
April, 1893. Lydford, 17th April, 1893. Bickleigh 
Vale, 25th April, 1893. 

B. varipes Mg., Cornwood, 23rd April, 1893. Bickleigh, 
21st April, 1893. 

B. laniger Mg., Bickleigh Vale, 21st April, 1889. Walkham 
Valley, 4th April, 1890. 

B. sp. inc. near laniger Bickleigh, 24th April, 1893. Corn- 
wood, 23rd April, 1893. 

B. johannis Linn., Walkham Valley, 21st March, 1893. 
Torpoint (Cornwall), 9th April, 1889. 


Simulium latipes Mg., Bovisand, 11th April, 1893. This is 
the only sand fly recorded from Devonshire in Mr. 
Edwards' paper " On the British Species of Simulium,'* 
Bull, of Ent. Research, Vol. VI, Part I, June, 1915. 

Digitized by 



From his remarks Mr. Edwards seems to consider the 
charge of blood-sucking " non proven " against the 
females of this species. The males hover in the shade 
in flocks. Although this is the only species of sand fly 
recorded from Devonshire, other species are bound to 
occur, so it seems advisable to draw attention to the 
records from the neighbouring counties as follows : — 
Cornwall : 8. ornatum, Padstow ; 8. equinum, Pad- 
stow ; 8. latipes, Padstow, Helston and Down- 
derry ; S. augustipes, Padstow. 
Dorset : 8. equinum, Wareham, Arne and Wimborne ; 
8. latipes, Corfe Castle ; 8. austeni, West Moors. 
Somerset : S. ornatum, Taunton, Wells and Bath ; 
8. equinum, Taunton ; 8. augustipes, Wells. 


Chironomus plumosus Linn., Cornwood, 16th April, 1893. 

Bovisand, 11th April, 1893. Ivybridge, 24th April, 

C. dorsalis Mg., Slapton, 8th Sept., 1888. 
C. nigrimanu8 Stseg., Slapton, 10th Sept., 1888. 
G. brevitibialis Zett., Slapton, 7th Sept., 1888. 
G. cMoris Mg., Slapton, 7th Sept., 1888, and 9th Sept., 

C. mcerens, Budleigh Salterton (no date). (Champion). 
C. viridis Macq., Slapton, 7th Sept., 1888. 
C. viridior Verrall, MS.?, Slapton, 10th Sept., 1888. 
C. genitalis Verrall, MS.?, Slapton, 7th and 9th Sept., 1888. 
C. lamdifer Verrall, MS.?, Slapton, 7th Sept., 1888. 
C. pardilis Walker, Slapton, 8th Sept., 1888. 
Cricotopus sylvestris Fbr., Slapton, 8th and 10th Sept, 

C. pilitarsis Zett., Slapton, 7th and 9th Sept., 1888. 
C. trifascictius Panz., Slapton, 10th Sept., 1888. 
C. tremulus Linn., Ivybridge, 18th May, 1914 (Collin). 
C. militaris Verrall, MS.?, Slapton, 8th Sept., 1888. 
Camptodadius sp. inc., Slapton, 7th Sept., 1888. 
Orfhodadiua nitidicollis Walk. (Trichocladiua, B.M.), Slap- 
ton, 7th Sept., 1888, and 8th Sept., 1889. 
O. nigriventris v.d. Wulp. (Trichocladius y B.M.), Exmouth, 

31st Aug., 1888. 
Vrthodadius irritus Walk. (Chironomvs), Slapton, 8th. 

Sept., 1889, 


zed by G00gk 


0. angustatus Verrall, MS. (Trichocladius, B.M.), Slapton, 

8th Sept., 1888. 
Tanytar8U8 mancus Walk. (Chironomus), Slapton, 7th 

Sept., 1888. * 

T. sordens, v.d., Wulp., Slapton, 8th Sept., 1888. 
Metriocnemus impensus Walk., Ivybridge, 18th May, 1890. 
Tanypus melanops Wied., Slapton, 8th Sept., 1888. 
T. varius Fab., Slapton, 8th Sept., 1888. 
T. trifascipennis Zett., Slapton, 10th Sept., 1888. 
T. rufus Mg., Plymouth (Collin). 
T. carneus Fab., 10th Sept., 1889 (Collin). 
T. punctipennis Mg., Slapton, 8th Sept., 1888 (Collin). 
T. pygmceus, v.d., Wulp., Slapton, 8th Sept., 1888. 
T. phatta Egg., 24th Aug., 1885, and 7th Sept., 1888. 
T. punctalus Fab. (syn. T. nebulosus Mg.), Slapton, 8th 

Sept., 1888 (Collin). 
T. lentiginoses Fries., Slapton, 10th Sept., 1888. 
T. griseipennis, v.d., Wulp., Slapton Ley, 10th Sept., 1888, 

and 6th Oct., 1888. 
T. flaviceps Verrall MS.?, Bickleigh, 23rd Aug., 1888. 
T. adornatus Verrall MS.?, Slapton, 8th Sept., 1888. 
Glunio marinus Hal., Rame Head (Cornwall), requires 

confirmation. ' 
Ceratopogon solstitialis Winn., Slapton Ley (Verrall). (=(7. 

Circumdatus ? Stseg.) 
C. (Cvlicoides) pulicaris Linn., Slapton, 9th Sept., 1889. 

Note. 1 — The following midges belonging to the Culicoide8 
sub-genus of Ceratopogon, viz. C. varius, C. pulicaris, 
C. obsoletus, C. nubeculosus and C. arcuatus, have all been 
caught by the toriter "red-handed" either on himself or his 
companions ; of these C. pulicaris alone is recorded from 
Devon, but it is feared that the other species also occur. 

C. (Airichopodon) fuscus Mg., Slapton, 9th Sept., 1888. 
C. (Forcipomyia) pallidus \yinn., Torcross, 14th April, 

C. (Forcipomyia) brevipennis Macq., Exmouth, 31st Aug., 

C. niger Winn., Slapton, 10th Sept., 1888 (Verrall). 

1 With reference to this note Mr. Edwards collected a considerable 
number of biting flies in Devonshire during the year 1920 with a great 
addition to their number of species, e.g. CtUicoides varius, arcuatus, and 
jascvpenim, Simulium ornatum, variegatum, reptans, tuberosum, aquinum, 
wreum', and subcursum, and Ochlorotatus dorsalis and geniculatus. 

Digitized by 



This long list of Chironomidce is almost entirely the result 
of Mr. Verrall's visits to Slapton, in the years 1888 and 1889. 


Pericoma nubila Mg., Exwick, 24th July, 1891. 

P. trivialis Eaton, Seaton, 25th June, 1891. Aylesbeare 

Common, 17th July, 1891. Exwick, 24th July, 1891. 
P. pvlchra Eaton, Seaton, 26th June, 1891. 
P. ocdlaris Mg., Aylesbeare Common, 24th July, 1891. 
P. ambigua Eaton, Exwick, 7th and 9th July, 1891. 

Aylesbeare Common, 15th and 17th July, 1891. 
P. pdlustris Mg., Ivybridge, 12th June, 1896. 
P. decipiens Eaton, Seaton, 26th and 29th July, 1891. 
P. labecvlosa Eaton, Aylesbeare Common, 14th and 17th 

July, 1891. 
P. caliginosa Eaton, Seaton, 29th June, 1891. 
P.fusca Macq., Seaton, 29th June, 1891. 
Psychoda phalcenoides Linn., Exwick, 9th July, 1891. 
Trichomyia urbica Curt., 9th July, 1891. Exeter. 

Obphenephilid^ . 
Orphenephila testacea Ruth6 without locality or date. 


Corethra plumicornis Fab., Torcross, 29th Aug., 1903. 

Anopheles bifurcatus Linn., Torcross, 16th Sept., 1903, on 
hotel window. Torcross, 2 $$ 24th April, 1909, 
biting. Axminster, 2nd Sept., 1900. Princetown, 
July, 1904. Sidmouth, July, 1893. Kingsbridge. 
Totnes. Exmouth, bitten while fishing. 

A. macvlipennis Macq., Plymouth, Sept., 1881, and July, 
1908. Okehampton, 6th July, 1904. Sidmouth, Jan., 
1901 ? Tiverton, July, 1904. Teignmouth, 2nd June, 
1884. Torquay, Sept., 1884, and March, 1888. Barn- 
staple. Budleigh Salterton. Cornwood. Dawlish. 
Dart Valley. Ide. Exmouth. Exeter. Kingsbridge. 

A. plumbeus Stephens (syn. nigripes Stseg.), Sidmouth. 
The localities of all these records of Anopheles have been 

taken from the map showing the distribution of the 

Anophdine mosquitoes compiled by Mr. W. D. Lang, and 

published by the British Museum. Natural History. 

Digitized by 



Cvlex pijriens Linn. var. (=nigritulu8 Theobald nee Zett.), 
Kingswear, Oct., 1911. 

C. (OcMorotatua) salinus Ficcalbi (=0. detritus Hal.), 
Torcross. A very venomous gnat which frequents 
low marshy ground near the seashore. 

Theobaldia annulata Schrk., Torcross, 1st Sept., 1903. 
Devonport, 10th Oct., 1903. 

Dixa netndosa Mg., Slapton, 8th Sept., 1888. 

D. aprilincB Mg., Bickleigh, 14th Sept., 1888. 
D. macvMa Mg., Bickleigh, 23rd Aug., 1888. 


Ptychoptera contaminate, Linn., Torcross, 28th May, 1893. 

Seaton, 9th May, 1904. 
P. lacustris Mg., Warleigh Marsh, 6th and 9th June, 1889. 
P. albimana Fab., Tamerton Foliot, 21st May, 1889. 

Slapton, 20th Aug., 1903. 


Dicranomyia pilipennis Egg., Ivybridge, 29th June, 1893. 
D. turpis Walk. (=pilipennis Egg.?), Bickleigh, 23rd Aug., 

D. modesta Mg., Horrabridge, 13th Oct., 1894. Slapton, 

24th Aug., 1903. 
D. chorea Mg., Devon, without further data. 
D. didyma Mg., Brent, 29th May, 1896. Bickleigh, 23rd 

August, 1903. 
D. goritiensis Mik., Yealm Mouth, April, 1893. Whitsand 

Bay, 24th May, 1893. 
Geranomyia unicolor Hal., Bovisand, 5th May, 1893. 

Salcombe, 23rd May, 1893. Whitsand Bay, 5th Oct., 

Bhvphidia maculata Mg., Bickleigh, 23rd Aug., 1903. 
Limnobia tripunctata Fab., Lynton, 16th Sept., 1883. 
L. nubeculosa Mg., Cann Wood, 24th May, 1893, and 9th 

Aug., 1894. 
L. analis Mg. (=flavipes Fab.?), Ivybridge, 7th May and 

9th Aug., 1894. 
L. pwipes Fab., Lynton, 20th June, 1883. 
L. xanthoptera Mg. (=bifasciata Schrk.?), "Devon" 

L. macrostigma Schum., Ivybridge, 20th May, 1893. 


zed by G00gk 


Rhamphidia longirostris Mg., Marsh Milk, 6th June, 1893. 

Antocha opalizans 0. Sack., Horrabridge, without date. 

Thaumastoptera calceata Mik., Seaton, 24th June, 1891. 

Rhypholophus varius, Ivybridge, 10th Sept., 1894. Prince- 
town, without date. Walkham Valley, 15th and 18th 
Sept., 1894. Bickleigh, 23rd Aug., 1903. 

R. nodvlosus Macq., Clearbrook, 28th April, 1893. 

R. hcemorrhoidalis Zett., Plymbridge, 6th Oct., 1893. 

Molophilus appendiculatus Stseg., Walkham Valley, 11th 
June, 1894. Cann Wood, 8th Oct., 1893. 

M . bifilatus Verrall, Ivybridge, 10th May, 1897. 

M . murinus Mg., Ivybridge, 20th May, 1893. 

Acyphona maculata Mg., Bovisand, 14th May, 1894. 
Yelverton, 29th May, 1895. Cann Wood, 6th June, 
1893, and 2nd July, 1894. Ivybridge, 19th June, 1894. 

Erioptera tcenionota Wied., Bovisand, 14th May, 1894. 
Jennycliff, 18th Oct., 1895. Grenofen, 29th Oct., 
1895. Cann Wood, 29th Oct., 1892. 

E. fuscipennis Mg., Yelverton, 25th April, 1896. Ivy- 
bridge, 14th May, 1894. 

E. trivialis Mg., Yelverton, 25th April, 1896. 

Symplecta punctipennis Schrk., Slapton, 29th Aug., 1895. 

S. stictica Mg., Hallsands, 18th Aug., 1895. Ovipositing 
on wet ground trampled down by cattle. 

Oonomyia tenella Mg., Princetown, 6th Sept., 1886. 

Empeda nubila Schum., Ivybridge, 10th May, 1897. 

Lipsothriz errans Walk. (=remota Walk?), Ivybridge, 
18th May, 1897. 

Epiphragma picta Fab. (=ocellaris Linn. Kert. Kat.), 
Lynton, 17th June, 1883. 

Ephelia submarmorata Verrall, Walkham Valley, 11th 
June, 1894. 

E. apicata Lw., Walkham Valley, 5th July, 1894. 

Pcscilostola punctata Schrk., Bickleigh, 23rd April, 1893. 
Yelverton, 25th April, 1893. 

Limnophila meigenii Verrall, Clearbrook, 28th April, 1894. 
Horrabridge, 18th Sept., 1894. 

L. dispar Mg., Ivybridge, 30th April and 4th and 17th May, 
1893. Shaugh Bridge, 21st May, 1895. 

L. lineola Mg., Bickleigh, 25th April, 1893. Ivybridge, 
27th May, 1893. 

L. lineolella Verrall, Bickleigh, 22nd May, 1893. Marsh 
Mills, 6th June, 1896. Cann Wood, 6th June, 1893. 
Ivybridge, 14th and 27th May, 1893. 

Digitized by 



L. discicollisMg., Marsh Mills, 6th June, 1896. Bickleigh, 

23rd Aug., 1903. Slapton Ley, 24th Aug., 1903 

L. aperta Verrall, Bickleigh, 22nd May, 1894. Cann Wood, 

6th June, 1894. Ivybridge, 20th May and 3rd June, 

L. ferruginea Mg., Ivybridge, 2nd May, 1893. Slapton, 

8th Sept., 1888. Shaugh, 3rd May, 1893. Grenofen, 

11th May, 1893. 
L. lucorum Mg., Ivybridge, 30th April, 1893. Bickleigh, 

4th Aug., 1893. 
L. nemorctiis Mg., Ivybridge, 3rd June, 1894. Cornwood, 

6th June, 1894. Fernworthy, 29th July, 1894. 
L. ochracea Mg., Lynton, 17th June, 1883. 
L. filata Walk., Ivybridge, 3rd June, 1894. 
Amalopis immaculate, Mg., Bickleigh, 22nd April, 1893. 

Cann Wood, 29th Oct., 1892. 
A. claripennis Verrall, Yealm Mouth, 3rd April, 1893. 

Walkham Valley, 28th April, 1893. Bickleigh, 4th 

Aug., 1893. 
A. littoralis Mg., Torcross, 29th May, 1894. Bickleigh, 15th 

May, 1894. Horrabridge, 13th Oct., 1894. Ivybridge, 
.18th May ? (Verrall). 
A. occulta Mg., Stowford Cleave, 6th June and 22nd Aug. 

1888 (C. Matthews). Bickleigh, 22nd April, 1889. 
Pedicia rivosa Linn., Axmouth, 22nd July, 1900. Far more 

common than this single record suggests. 
Ula pilosa Schum. (=U. macroptera Macq.?), Bickleigh, 

22nd May, 1893. Ivybridge, 27th May, 1893. 
Dicronota pavida Hal., Bickleigh, 22nd May, 1893. Horra- 
bridge, 4th Oct., 1892. 
D. bimcLCulata Schum., Bovisand, 18th April, 1892. 
Gylindrotoma distinctissima Mg., Bickleigh, 25th April and 

6th May, 1893. Shaugh Bridge, 6th May, 1894. 
Phalacrocera replicata Linn., Meavy, Dartmoor, 23rd April, 



Dolichopeza sylvicola Curt. (=albipes Strom.), Ivybridge, 

11th and 17th May and 9th Sept., 1894. 
Nephrostoma dorsalis Fab., Cann Wood, 10th Aug., 1894. 
Pachyrrhina crocata Linn., Ivybridge, 1st Aug., 1896. 

Grenofen Viaduct and Walkham Valley, 21st June, 


Digitized by 



P. imperialis Mg., Ivybridge, 7th Aug., 1896. Cann Wood 

10th Aug., 1896. "Near Plymouth " (Verrall), 

E.M.M., Vol. XXIII, p. 20, June, 1888. 
P. histrio Fab. (=lineata Scop.), Torcross, 29th May, 1893. 

Ivybridge 3rd June and 8th Aug., 1893. Cann Wood, 

6th June and 9th Aug., 1893. 
P. maculosa Mg. (=maculata Mg.), Tamerton Folliot, 21st 

May, 1889. Bickleigh, 25th April and 28th May, 1893. 
P. quadrifaria Mg., Seaton, 21st May, 1891. 
Tipvia annviicornis Mg. (=Tipula variicornis Schum.), 

Ivybridge, 14th, 18th and 20th May, 1893. Grenofen 

Wood, 11th May, 1893. Hazelwood, 14th June, 

T. pagawa Mg., Horrabridge, 18th Sept., 1894. 
T. confusa v.d. Wulp. (=2\ marmorata Mg.), Horrabridge, 

18th Sept., 1894. 
T. rufina Mg., Tamerton Foliot, 5th May, 1889. Crownhill 

Fort, 14th May, 1889, # and $ in coitu. 
T. longicornis Zett. (=T. macrocera Zett.), Ivybridge, 3rd 

June, 1893. Kentisbeare, 2nd June, 1911. Morley 

Marsh, 28th June, 1894. 
T. pabulina Mg., Lydford, 17th April, 1894. Cann Wood, 

23rd May, 1894. 
T. variipennis Mg., Grenofen Wood, 11th May, 1893. 

Ivybridge, 22nd May, 1894. 
T. scripta Mg., Grenofen Wood, 11th May, 1893. Ivy- 
bridge, 18th May, 1893. Lynton, 17th June, 1883. 
T. flavolineata Mg., Ivybridge, 22nd May, 1894. 
T. lunata Linn., Walkham Valley, 9th April and 9th May, 

T. lateralis Mg., Horrabridge, 19th Aug., 1893. Ivybridge, 

28th April, 1889, 22nd Aug., 1893. 
T. vernalis Mg., Slapton, bred 29th, April and 4th May, 

1899, from larvse obtained at the edge of the Ley. 

Slapton, 12th May, 1897. 
T. vittata Mg., Walkham Valley, 3rd and 8th April, 1893. 

Cornwood, 2nd April, 1893. Shaugh Bridge, 1st May, 

1\ gigantea Schrk. (=T. sinuata Fab.=I 7 . maxima Poda), 

Ivybridge, 13th June, 1894. 
T. oleracea Linn., Lynton, 19th June, 1883. Generally 

T. paludosa Mg., Devonport, 24th Sept., 1888. Probably 

common everywhere. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


T. lutescens Fab. (=T. fulvipennis Deg.), Ivybridge, 28th 

June, 1897. Fernworthy, 29th July, 1897. Crownhill, 

25th June, 1889. 
T. marginata Mg., Slapton, 24th Aug.?, 1888. 
T.fascipennis Mg., Ivybridge, 3rd June, 1893. 
T. ochracea Mg., Cann Wood, 6th June, 1893. Lynton, 20th 

June, 1883. 
Dictenidia bimacvlata Linn., Shaugh Bridge, $ walking up 

the trunk of a tree, 15th May, 1893. 
Xiphura nigricornis Mg., " near Plymouth " (Verrall), 

E.M.M., Vol. XXIII, p. 27, 1888. 
Otenophora pectinicornis Linn., Ivybridge, 23rd June, 1889. 


Hhyphus fmestralis Scop., Exmouth, Sept., 1890. Torcross, 
25th May, 1893. Bickleigh, 12th April, 1893. Ply- 
mouth, 26th April, 1893. Holne, 21st June, 1896. 
Common everywhere. 

R. punctatus Fab., Budleigh Salterton, 27th April, 1898. 
Ivybridge, 15th July, 1889. Crownhill Fort, 6th, 
11th and 17th May and 17th July, 1889. 

Orthorrhapha Brachycera. 

Pachygaster leachii Curt., " Torcross and Leach's original 
discovery " (Verrall). 

P. atra Pz., Avon Valley, 30th June, 1896. Stonehouse, 
Aug., 1918. " Devonshire " (Verr.all). 

Nemotdus pantherinus Linn., Bantham, 26th June, 1896. 
Axminster, 17th Aug., 1900. " Porlock " (Verrall). 

JV. notatvs Zett., " Westward Ho ! and Plymouth " 
(Verrall). Although Nemotdus is a common genus in 
Devonshire, few specimens are available for reference 
at the present time. 

Oocycera pygmcea Fin., " Seaton Curtis " (Verrall). 

O. tenuicornis Macq., " Torquay and Shaldon," 8th June, 
1901 (Wainwright). 

O. pvlchdla Mg., Budleigh Salterton, Aug., 1918 (Cham- 
pion). " Salcombe," 14th July, 1887 (Verrall). 

O. trilineata Fab., Bantham, 29th May, 1896. " Devon " 

JStratiomyia chamcdeon Linn., " Bovey Tracey, Devon- 
shire " (VerraU). 


zed by G00gk 


Odontomyia viridvla Fab. (Hoplodonta ib Bezzi, Kat. Pal. 

Dipt.), " Devon " (Verrall). The Clitdlariince and 

Stratiomyiince, sub-families, seem to be decidedly rare 

in Devonshire. 
Sargus bipunctatus Scop., Crownhill, 13th and 21st Sept., 

1889. " Torcross, Devonshire, several localities " 

(Verrall). Occurred in fair numbers, on one occasion 

under the viaduct in Cann Quarry. 
S. albibarbus Lw., Loddiswell, 7th July, 1896 (8. rufipes, 

Austen, Victorian Hist. Devon, and British Museum 

8. flavipes Mg., Avon Valley, 10th June and 7th July, 1896. 

Holne, 17th July, 1896. 
S. irridatus Scop., Shaugh, 15th May, 1893. Avon Valley > 

23rd, 26th and 28th May, 1896. 
CTdoromyia formosa Scop., Avon Valley, 23rd, 25th and 28th 

May, 1896. Shaugh, 15th May, 1893. Salcombe, 21st 

May, 1893. Budleigh Salterton, Aug., 1918. Common 

and generally distributed. 
Microchrysa polita Linn., Marsh Mills, 16th May, 1893. 

Common and generally distributed. % 

M . flavicornis Mg., Avon Valley, 28th June, 1896. " Devon " 

M . cyaneiventris Zett., " Devonshire, Torcross and 

Lynton " (Verrall). 
Beris vallata Forst., Tamerton Foliot, 6th June, 1889. 

Crownhill Fort, 11th June, 1889. Bantham, 26th 

June, 1896. 
B. chalybeate, Forst., Torcross, 27th May, 1893. Crownhill 

Fort, 8th July, 1889, as B. nigra. 
B. morrisii Dale, " Devon (Lynton) " (Verrall). 
Chorisops tibialis Meig., Torcross. " Devonshire " 

(Verrall). Males hover in the shade in flocks. 


Xylophagus ater Fab., Plymbridge, 28th May, 1889. Ivy- 
bridge, 12th and 17th May, 1893. Avon Valley, 12th 
July, 1896. " Ivybridge, Plympton and the Avon 
Valley " (Verrall). Sometimes in fair numbers 
dancing up and down the damp moss on large oaks. 

Leptis scolopacm Linn., Crownhill Fort, April and May, 
1889. Bovisand and Torcross, 1893. " Devonshire " 
(Verrall). Common and generally distributed. 

Digitized by 



L. tringaria Linn., Crownhill Fort and Bickleigh, May to 
July, 1889. Common. 

L. nigriventris Lw., the Dewerstone, Bickleigh, 7th June 
1889. Avon Valley, 24th May, 1896. Whitleigh Wood 
24th June, 1889. Probably only a dark form of the 
preceding species. British specimens of so-called 
L. conspicua, probably belong- here also. 

Leptis lineola Fab., Bickleigh Vale, 18th and 28th July 
1889. Waikham Valley, 21st July, 1889. Holne, 19th 
July, 1896. Crownhill, 15th Aug., 1889. Ivybridge 
1st Sept., 1889. " Devon " (Verrall). 

Atherix ibis Fab., Shaugh, 5th May, 1893. Plymbridge 
18th May, 1893. Avon Valley, 22nd and 25th May 
1896. " Devonshire (Avon Valley and Bickleigh) " 
(Verrall). Not uncommon. 

A. marginata Fab., Plymbridge, 8th June, 1889. Ivy- 
bridge, 23rd and 30th June, 1889. Bickleigh Vale 
18th and 20th July, 1889. Avon Valley, 22nd May 
1896. " Devonshire " (Verrall). Fairly common. 

Chrysopilus cristatus Fab. (appears in our lists as G. atratus 
and C. auratus) > Tamerton Foliot, 22nd May to 29th 
June, 1889. Torcross, 26th June, 1893. Whitleigh 
Wood, 13th June, 1889. Avon Valley, May, 1896. 
Very common. 

C. aureus Mg., Crownhill Fort, 4th July, 1889. Bickleigh 
Vale, 18th July, 1889. 


Hcematopota pluvialis Linn., Whitleigh Wood, 13th June, 
1889. Crownhill, no date. Ivybridge, no date. 
" Ivybridge, Devonshire " (Verrall). Common and 
generally distributed. 

H. crassicornis Whlbg., Ivybridge, 16th June, 1889. Avon 
Valley, 24th May, 1896. (Austen) " British Blood- 
sucking Flies/' p. 36. The following extract from my 
diary for 1896 may be of interest : " 30th June, 1896, 
killed forty-seven Hcematopota flying round me." 

H. italica Mg., Sheviock Wood (Cornwall), two $, 4th 
Sept., 1912. Two $$ close to the water's edge of 
St. Germans Creek. It will probably occur elsewhere 
around the Creek, possibly at Warleigh. 

Tabanus (Therioplectes) distinguendus Verr. This species 
had not been recognised when Mr. Austen wrote his 

Digitized by 



list of Devonshire Diptera for the Victoria History,, 
nor when he wrote " British Blood-sucking Flies "" 
(1906), so it seems possible that some of the insects 
recorded as T. solstitialis may belong here, at any rate 
the two following specimens seem to, viz. Avon 
Valley, 14th June, 1896. Walkham Valley, 21st July, 
1889, and they now stand under this heading in the 
B.M. Collection. " Devon, Torcross, Avon Valley, 
Stowford Cleeve and Sidmouth " (Verrall). 

T. (Theriopletes) solstitialis Mg., Walkham Valley, 21st 
July, 1889. This is the only specimen which can be 
located here with any certainty. 

T. (Atylotus) fulvus Mg., Ivybridge, July, 1918. Nurse, 
North Devon (Bideford) (Verrall). Its reputed 
occurrence in Wistman's Wood, requires confirma- 

T. bovinus Linn., Ivybridge, 26th July, 1889. Austen, 
" British Blood-sucking Mies," p. 46. Ivybridge 

T. svdeticus Zeller, $ Budshead Wood, 1st July, 1889. 
Walkham Valley, 31st July, 1896. Austen, "British 
Blood-sucking Flies/' p. 47. " Budshead Wood and 
Walkham Valley " (Verrall). 

T. autumnalis Linn., Warleigh Wood, 29th June, 1889. 
Tamerton Foliot, 27th June, 1889. Avon Valley, 
15th May, 1896. Austen, I.e., " Devon " (Verrall). 

T. bromivs Linn., various localities in Devon, 24th June to 
30th July, 1889. (Austen) Bickleigh, Ivybridge, 
Cornwood, Crownhill and Warleigh Wood. Common 
and generally distributed. " Devon " (Verrall). 

T. maculicornis Zett., Walkham Valley, 21st June, 1889. 
Avon Valley, 11th and 18th June, 1896. Ivybridge, 
23rd June, 1889. Holne, 4th July, 1896. Many dates. 
June and July, Austen, I.e. 

T. cordiger Wied., Walkham Valley, 21st July, 1889. Avon 
Valley, 27th and 28th May and 12th and 19th June, 
1896. " Devonshire, Walkham and Avon Valleys '* 

Chrysops ccecutiens Linn., Bickleigh Vale, 28th July, 1889. 
Crownhill, 4th July, 1889. Ivybridge, 30th June, 
1889. Walkham Valley, 21st June, 1889. Torcross, 
24th May, 1893. Common. Earliest date 24th May. 
Many dates and localities, South Devon, 1889. 

Digitized by 



C. rdicta Mg., Torcross, 24th and 26th August, 1893. 

Torcross Ley, in numbers " Devonshire, Torcross " 

(Verrall). Common. 
C. quadrata Mg., Holne, 6th July, 1896. " Devonshire 

(Holne on Dartmoor) " (Verrall). Uncommon. 
C. sepulchralis Fab. The occurrence of this species in the 

county requires confirmation, as the specimen on 

which the record rests appears to be C. quadrata (J. 


Acrocera globulus Panz., Aylesbeare Common, near Exeter, 
14th and 25th July, 1891 (Rev. E. A. Eaton). 


Bombylius discolor Mikan., Walkham Valley, 25th March 
and 6th April, 1893. Beer Alston, 31st March, 1893. 
Budleigh Salterton, 26th April, 1898. Plympton. 
"Devon (Plymouth and Tavy Valley)" (Verrall). 
Not uncommon in the early spring at primrose 
flowers. The year 1893 was an exceptionally early 

B. major Linn., Beer Alston, 6th May, 1893. "Devon 
(Plymouth and Tavy Valley) " (Verrall). Not un- 
common in the Walkham Valley. The males hover 
high up in the air, but come down every now and 
again to the flowering gorse bushes and then give a 
chance of catching them. 

B. canescens Mikan., Walkham Valley, 28th April and 6th 
May, 1893. Avon Valley, 25th May and 10th and 12th 
June, 1896. Ivybridge, 12th May, 1893. Brent Moor, 
24th June, 1896. " Devon, Stowford Cleeve " 
(Verrall). Seems to have, a weakness for Potentilla 

Anthrax paniscus Rossi, Salcombe, 7th July, 1889. Bovey 
Tracy, 5th Aug., 1899. (Hamm.) Is this specimen 
correctly identified ? Rare in the southern half of the 
county. " Devon " (Verrall). 

A. cingulatus Mg., Holne, a single $ near Henbury Castle, 
28th July, 1896. Recorded by Austen, in the 
Victoria History, as A. hottentota. Does Hamm'a 
specimen belong to this species ? The localities are 

Digitized by 


352 a list of the dipteea htthebto recorded 


Thereva fvlva Mg., Budleigh Salterton, August, 1918. 
. (Champion.) 

T. anntdata Fab., Bantham, 26th June, 1896. My diary 
for 1896 bears against this date the following remark : 
"Thereva annulata in numbers on the sandhills," 
Bantham. Therividce are very rare in S. Devon and 
may be said to be conspicuous by their absence. 


Scenopinus niger De Geer, " Devonshire (Exeter) " 
(Verrall). An interesting insect whose larva feeds on 
the caterpillar of the Clothes Moth, Tinea peUioneUa. 


PhiUmicus albiceps Mg., " North Devon " (Verrall). May 
be expected to occur at Bantham and Exmouth. 

Asilus crabroniformis Linn., Walkham Valley, 21st July, 
1889, preying on a smaller Asili, probably a 
Madnimus. Yettington, without date. Torcross, 
17th Aug., 1903. Crownhill, 5th and 7th, 1889. 
" Devonshire (Plymouth, Holne and Torcross) " 

Pamponerus germanicvs Linn., " Devonshire," Curtis, 
British Entomology. This insect has been included, 
as it may be expected to turn up in the Braunton 

Dysmachus trigonus Mg., Bantham, 29th May, 1896. 
SaJcombe, 15th June and 10th July, 1896. Walkham 
Valley, 13th May, 1896. 

Machimus atricapillus Fin., Holne, 19th, 21st and 22nd 
July, 1896. Newton Abbot, 30th July, 1906, <J and $ 
in coitA, (Hamm) $ with prey, a Homopterous insect, 
probably Athysarus communis. Ivybridge, 11th June 
and 21st August, 1889, and 1st August, 1896. 

Neoitamus cyanurus Lw., Avon Valley, 24th May, 1896. 
Ivybridge, 26th July, 1889, and 8th May, 1893. 
" Devonshire (Plymouth, Dunsford) " (Verrall). 

Epitriptus cingvlatus Fab., Holne, 21st and 23rd July, 
1896. Walkham Valley, 21st and 31st July, 1889. 
" Devonshire (Lynton, Torcross, Dartmoor) " 

Digitized by 



Idopogon brevirostris Mg., Yelverton, 7th June, 1889. 
Walkham Valley, 21st June, 1889. Ivybridge, 16th 
June, 1889. Dartmoor, 24th June, 1896. Avon 
Valley, 24th and 28th May, 1896. Shaugh, 15th May, 
1893. "Devonshire (Ivybridge and Holne) " 

Dioctria odandica Linn., Avon Valley, 23rd May, 1896. 
Walkham Valley, 21st June, 1889. Bickleigh, 22nd 
May, 1914. Loddiswell, 24th May, 1896, prey 
Scorpion My, Panorpa sp. Loddiswell, 24th May, 
1896, prey a small Braconid. Loddiswell, 25th May, 
1896, prey a small moth Adda sp. " Devonshire " 

D. rufipes De Geer, Crownhill Fort, 4th July, 1889. 
Salcombe, 22nd May, 1898. Shaugh, 8th May, 1893. 
Bovisand, 16th May, 1896. " Devonshire " (Verrall). 

Z>. baumhaueri Mg., Crownhill Fort, 4th July, 1889. Dart- 
moor, no date. Tamerton Foliot, no date. Bickleigh, 
24th June, 1882, prey an Ichneumon, Microcryptus 
galactinus (Bignell). Avon Valley, 24th May, 1896. 
Salcombe, 15th June, 1896. "Torcross, 9th Aug., 
1903 " (Verrall). 

D. linearis Fab., Avon Valley, 11th and 28th June, 1896. 
Plymbridge, 25th June, 1894. 

Leptogaster cylindrica De Geer, " Devon " (Verrall). 
Probably common, although there is no direct record 
to hand. 


JPsilopus platypterus Fab., Avon Valley, 10th June and 9th 
July, 1896. 

Eutarsus avlicus Mg., Torcross, 12th, 17th and 28th Aug., 

Hydrocdeuthvs diadema Hal., " Beer Ferris " (Verrall). 

Dolichopus atratus Mg., Cornwood, 2nd June, 1889. Ivy- 
bridge, 17th May, 1914. 

D. discifer Stan., " Ivybridge " (Verrall). 

D. daviger Stan., " Devonshire " (Verrall). 

D. popularis Wied., Ivybridge, 21st May, 1914. " Daw- 
lish " (VerraU). 

D. griseipennis Stan., Torcross, 21st Aug., 1903. 

D. nubUus Mg., " Exmouth " (VerraU). 

Z>. latilimbatus Macq., " Devon " (Verrall). 



zed by G00gk 


D. andalusiacus Stiobl. (=2). scotti, of VerraJTs List, and 

Austen, Vict. Hist.). Slapton Ley, 6th Sept., 1884, 

24th Aug., 1885, and 6th Sept., 1889. 
D. ungvlatus Linn. (=2). emeus De Greer, of VerralTs List, 

1st Edition). Common and generally distributed. 
Tachytrechus notatus Stan., Torcross, 21st Aug., 1903. 
Pcecildboihrus nobilitatus Stan., Tamerton FoUot, 11th 

July, 1889. Budshead Wood, 27th June, 1889. 

Crownhill Fort, 9th June, 1889. " Slapton," without 

date (Champion). Common and generally distributed* 
Hypophyllus dbscurdlus Fin., Ivybridge, without date. 

" Slapton Ley " (VerraU). 
H. crinipes Staeg., Walkham Valley, 19th May, 1914. 
Ch/mnopternus cupreus Fin., Ivybridge, without date.. A 

common and widely distributed species. 
Glvrysotus blepharoscdes Kow., " Teignmouth," 11th June, 

1883 (VerraU). 
G. angulicornis Kow., " Lynton, N. Devon, 20th June, 

1883 " (VerraU). 
G. gramineus Fin., Torcross, 14th Aug., 1903. 
G. sp. inc. " Bideford," without date. (Weschd) Brit. 

Argyra diaphana Fab., Tamerton FoUot, 21st and 23rd 

May, 1889, and 29th June, 1889. Avon Valley, 22nd 

May and 10th June, 1896, Plymbridge, 28th May, 

1889. CrownhiU Fort, 30th May, 1889. Common. 
A. leucocephala Mg., Tamerton FoUot, 21st May and 29th 

June, 1889. Avon Valley, 17th June, 1896. Cornwood, 

8th Sept., 1889. " The commonest British Species '* 

A. argentine/, Mg. Common and generaUy distributed. 

" Common aU over Britain " (VerraU). 
A. sp. inc., Torcross, 12th and 26th Aug. and 1st Sept., 

1903. British Museum. 
Porphyrops crassipes Mg., " Lynton, 19th June, 1883, 

Devonshire " (VerraU). 
Syntormon pallipes Fab., St. Germans (Cornwall), 5th 

Sept., 1912. Common and generally distributed. 

" Very common aU over Britain " (VerraU). 
8. biseriatus Lw., of VerraU's List (=S. denticvlatus, 

Zett.), "Devonshire " (VerraU). 
Xiphandrium appendicuhium Zett., Torcross, 2nd August 

and 1st Sept., 1903. St. Germans (CornwaU), 5th 

Sept., 1912. 

Digitized by 




X. brevicorne Curt., Port Wrickle (Cornwall), 5th Sept., 
1912. Over the border, but probably occurs wherever 
a little stream trickles down from the cliffs to the 
sands below. 

Medeterua muralia Mg., " Devonshire " (Verrall). 

M. jacvlus Mg., Torcross, 18th Aug., 1903. 

Hydrophorus bipunctatus Lehm., Crownhill, 12th and 15th 
Aug., 1889. 

H. prcecox Lehm., Torcross, 12th Aug., 1903. 

H. bisetus Lw., " Exmouth " (Verrall). Common all round 
the coast. 

Liancalus virens Scop., Plymbridge, 20th Oct., 1889. 
Torcross, 26th May, 1903. Walkham Valley, 21st 
July, 1889. Whitsand Bay (Cornwall), 20th April, 
1893. Crownhill, 15th Aug., 1889. Avon Valley, 17th 
June, 1896. Common where water trickles down the 
vertical face of a cliff. 

Campsicnemus scarnbus Fin., Torcross, 17th Aug. and 1st 
Sept., 1903. 

C. curvipes Fin., Torcross, 10th Aug., 1903. " Slapton 
Ley " (Verrall). 

Tmcophorus spinigerdlus Zett., Port Wrickle (Cornwall), 
5th Sept., 1912. 

Sympycnus annulipes Mg., Torcross, 12th, 17th and 18th 
Aug., 1903. Common and generally distributed. 

Ghrysotimus motticulus Fin., Torcross, 15th Aug., 1903. 
Not common. 

XanthocJdorus ornatus, Hal., " Slapton Ley " (Verrall). 

Aphrosylus raptor Walk., Mount Batten, 3rd Sept., 1889. 
Bovisand, 3rd July, 1896. Torcross, 23rd and 24th 
August and 6th Sept., 1903. Seaton, 24th June, 1890. 
"Torcross," Aug., 1903 (Verrall). No attempt is 
made to separate A. celtiber from A. raptor, though 
both are reputed to occur in Devonshire. Common 
on wet seaweed-covered rocks. 

A. ferox Walk., Mount Batten, 3rd Sept., 1889. Torcross. 
16th Aug., 1903. Prawle Point, 18th Aug., 1903. 
" Torcross and Whitsand Bay " (Verrall). Common 
on wet sand near the water's edge. A paper by 
Verrall on Dolichopodidce, in the E.M.M., Vols. XV 
and XVI (1904 and 1905), is absolutely necessary for 
anybody working at this family. 

Digitized by 




Hybos culiciformis Fab., Crownhill Fort, 17th July, 1889. 
Bickleigh Vale, 14th Sept., 1889. Recorded as 
H. grossipes, by Professor Poulton, in " Predaeeous 
Insects and their Prey" (Trans. Entom. Soc, 23rd 
Jan., 1907) as follows: Torcross, 9th Aug., 1903, 
prey a Homopteron. Torcross, 6th Sept., 1903, prey a 
Sciara species. Newton Abbot, 30th July, 1906, prey 
Sciara species. (Hamm.) 

H. femoratus Mull., Torcross, 10th Aug., 1903, prey a 
Homopteron (Poulton, I.e.). 

Bicettaria spuria Fin. (==Cyrtoma spuria of VerralTs List 
and Cyrtoma sulcata, Austen, Vict. Hist. Devonshire, 
6th Sept., 1903). Torcross, 3rd Sept., 1903, prey 
Scatopse brevicornis (Poulton, I.e.). 

B. nigra Mg.( =Cyrtoma nigra Austen), Ivybridge, 18th May, 

Bhamphomyia nigripes Fab., Crownhill Fort, 6th May, 
1889. Ivybridge, 2nd May, 1893, and 17th May, 1914. 
Plymbridge, 18th May, 1893. 

jR. tarsata Mg., Lynton, 17th June, 1883. 

B. tibidlcb Zett., Ivybridge, 18th May, 1890. 

jR. dentipes Zett., Lynton, 17th June, 1883. 

B. flava Fin., Ivybridge, 13th June, 1883. Lynton, 20th 
June, 1883. 

B. hybotina Zett., Ivybridge, 18th May, 1890. 

B. pennata Macq., Ivybridge, 2lst May, 1914. . 

B. nitidula Zett., neighbourhood of Plymouth. (Collin.) 

B. stigmosa Macq., Ivybridge, 30th April, 1893. 

B. albohirta, neighbourhood of Plymouth. (Collin.) 

Empis tessettata Fab., Teignmouth, 21st April, 1883. 
Shaugh, 8th June, 1893. Salcombe, no date. Loddis- 
well, 24th May, 1896, prey Onesia sepulchralit 
<Poulton, I.e.). Morthoe, 20th May, 1905, prey 
Bibio marci (Poulton, I.e.). Morthoe, 26th May, 1905, 
prey Mydcea (Poulton, I.e.). Loddiswell, 24th May, 
1896, prey Leptis scolopacea. Common and generally 

E. caudatida Lw., neighbourhood of Plymouth. (Collin.) 

E.nigritarsisM.g. do. do. 

E. punctata Mg. do. do. 

E. trigramma Mg. do. do. 

Digitized by 



E. pennaria Fin., neighbourhood of Plymouth. (Collin.) 
E. chioptera Fin. do. do. 

E. livida Linn., Tamerton Foliot, 23rd May, 1889. Crown- 
hill Fort, <J and $ in coitti, 11th June, 1889. 
E. 8tercorea Linn., Ivybridge, 18th May, 1890. 
E. pennipes Linn., Dawlish, 7th June, 1883. Lynton, 19th,. 

June, 1883. Avon Valley, 28th June, 1896. 
E. albinervis Mg., Ivybridge, 17th June, 1883. 
Pachymeria femorata Fab., Ivybridge, 14th June, 1883. 

Probably common everywhere. 
Hilara lurida Fin., neighbourhood of Plymouth. (Collin.} 
H. maura Fab., Plymbridge, 28th May, 1889. Crownhill 

Fort, 18th May, 1889. Common and generally 

H. thoracica Mcq., neighbourhood of Plymouth. (Collin.) 
H. interstincta Fin., Crownhill Fort, 8th July, 1889. 
H. flavipe8 Mg., neighbourhood of Plymouth. (Collin.) 
H. ceronetha Mik., Plymbridge, 1st July, 1889. 
H. cornicvla Lw., neighbourhood of Plymouth. (Collin.) 
H. pinetorum Zett., neighbourhood of Plymouth. (Collin.) 
(EdcUea holmgreni Zett., Ivybridge, 13th June, 1883. 
(E. flavipes Zett., neighbourhood of Plymouth. (Collin.) 
Ocydromia glaibricvla Fin., Torcross, 18th Aug., 1903. 

Common and generally distributed. 
Microphones holosericeus Mg., neighbourhood of Plymouth. 

Euthyneura myrtilli Mcq., Bickleigh, 18th May, 1914. 
Leptopeza sphenoptera Lw., "Ivybridge and Exeter, 

July, 1871 " (Verrall). Not in the last edition of 

VerralTs List. 
Trichina dongata Hal., neighbourhood of Plymouth. 

Clinocera bipunctata Hal., " Ivybridge, 14th June, 1883." 

C. nigra Mg., "Lynton, 20th May, 1893 " (Verrall). 
C. stagnalis Hal., Torcross,- 12th Aug., 1903. Mount 

Edgcumbe, 4th April, 1904. Common and generally 

C.fontinalis Hal., " Ivybridge, 14th June, 1883 " (Verrall). 
Hemerodromia precatoria Fall., neighbourhood of Ply- 
mouth. (Collin.) 
H. erecta sp. nov., neighbourhood of Plymouth. (Collin.) 
Ardoptera guttata Hal., Ivybridge, 14th June, 1883 



zed by G00gk 


Trichopeza longicornis Mg., " Ivybridge, 14th June, 1883 " 

Lepidomyia melanocephala Fab., " Ivybridge, 14th June, 

1883 " (Verrall). 
JSciodromia immaculata Hal., Ivybridge, 8th May, 1890. 
Tachypeza nvbila Mg., Torcross, 12th Sept., 1903. Common 

on tree-trunks. * 

Chersodromia cursitans Zett., Torcross, 18th, 21st and 23rd 

Aug., 1893. Common under seaweed. 
C. hirta Walk., Torcross, 18th and 28th Aug., 1903. 

Common under seaweed and running about on the 

wet sand. 
Tachydromia cursitans Fab., Torcross, 24th Aug., 1903. 

Prey, Sciara sp. Poulton. "Predaceous Insects," 

p. 385. 

Tachydromia lutea 


neighbourhood of Plyi 


T. nigritarsis Fin. 



T. longicornis Mg. 



T. ciliaris Fin. 



T. sylvicola n. sp. 



T. parvicauda n. sp. 



T. minutaMg. 



T. notata Mg. 



T. verraili n. sp. 



T. exilis Mg. 



T. laticincta Walk. 




De Meijere reduced the number pi Pselsearctic species in 
this family to seven, of which three occur in the British 
Isles, viz. : tristis Fin., lutea Panz., and furcata Fin., and 
all three are probably inhabitants of Devonshire, though no 
specimens are available for reference. 


A family so neglected that I have gladly availed myself 

of some Cornish records, registered in old letters from 

Dr. Wood. 

Gymnophora arcuata Mg., Sheviock, Oct., 1912. 

Trineura aterrima Fab., hovering in flocks in the shade, 
probably common and generally distributed, but no 
specimens are available for identification. 

Digitized by 



Apiochasta longicostcUis Wood, Whitsand Bay, May, 1907, 

bred from ants' nest. 
Phora thoracica Mg., Torcross, 10th Aug., 1903. 
P. abdominalis Fin., Sheviock, Oct., 1912. 
P. incrassata Mg., Torcross, 6th, 13th and 28th Aug., 


Digitized by 




(Read at Totnes, 22nd July, 192a) 

Saint Eligius (in French Eloy, English Loye), Bishop of 
Noyau, born c. 590, died c. 660 on December 1, which is 
his day. As a goldsmith he was a favourite at the Courts 
of Clotaire II and Dagobert, and several coins struck by 
him as Master of the Mint at Paris are still extant. He 
was patron of all workers in metals, including black- 
smiths, and in Art is sometimes treated as a bishop, some- 
times as a farrier. He appears as the latter on a (? four- 
teenth-century) boss in the roof of Ugborough Church 
(over north aisle) and, as combining both capacities, in 
a statuette forming part of the richly carved south door 
(? c. 1520) of the Parish Church, Totnes. Here, the horse's 
foot that he holds alludes to the story that the saint once 
removed the leg of a restive horse, shod it in that detached 
state, and replaced it, without causing the animal any 
inconvenience ! The handle-plate, of iron, 8£" x 3f ", may 
have come from an earlier door, for there is stamped out 
on it a very archaic design of a horse, four horse-shoes, and 
some undecipherable lettering or ornament. Possibly the 
name of St. Loye once entered into the title of the church, 
which is now known as St. Mary. 

In the original Churchwardens' Accounts of Ashburton 
I have noted, in 8th & 14th Hen. VIII, entries of sums 
due from " the Wardens of the Store, of SS. James & 
Eligius," and this leads me to surmise that miners as well 
as artificers practised the cult of St. Loye ; for Ashburton 
was a stannary town, and Totnes is said to have been, 
anciently the only place for the shipment of tin in Devon, 
besides being an A.S. mint. Dr. Cox (Chwdns. Accts., 
p. 82) mentions that among the forty or fifty trade-gilds 
at Bodmin in the fifteenth century, there was one of 

Digitized by 





5- s 

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Saint Loyk's, East Wonford.— To /ace 
Digitized by CjOOQIC 


zed by G00gk 


zed by G00gk 









w s 

W~ g 

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Saint Loye's, East Wonkc rd.— 7*o /cw f # 861. 


zed by G00gk 


" SS. Dunstan & Eloy for Smiths " ; and that at Derby 
in 1483, the Craft of the "Farrers" maintained six wax 
candles ("serges ") " befor Sancte loy." To come nearer 
home, I have seen in the vestry of Holy Trinity Church, 
South St., Exeter, a document dated 1442, recording the 
testimony of several parishioners (one being " Eaduljus 
Ferrant, ferror 9 ") to the effect (inter alia) that before the 
alterations [made about forty years previously], there was 
in the lower part of the church a fixed stone side-altar to 
St. Eligius [Loye] having above it a carved wooden image 
of that saint, and that the image has never been moved. 
This altar was probably benefited by a wealthy goldsmith 
named Amisius de Bruges (mis-read " Dionisius " by 
Oliver, City, p. 316) who in 1353 bequeathed lands and 
tenements in South St. and at St. Leonard's Mount, etc., 
to his wife Agnes (Mayor's Roll 26-7 Ed. Ill, mm. 29d- 
30d). Another smith — " Thomas Smethehaies, ferror 9 " — 
in 1381 had " a house within South Gate " (Chapter 
Archives, 2754). 

St. Eligius should not be — though he sometimes is — 
confounded with St. Egidius (Anglicl Giles) ; St. Aloysius 
(Aloys, Aloes) a sixteenth-century bishop ; or the British 
seventh-century Saint Illog, Bp. of Montgomery, honoured 
on 8 August under the name of St. Ellidius, in the Scilly 
Isles, where he was buried. A chapel at St. Mellion, in the 
Deanery of East, in Cornwall, was dedicated to " St. 
EUidius, Episcopus " (Lacy's Regr., fol. 304) and not, as 
stated by Oliver, to " St. Eligius " (Monast. Supplt., p. 441, 
and Paroch. Hist. Corn., iii, p. 309). 

The only known church or chapel in Devon or Cornwall 
unquestionably dedicated to St. Eligius (Loye) is the little 
chapel in the parish of Heavitree, situated in the midst 
of the Trust-lands of the Heavitree Poor, to the left of the 
road (Salter's Hill alias Windout Hill) that leads from the 
hamlet of East Wonford to that of West alias South 
Wonford. It is now a picturesque ruin, lacking roof and 
north wall, but its internal dimensions must have been 
35'xl8' 8". The bulk of the structure is Early English 
(probably early in the period 1190-1275) retaining in the 
south side three Lancet windows — sight about 6' 5" high 
by 13£" wide, with external rebate for reception of shutters, 
embrasure 4' 5" wide, internally, with seat about 1' from 
ground. A quatrefoil in the east gable and a pointed two- 
light window in the west wall (replacing a Lancet, of which 

Digitized by 



part remains below) are of the Decorated period (c. 1272- 
1307). A copy of Oliver's Ecclesl. Antiquities in the 
Cathedral Library, published in 1 839 by W. C. Featherstone, 
New London Inn Square, contains a view " drawn on stone 
by W. Hake," of " St. Eloy's Chapel," set in a thick grove 
of shade-trees. Jenkins (Hist. Ex., p. 444) alludes in 1806 
to "the Yard, decorated with ancient elms of lofty growth," 
and the Feoffees' Accts., in the seventeenth century, record 
sales of oaks and elms on the estate. But in another copy 
of Oliver's Antiquities (in the City Reference Library) of 
the same publisher and date (and also in the 1840 edition), 
there is a different lithographic view of the chapel, from 
which the trees have vanished. Both are faulty in per- 
spective and proportions, but they show that the roof was 
heavily slated, with a small cross at each end of the ridge, 
and that a large cross stood, perhaps a dozen feet from the 
west end of the chapel, giving sanctity to the enclosure, 
which, however, can never have been licensed for burials, 
being so near the mother church. 

In the Western Antiquary of 1890 (pp. 119, 142) an article 
and two crude sketches by Winslow Jones, testify that 
none of the crosses were then in situ. The large one had 
been removed to the lawn behind " St. Loye's House," 
where it now stands. It is of granite, octagonal in section, 
about 6' 2" high (besides base), and 2' 3" across arms. It 
is very similar to one in Pinhoe Churchyard, to " Little 
John's Cross " near Ide, and to many of the Dartmoor 
crosses. Mr. Hansford Worth tells me that the majority 
of this type are of the fourteenth, and some of the fifteenth 

From the age indicated by the masonry, I should not be 
surprised to find that St. Loye's Chapel had been erected 
by William Gervais, who in 1238 was an important land- 
holder in — if not co-lord of — the Manor of Wonford, and 
in Ringswell (Ft. of Fines, Dev. and Corn. Rec. Soc, No. 
267). He was repeatedly Mayor (1218-1239), and founded 
Exe Bridge in 1250. But the earliest documentary refer- 
ence to this building is a licence in the Register of Bp. 
Brantingham (fol. 171), the extended Latin text of which 
is printed by Preb. H. Randolph and by Col. Hardinge 
(Dioc. Architl. Soc, 1853). It is dated 1 April, 1387, and 
permits Henry Tirell and Joan his wife to have Mass cele- 
brated in their presence in the Chapel of Saint Eligius 
within their Mansion of Wonford, and particularly on the 

Digitized by 



morrow of the Feast of Holy Trinity every year, during 
the bishop's pleasure, etc. Such licences are frequently 
misunderstood to grant leave for the erection of a chapel, 
or for its consecration ; but they conferred, in fact, a purely 
personal privilege, limited in duration, though sometimes 
renewed to successors, and the celebration had no perma- 
nent consecrative effect, for a portable altar-slab might 
be used. A composition between the Chapter and the Vicar 
of Heavitree, made 28 March, 1400, settles that the latter 
" is to receive all the oblations and obventions at the altars 
of the said church and of its chapels," including that of 
" S. Eligius" One may often observe an attempt to wrest 
architectural evidence into concordance with the date of a 
Jicence, and Lysons, Worthy and others have erred in this 
way. Lysons further makes the slips of " 1377 " for 1387, 
and ' f Twill " for Tirell, while Worthy (Suburbs, pp. 9, 11) 
confounds the two distinct families of Tirell and Tilly. He 
assumes that the grantee of the above licence was a 
descendant of Wm. Fitz John's son-in-law, De Tilly (whom 
he mis-calls Tirel) ; but De Tilly's connection with the 
manor of Wonford ceased in the reign of King John, while 
the Tirels, who were descended from Walter Tirel, Lord of 
Poix, and his wife Adeliza de Clare niece to Baldwin de 
Brionne, the Domesday Sheriff of Exeter, were for cen- 
turies to the fore in this and other parts of Devon, as well 
as in Soms. Dors., etc. They are found early, e.g. at 
Oldridge, at (?) Tedburn St. Mary, as witness at Cowyk, 
and as tenants of Tor Abbey (see Vict. Hist., p. 459 ; Feud. 
Aids, p. 314 ; Ft. of Fines, No. 713 ; Oliver, Monast., 
p. 157). Before 1255 a Henry Tyrel possessed a tenement 
in Exeter, in the parish of St. Stephen, on the w. side of 
the lane leading to Christchurch (? Musgrave's Alley) at 
the corner (St. John's Cartulary, fol. 24d). A Henry 
Tyrel who was M.P. for Co. Devon, in 1330, is identified 
by Mr. Alexander (Trans., xlv, p. 256) with the M.P* for 
Exeter, with the Sheriff of Devon, 1326, 1342 and 1345, 
of the same name ; and with Sir Henry Tyrell of Ashleigh 
in Lifton (Risdon, p. 9 ; Lysons', p. 317) — doubtless the 
same Henry Tirell to whom licence was granted, 30 May, 
1332,. for Divine Celebration in his chapel at Ashleigh 
(Grandisson, H.-R., p. 654) ; and probably all were one 
with our Henry Tirell of St. Loye's. The latter's " Mansio 
de Wonford " (despite Worthy, Suburbs, p. 22) I submit 
was not a manor house, but the " Capital Mansion of 

Digitized by 



Seynt Loyes " which is mentioned in many documents 
from 1481 downward, and is shown as " the Farmhouse " 
in a map of 1809, lying scarcely twice its pwn length away 
(to north-westward) from the chapel, but was demolished 
in 1838 (Bill of Sale of materials, " except the cob and 
thatch "). In the deed of 1481 this mansion with its lands 
(including " woods ") is stated to have been " lately held 
by John Wodeland, Cleric." Query, whether the same as 
" John de Wydelond " (variously spelt) who became Vicar 
of Heavitree in 1401 and died in 1422 (StafEord's Register, 
H. R., pp. 177, 372 ; Lacy's, p. 10). But in 1481 it was 
of Robert Whityng and Otho Gilbert, Armigers, who 
granted an eighty years' lease of it to four men (named), 
doubtless the sidemen of Heavitree ; for these officers 
rented and sub-let "the houses " and lands of St. Loye's 
for a long time before acquiring any part of them by 
purchase ; being answerable to the parishioners for the 
profits, as set forth in a quaint document of 1586, that has 
been printed in D. and C. N. and Q. (Vol. I, p. 59) ; and 
there is a large collection of old deeds relating to the estate 
(the earliest being this of 1481 ; the next, one of 1551) 
with books of old accounts of the sidemen (beginning 
1575), the wardens (i.e. acting treasurers) of St. Loye's, 
wardens of Duck's Almshouses, and feoffees of the parish 
charity lands, carefully preserved in the vestry of Heavi- 
tree church. 

Limitation of space obliges me to withhold my extracts 
from these deeds and genealogical particulars of the holders 
of the lands connecting them in several cases with owners 
of the quondam manor of East Wonford (in which manor 
St. Loye's lay) and of lands in Sowton, Ringswell, etc. 

A manuscript book — " Abstract of Title of the Feoffees," 
penes Mr. Chorley, 16 Gandy St., begins with a deed of 
28 April, 29 Eliz. (i.e. 1587, mistakenly rendered " 1586 "), 
whereby Roger Ayshford of Aysheford in Burlescombe 
sold to John Leigh and Wm. Glandfeilde J" part of the 
messuage and lands called " Sancte Loyes." The next 
deed, dated 19 January, 30 Eliz. [1588, New Style] whereby 
the said Ley and Glanfeylde sold their J of St. Loye's for 
£38, to twelve (named) parishioners, to the use of the poor 
people of the parish of Heavitree and towards the repara- 
tion of the parish church, is the starting-point of the 
abstract given in the printed " Report of the Charity 
Commissioners," which may be seen at public libraries. 

Digitized by 



Suffice it to say, here, that on 1 March, 11 Chas. I (1636) 
the parishioners bought another J part from John Clement 
alias Fishe of Crediton, for £51 ; and on 8 February, 17 
Chas. II (1665) acquired the remaining moiety from Philip 
Ducke, for £125 7s. 3d. ; it having been sold to Ducke, in 
1658, by Robert Shapcott of Bradninch, no doubt the 
Recorder of that borough and Member of the " Long 
Parliament," for whom see Croslegh's Hist, of Bradninch 
(p. 324). 

The ancient mansion of St. Loye's that stood close by 
the chapel must not be confounded with that now known 
as " St. Loye's," which, as Winslow Jones states in the 
above cited article, was built by his grandfather [John 
Jon6s] on ground that he bought in 1789, adjoining the 
Trust Lands ; and this is borne out by the title deeds. 

Exeter directories name as successive residents Thomas 
Jones, architect (brother of John) ; Pitman Jones, 
solicitor (son of John) ; and (Pitman's son) Winslow 
Jones, Esq., who died 30 July, 1895, but had sold the 
place in March, 1879, to W. J. Battishill, solicitor, for many 
years Chapter Clerk. The next purchaser was in March, 
1912, Major-General Colin George Donald. In January, 
1917, the present Bishop of Exeter, Lord William Gascoyne 
Cecil, d.d., and his family took it as their residence for the 
first eight months of his episcopate, the palace having been 
converted into a military hospital. But, in deference to 
^ traditional custom, inhibiting (as I understand) a new 
bishop from sleeping within the city before his formal 
admittance by the mayor, etc., his lordship spent the 
night preceding his enthronisation at Bishop's Court, 
St. Loye's being reckoned as Exeter. . 

In September, 1919, St. Loye's (now comprising with the 
mansion 12 acres of ground) was purchased by the present 
owner, Thomas Whipham, Esq., m.d. Having regard to 
St. Loye's patronage of all workers in precious and other 
metals, it is a curious coincidence that Dr. Whipham, 
though of Devon extraction, is a member of the old London 
Company of Goldsmiths, as were his father, grandfather, 
and other ascendants for six generations, but was unaware 
of the saint's connection with the craft, till after he had 
decided on the place ! 

The Jones family, with their antiquarian proclivities, 
were probably responsible for the insertion in the modern 
brick walls of the coach-house and garage, of some medieval 

Digitized by 



foliated oak window-frames and large fragments of hand- 
somely carved stone — one being a moulded and enriched 
Ogee arch with finial cross, about 8 feet high— which,, 
however, I do not think came from St. Loye's Chapel, but 
may have been cast out from some church on an occasion 
of " restoration." 

To revert to St. Loye's Chapel : — I can find no evidence 
that it was ever endowed with the surrounding acres ; 
and search has been made in vain by an expert at the 
Record Office, London, for any reference to it at the 
Reformation period ; but in the parish books — first in 
1618, and down to at least the middle of the eighteenth 
century — there is an annual payment of Is. 2d. to the 
" King's Auditors " (or " Odiators ") made up of 6d. for 
" high rent " or " Rent out of St. Lowes," or " Rent to the 
King for the Chapell," and 8d. for " Acquittance " and 
"the Porter's fee." As early as 1607 " halfe of the 
Chapell " was let as a dwelling. By 1785 it was used as a 
stable, and it was serving as a cow-shed when the Rev. S. 
Berkeley actively promoted its partial repair, which waa 
effected by Mr. Harbottle Reed, whose measured drawings 
are in the keeping of the Diocesan Architectural Society. 
Surely the ancient building is worthy of further perserva- 
tion, or even of complete restoration to its sacred uses. 


Page 360, line 10. A stone carving in Durweston 
Church, Dors: shows St. Eloi, ecclesiastically robed, shoeing 
a leg removed from a pony that stands near held by a 
man. (See Hutchins' Dorset, i, p. 266.) 

P. 360, L 21. The door may have been a gift from 
the smiths who remarkably outnumber other crafts, in the 
thirteenth century " Rolls of the Totnes Gild of Mer- 
chants." (See Mr. Hugh Watkin's Hist, of Totnes, p. 913.) 

P. 361, I 29. The name of St. Laudus was Englished 
as Lo, but Lowe is sometimes written for Loye. 

P. 361, I 38. Mr. Watkin points out that the 
dimensions of St. Loye's Chapel equate with the Norse 
measurements " 5 sajenes by 8 arschines." 

P. 365, I. 40. Dr. Whipham's great-grandfather, Vicar 
of Kingsteignton, was Chaplain of the Goldsmith's 


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p Indicates Past Presidents. 

* Indicates Life Members. t Indicates Honorary Members. 

J Indicates Members who retire at the end of the current year. 

The Names of Members of the Council are printed in small capitals ; 

and of Members whose addresses are not known, in italics. 

Notice of Changes of Residence, of Resignations, and of Decease of Members 

should be sent to the General Secretary. 

Year of 

1913*H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, k.g., etc. (All communica- 
tions to be addressed to Walter Peacock, Esq., M.V.O^ 
Duchy of Cornwall Office, Buckingham Gate, London, S. W.) 

1913 Abell, G. J., 8, Rolle Street, Exmouth. 

1919 Abell, Sir W. S., k.b.e., m.i.n.jl, 11, Wedderburn Road, 

Hampstead, London, N.W. 3. 
1913* Adams, E. Amery, 21, Mayford Road, Balham, S.W. 12. 
1896 Adams, Maxwell, c/o Messrs. William Brendon & Son, 

Ltd., Plymouth (Hon. General Secretary). 
1 900* Adams, S. P., Elbury Lodge, Newton Abbot (Vice-President). 

1920 Aitcheson, Rev. William, The Vicarage, Berry Pomeroy, 

Totnes (Vice-President). 
1908 Albert Memorial Library, etc. (The Royal), Exeter, per 

H. Tapley Soper, f.r.hist.s. 
1909*Alexander, J. J., m.a., f.r.hist.s., j.p., Grammar School, 

1916p Allen, E. J.,, f.r.s., The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, 

1896*Allhusen, C. Wilton, Pinhay, Lyme Regis. 
1920 Allingham, H. R., m.b.lond., Rosabelle, Totnes. 

1918 Almy, P. H. W., Bank Chambers, Torquay. 

1869 Amery, J. S., j.p., Druid, Ashburton (Vice-President and 
Hon. General Treasurer). 

1919 Amory, Sir Ian Heathcoat, Bart., c.b.e., d.l., j.p., Knights- 

hayes Court, Tiverton. 
1901 Andrew, Sidney, 18, West Southernhay, Exeter. 
1919 Andrew, T. H., f.s.i., Barnburgh, Pennsylvania Hill, 



zed by G00gk 


1894 Andrews, John, Traine, Modbury, Ivy bridge. 

1918 Ault, Rev. F. E., Dittisham Rectory, Dartmouth. 
1912 Axe, Rev. Arthur, 18, Southbroom, Devizes. 

1912*Babbage, Gilbert, 16, Cathedral Close, Exeter. 
1920 Baker, Joseph Fitze, j.p., Hill Crest, Ashburton. 

1919 Ball, Miss Marion, Walmer House, Torquay. 

1914 Balleine, Rev. James A., m.a., Elm Brae, Seaway Lane, 

Cockington, S. Devon. 

1915 Barber, James, Colintraive, Cranford Avenue, Exmouth. 
1878*pBaring-Gould, Rev. S., M.A., Lew Trenchard, Lewdown. 

1918 Barnes, A. E., 107, High Street, Barnstaple. 

1920 Barran, Charles, j.p., The Manor House, Berry Pomeroy, 

Totnes (Vice-President). 
1902*Barratt, Sir Francis Lay land, Bart., m.a., m.p., 68, Cadogan 
Square, London, S.W. 1. 

1915 Bartlett, Rev. Lewis Edward, The Vicarage, Countess Weir, 

1920*Bastard, Lt.-Col. W. E. P., o.b.e., d.l., j.p., Kitley, Yealmp- 
ton, Devon (Vice-President). 

1916 Bastow, J. Henry, Fair Park, Chudleigh. 

1898*Bayley, Arthur R., b.a., p.r.hist.s., St. Margaret's, Great 

1894*Bayly, Miss Anna, Seven Trees, Plymouth. 

1919 Bayly, Mrs. E. C, Highlands, Ivybridge, South Devon. 
1913*Bedford, His Grace The Duke of, K.G., Woburn Abbey, 

1914 Beebe, Rev. -W. N. P., m.a., The Vicarage, Whitchurch, 

1905 Bennett, Ellery A., 17, Courtenay Street, Plymouth. 

1920 Benthall, Miss, Countess Wear House, Countess Wear, 

Topsham, Devon. 
1920 Bettridge, A. E., Fairseat, Totnes. 
1912 Bickersteth, Rev. H. L., b.a., The Vicarage, Tavistock. 
1904 Bird, W. Montagu, j.p., Dacre House, Ringmore, Teign- 

1912 Birdwood, Allan Roger, Yannon Lea, Exeter Road, Teign- 

1889 Birmingham Free Library, Birmingham. 
1886 Blaokler, T. A., Hillborough House, St. Marychurcb, 

1917*Blight, Francis J., Tregenna, Wembley, Middlesex. 
1919 Boles, F. J. Coleridge, j.p., 24, St. Peter's Street, Tiverton 

1912 Bond, Francis William, 40, Loughborough Park, Brixton, 

S.W. 9. 
1901 Bond, Miss S. C, 41, Grace Street, Rockland, Knox Co., 
Maine, U.S.A. 

1906 Bond, Rev. W. F., m.a., Lancing College, Shoreham, Sussex. 

1913 Boston Public Library, U.S.A., c/o Messrs. Bernard Quaritch, 

Ltd., 11, Grafton Street, New Bond Street, London, W. 1. 

Digitized by 



1906 Bovey, Thomas William Widger, m.r.o.8., l.r.o.p.Lohd., 

Winslade, Bampton, N. Devon. 
1912 Bowden, John F., p.s.i., Crossways, West Avenue, Exeter. 

1919 Bowles, Major-General F. A., o.b., Hartnolls, Tiverton. 

1898 Boyer, Commander F., r.n., Home Lodge, Chudleigh, South 


1911 Boyle, Mrs. C. Vicars, Cheldon Rectory, Chulmleigh, North 

1916 Bracken, C. W., b.a., p.e.s., 5, Carfrae Terrace, Plymouth. 
1900*Bradridge, C. Kingsley, Summerland, Honiton. 

1912 Brant, Captain, r.n., St. Martins, Budleigh Salterton. 
1905 Brendon, Charles E., 6, Hillshorough, Plymouth. 

1892 Brendon, W. T., The Anchorage, Grand Parade, Plymouth. 

1916 Breton, Rev. H. H., m.a., Sheepstor Vicarage, Horrabridge, 


1917 Briggs, T. H., Rock House, Lynmouth, N. Devon. 

1920 Brock, James S., Bridgetown, Totnes. 

1918 Brockman, W. S., Mead Hill, Meadfoot Road, Torquay. 
1918 Brodrick, W. B., 5, Essex Court Temple, London, E.C. 4. 

1917 Brokenshire, F. A., 2, Rock Avenue, Barnstaple. 

1916 Brown, W. L. Trant, f.r.i.b.a., 332, High Road, Kilburn, 

London, N.W. 6. 
1916 Brown, J. P., j.p., Abbey Stores, Plymouth. 
1920 Browne, Miss Leigh, 58, Porchester Terrace, London, W. 2. 
1911*Brushfield, Miles Nadauld, 13, AUfarthing Lane, Wandsworth 

Common, Surrey. 
1911 Buckfast, The Right Rev. The Lord Abbot of (Dom. Anscar 

Vonier, o.s.b.), Buckfast Abbey, Buckfast, S. Devon. 

1918 Burdick, G., Sherwood, Belgrave Road, Torquay. 

1911 Burn, Colonel C. R., A.D.C. to the King, m.p., 77, Cadogan 
Square, London, S.W. 1. 

1916 Burton, R. Fowler, 2, Osborne Villas, Devonport. 
1914 Butcher, Francis J., The Manor House, Tavistock. 
1914 Butcher, Mrs. Francis J., The Manor House, Tavistock. 

1917 Byne, Loftus St. George,, p.l.s., Laracor, Elwyn Road, 


1902 Calmady, Charles Calmady, Stoney Croft, Horrabridge. 

1919 Campbell, J. D., Howden Court, Tiverton. 
1908*Card, F. F., Broadlands, Newton Abbot. 

1919 Carew, Charles Robert Sydenham, b.a., m.p., j.p., Warni- 

combe, Tiverton. 
1891*Carpenter, H. J., m.a., ll.m., Penmead, Tiverton (Viob-Prbsi- 

1866*Carpenter-Garnier, J., j.p., Rookesbury Park, Wickham, 

1908 Carr-Smith, Miss Rose E., Harlow, Leamington. 
1902 Carter, Miss E. G., Hartland, North Devon. 

1899 Cartwright, Miss M. Anson, j.p., 11, Mont-le-Grand, Heavitree, 

VOL. LEE. 2 A 


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1918 Cary, Lt.-Commander H. L. M., R.N., Newton House, Rowde, 

1918 Cary, Captain L., R.N., Torre Abbey, Torquay. 
1895*Cash, A. Midgley, m.d., Limefield, Torquay. 
1898 Cave, Sir C. D., Bart., Sidbury Manor, Sidmouth. 

1910 Chalk, Rev. E. S., m.a., Kentisbeare Rectory, Cullompton 

1911*Chalmers, R. W. S., 4, Cavendish Place, Bath. 
1899*Champernowne, A. M., m.a., j.p., Dartington Hall, Totnes. 

1918 Champernowne, Major Philip H., b.a., Beckhams, Manaton, 

Moretonhampstead, Devon. 
1917 Chanter, Frank W., Bloomfield, Braunton, N. Devon. 

1901 Chanter, Rev. J. F., m.a., f.s.a., Marlands, Exmouth. 
1884 Chapman, H. M., St. Martin's Priory, Canterbury. 
1881pChapman, Rev. Professor, m.a., ll.d., Crofton, Byronshill* 

1906 Chapple, W. E. Pitpield, The Shrubbery, Axminster. 
1906 Chappie, Miss Pitfield, The Shrubbery, Axminster. 

1902 Charbonnier, T., 9, Cornwallis Crescent, Clifton, Bristol. 

1908 Chennells, Rev. A. W., b.a., ll.d., The College, Newton 


1911 Chichester, Miss, Arlington Court, Barnstaple. 

1917 Chichester, Rev. Charles, m.a., Sherwell Rectory, Barn- 

1914 Chilcott, Edward W., b.a., Chollacott Lane House, Tavistock. 
1919tChope, H. F., Whiteley Wood Road, Fulwood, Sheffield. 
1896 Chope, R. Pearse, b.a., The Patent Office, 25, Southampton 

Buildings, London, W.C. 2. 

1912 Clapp, Cecil Robert Mainwaring, m.a., ll.m # (Cantab.),. 

2, Bedford Circus, Exeter. 
1905 Clarke, Miss Kate, 2, Mont-le-Grand, Exeter. 

1919 Clarke, Miss, St. Peter's Street, Tiverton. 
1901jjClayden, Principal A. W., m.a%, f.g.s., Royal Albert Memorial 

College, Exeter. 

1903 Clay-Finch, Mrs., 17, Chester Road, Whitchurch, Salop. 
1912 Clifford, Colonel E. T., c.b.e., v.d., d.l., 6, Cranley Gardens,. 

South Kensington, London, S.W. 7. 

1909 Colborne, The Hon. Mrs. Mabel, Venn, Ivybridge. 
1898*pColeridge, Right Hon. Lord, m.a., The Chanter's House,. 

Ottery St. Mary. 

1920 Coles, A. J., St. Ewer, Torquay. 

1896JCollings, The Right Hon. Jesse, m.p., Edgbaston, Bir- 

1915 Commin, H., 230, High Street, Exeter. 

1920 Conran, Major Gerald M., j.p., Bradridge House, Diptford,. 

South Brent, Devon. 
1912 Cornish, Frederick John, 44, Magdalen Road, Exeter. 
1908 Cornish-Bowden, Peter, Zaire, Newton Abbot. 

1910 Cornwall Polytechnic Society, The Royal (per the Secretary 

E. W. Newton, Camborne). 

Digitized by 



1904 Coryndon, R. T., Devonshire Club, 50, St. James* Street, 

London, S.W. 1. 
1920 Cox, Rev, Walter E., m.a., Partington Rectory, Totnes 

1911*Crabbe, Herbert Ernest, f.r.g.s., Teignbridge House, Kings- 

teignton, S. Devon. 

1919 Cramp, Miss Viola, 28, Ladbroke Grove, London, W. 11. 
1908 Crang, W. H., 11, Collingwood Villas, Devonport. 
1911 Cree, W. K, m.d., Penryn, Watts Road, Tavistock. 

1920 Crerar Library, The John, Chicago, U.S.A. (per Librarian). 
1904 Crespin, C. Legassicke, c/o J. S. Amery, Druid, Ashburton. 
1907 Cresswell, Miss Beatrix F., 23, WonfordRoad, Exeter. 
1918 Crocker, F. J., j.p., Castleton, Torquay. 

18982?Croft, Sir Alfred W., k.c.i.e., j.p., m.a., Rumleigh, Bere 

Alston, R.S.O. 
1886 Cumming, Stephen A., 40, Palmerston Crescent, Palmer's 

Green, London, N. 13. 

1916 Dallas, Miss Margaret Frazer, Moorfield, Mannamead, Ply- 

1911 Davey, G. W., 16, John Street, Bedford Row, London, W.C. L 

1911 Davie, G. C, j.p., c.c., The Elms, Bishop's Tawton, Barn- 


1917 Davies, W. R., Kingsclear, Camberley, Surrey. 
1902 Daw, Mrs., Fremington House, Barnstaple, N. Devon. 

1918 Day, C. B., Allerdale, Torquay. 

1912 Depree, Mrs. Lilian May, 3, Pensylvania Park, Exeter. 
1920 Devenish, J. A., Goulds, Staverton, Totnes. 

1911 Devon and Exeter Club, Exeter (per Hon. Sec). 

1905 Dewey, Rev. Stanley D., m.a., Rectory, Moretonhampstead. 

1919 Dixon, Captain Jos. P., Tiverton. 

1918 Dobson, F., 55, Fleet Street, Torquay. 

1919JDodd, Colonel Anthony, a.m.s., Windycroft, Instow, North 
^ Devon. ' 

1919 Dodridge, A. E., Moulin, Cromwell Road, Beckenham, Lon- 

don, S.E. 20. 
1882 Doe, George M., Enfield, Great Torrington. 
1898*Donaldson, Rev. E. A., Py worthy Rectory, Holsworthy, North 


1913 Downes, Harold, m.b., p.l.s., p.g.s., f.r.m.s., Ditton Lea, 

Ilminster, Somerset. 
1917 Drake-Brockman, Rev. E., a.r.s.m., 42, Haldon Road, Exeter. 
1902 Drayton, Harry G., 201, High Street, Exeter. 

1920 Drennan, Robert, 7, Plymouth Road, Totnes. 
1910 Drewe, Julius C, j.p., Wadhurst Hall, Sussex. 

1909 Duke, The Rt. Hon. The Lord Justice Sir Henry, P.O., 37, 

Alleyn Park, Dulwich, London, S.E. 21. 
1889 Duncan, A. G., j.p., South Bank, JBideford. 
1913 Dunn, Miss Mary Rouse, Riverside, Bideford. 


zed by G00gk 


1898*Dunning, Sir E. H., Knt., j.p., Jacques Hall, Bradfield, 

1919 Dunsford, F.,B., j.p., Ashleigh, Tiverton. 

1901*Durnford, George, j.p., ca., f.c.a.can„ Greenhythe, West- 
mount, Montreal, Canada. 

1918 Dutton, Miss A. V., Somerdon, Sidmouth. 

1919 Dwelly, Edward, The Oaks, Pinewood HiU, Fleet, Hants. 
1879 Dymond, Arthur H., 24, Burton Court, Chelsea, London, 

1916 Dymond, G. P., m.a., 6, Lockyer Street, Plymouth. 
1902 Dymond, Mrs. Robert, The Mount, Bideford. 

1919 Eales, C. E., The Limes, Tiverton. 

1907 Eames, Miss Maria Deane, Cotley, near Chard. 

1917 Eames, Miss Sarah E., Carlton House, Exmouth. 

1920 Easterling, Miss Ruth C, m.a., Royal Albert Memorial 

College, Exeter. 
1919 Easton, H., 1, Lombard Street, London, E.C. 3. 

1918 Ede, Harry P., Applegarth, Maidencombe, near Teign- 

1901 Edye, Colonel L., United Service Club, London, S.W. 1. 
1896 Elliot, Edmund A. S., m.r.c.s., m.b.o.u., Slade House, near 

1898*Evans, Arnold, 4, Lithfield Place, Clifton. 
1904JEvan8, Major G. A. Penrhys, Furzedene, Budleigh Salterton. 
1914 Evans, Rev. A. C, m.a., The Vicarage, Lamerton, 

1880*Evans, Parker K, Park View, Brockley, West Town, R.S.O., 

1902*Eve, The Hon. Sir H. T., 19, Kildare Gardens, Bayswater, 

London, W. 2. 
1904 Every, Richard, Marlands, Heavitree, Exeter. 
1917 Exeter, The Rt. Rev. the Lord Bishop of (Lord William Cecil), 

The Palace, Exeter. 

1912 Fairbrother, G. H., Whitehall, Bideford. 

1905 Falcon, T. A., m.a., Hill Close, Braunton, Devon. 

1919 Fargus, Brigadier-General Harold, c.b., cm.g., d.s.o., Alex- 
andra House, Alexandra Terrace, Exmouth. 

1919 Fargus, Mrs. Harold, Alexandra House, Alexandra Terrace, 

1896 Firth, H. Mallaby, Knowle, Ashburton. 

1919 Fisher, E. C, m.a., Milverton Lodge, Tiverton. 

1919 Fisher, Frederic Bazley, j.p., Elm Cottage, Tiverton. 

1919 Fisher, Mrs. S. H,, 18, Fore Street, Tiverton. 

1911 Fleming, George Mcintosh, c.c., Loventor Manor, Totnes. 

1918 Forster, Robert Henry, m.a., ll.b. (Cantab.), Kilmar House, 

Digitized by 



1906 Fortescue, Et. Hon. the Earl, Castle Hill, South Molton. 

1910 Foster, M. T., Fore Street, Cullompton. 

1918 Foster, James Murray, c/o M. T, Foster, Fore Street, 

1876*Fowler, Eev. Canon W. W., Earley Vicarage, Reading. 

1918 Fradd, Martin, 165, Gloucester Terrace, Hyde Park, London, 

W. 2. 
1892 Francis, H., O.K., 12, Lockyer Street, Plymouth. 

1900 Francken, W. A., Okehampton Park, Okehampton. 
1920 Frean, Charles, 59, Portchester Road, Bournemouth. 

1919 French, Rev. W., m.a., Cadeleigh Rectory, .near Tiverton. 
1914 Frost, Miss Dorothy, Regent Street, Teignmouth. 
1912j?Froudb, Ashley A., o.m.g., Collapit Creek, Kingsbridge, 

S. Devon. 
1908 Fulferd, Francis A., Great Fulford, Dunsford, Exeter. 

1880 Furneaux, J.j j.p., Tor View, Buckfastleigh, Devon. 

1908 Gallsworthy, Frank, Burghersh Chantry, Lincoln. 
1919^Gamble, The Very Revd. H. R., d.d., Dean of Exeter, The 

Deanery, Exeter. 
1906 Gardiner, John, The Elms, Rudgeway, R.S.O., Glos. 

1901 Gauntlett, George, 27, Dix's Field, Exeter. 
1900*Gervis, Henry, m.d., f.r.o.p., p.s.a., j.p., 15, Royal Crescent, 


1920 Gibson, George J., m.d., St. Maur, Totnes. 
1910 Gidley, G. G., m.d., Heyford House, Cullompton. 

1909 Giffard, Edward Walter, 13, Chesham Place, London, 

S.W. 1. 

1919 Gilbert, Commander Walter Raleigh, r.n., Bishopsteignton 

House, Bishopsteignton, Devon. 
1892*Gill, Miss, St. Peter's Street, Tiverton. 

1920 Glanville, Percival, St. Leonards, Totnes. 

1919 Glover, Rev. W., p.r.g.8., St. Peter's Street, Tiverton. 

1902 Goaman, Thomas, j.p., 14, Butt Gardens, Bideford. 

1918 Gordon, Thomas Hodgetts, b.a. (lond.), Belhelvie, Alexandria 
Road, Sidmouth. 

1917 Gotto, Mrs. M. C, St. Catherine's, Exmouth. 

1918 Green, F. W., Welstor, Ashburton. 

1881 Gregory, A. T., Gazette Office, Tiverton. 

1920 Gresswell, Charles, c/o Barclay's Bank, Balham, London, 

S.W. 12. 
1917 Gribble, Miss Rose M., Splatton, S. Brent. 
1913*Grigg, H. W., Cann House, Tamerton Foliot, Crownhill, 

S.O., Devon. 

1892pHalsbury, The Right Hon. the Earl of, 4, Ennismore Gardens, 

London, S.W. 7. 
1895*Hambleden, The Right Hon. Viscount, 3, Grosvenor Place, 

London, S.W. 1. 
1880*Hamlyn, Joseph, Fullaford, Buckfastleigh. 


zed by G00gk 


1920 Hanks, F. G., b.a., The Grammar School, Totnes (Vice- 
1893 Harris, Miss, Sunningdale, Portland Avenue, Exmouth. 
1916 Harris, George Thomas, Kelso, Knowle Park, Sidmouth. 

1905 Harte, Prof. Walter J., Boyal Albert Memorial College, 

1908 Harvard University Library, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A., per 
Messrs. Edward G. Allen and Son, Ltd., 14, Grape Street, 
Shaftesbury Avenue, London, W.C. 2. 

1900 Harvey, Sir Robert, d.l., j.p., Dundridge, Totnes (Vice- 

1875*Hatt-Cook, Herbert, Hartford Hall, Cheshire. 
1913 Hawker, Capt. Henry Gore, Strode, Ivy bridge, S. Devon. 
1910 Hawkins, Rev. Edward J., b.a., 18, Marlborough Road, Exeter. 
1920 Hayman, B. W., j.p., The Gables, Totnes (Vice-President). 
1920 Hayman, Ernest W., 5, Devon Terrace, Totnes. 
1912 Hearn, Mrs. Eliza Christine, Ford House, Alphington Road, 

1919 Hebditch, W. Anstey, Juryhayes, Tiverton. 

1919 Hebditch, Mrs. J. T., Juryhayes, Tiverton. 
1890*Heberden, W. B., c.b., Elmfield, Exeter. 

1920 Heming, Capt. T. H., R.N., c.b.e., c/o London and County 

Bank, Midhurst, Surrey. 
1919 Hepburn, Lady, Dunmore, Bradninch, Cullompton. 

1919 Herapath, Mervyn, Cintra, Budleigh Salterton. 

1920 Herbert, Charles H., High Street, Totnes. 

1907 Herron, H. G. W., c/o Messrs. Grindlay & Co., 54, Parlia- 

ment Street, S.W. 1. 

1908 Hext, George, Kingstone, Newton Abbot. 

1918 Hicks, Colonel John George, v.d., McWhirter House, Abbey 

Road Mansions, St. John's Wood, London, N.W. 8. 
1882*pHiERN, W. P., m.a., f.r.s., j.p., c.A., The Castle, Barnstaple. 

1916 Hill, H. S., 29, Staddon Terrace, Plymouth. 
1892*Hingston, C. A., m.d., j.p., 3, The Esplanade, Plymouth. 
1907 Hitchcock, Arthur, Bettysground, Shute, Axminster. 

1912 Hitchcock, Capt. Walter M., Sunnyside, 51, The Boulevard, 

1918 Hockaday, F. S., p.r.hist.s., Highbury, Lydney, Glos. 
1898 Hodgson, T. V., Municipal Museum, Plymouth. 

1901 Holman, H. Wilson, p.s.a., Furlong, Topsham, Devon. 
1901 Holman, Herbert, m.a., llb., Holcombe Down, Teignmouth. 
1893 Holman, Joseph, Downside House, Downlewne, Sneyd, Bristol. 

1906 Holman, Francis Arthur, 3, Hyde Park Square, London, W. 2. 
1906 Holman, Ernest Symons, 1, Lloyd's Avenue, Fenchurch 

Street, London, E.C. 3. 

1919 Holman, Sidney H., The Dene, Denewood Road, Highgate, 

London, N. 

1920 Holman, William, j.p., Brimhill, Paignton. ' 

1917 Holmes, A. H., Bodley Cottage, Parracombe, Barnstaple, 

N. Devon. 

Digitized by 



1914*Hooper, H. Dundee, m.a., Ardvar, Torquay. 
1918 Hooper, W. R., Great Torrington, N. Devon. 

1910 Hooppell, Rev. J. L. E., St. Peter's Vicarage, 10, Hoxton 

Square, London, N. 1. 

1911 Hopper, A. E., Queen Anne's Chambers, Barnstaple. 
1920 Horn, F., High Street, Totnes. 
1896 # Hosegood, S., Pendennis, Rockleaze, nr. Bristol. 
1920 Hudson, F. H., The Plains, Totnes. 
1895*Hughe8, T. Cann, m.a., p.s.a., Town Clerk, Lancaster. 

1918 Hunt, Mrs. A. R., South wood, Torquay. 

1917 Hunt, F. W., j.p., o.c, High Street, Barnstaple. 
1906 Hunt, Rev. Jas. Lyde, Efford, Paignton. 

1919 Hutchinson, Rev. F. E., m.a., Court Place, Cove, Tiverton 

1886 Huxtable, James, 51, The Avenue, Kew Gardens. 
1919 Huxtable, William Henry, 2, St. Paul's Square, Tiverton 


1918 Huxtable, W. S., Carisbrooke, Torquay. 

1908 Hyde, The Venble. H. B., The Vicarage, Bovey Tracey. 

1893 Iredale, A., Strand, Torquay. 

1918 Jackson, Rev. Edward E., m.a., The Rectory, Parracombe, 

Barnstaple, N. Devon. 
1890* Jackson, Mark, Homelea, Purley, Surrey. 
1904 Jackson, Rev. Treasurer P., St. Martins, Exeter. 
1908 James, S. Boucher, Hallsannery, Bideford. 

1912 Jenkins, Rhts, m.i.m.e., 38, Southwood Avenue, Highgate, 

London, N. 6. 

1916 Jenkins, Rev. W. T. LI., The Rectory, Instow, K Devon. 
1901 Jerman, J., f.r.i.b.a., f.r.m.s., The Bungalow, Topsham Road, 


1917 Jewell, F. A., The Mayor's Parlour, Barnstaple. 

1911 Joce, Thomas James, 3, Manor Crescent, Newton Abbot. 

1918 Johnston, Rev. J. Charteris, Mount Warren, St. Luke's 

Road, N., Torquay. 

1919 Johnstone, F., Wilcombe Villa, Tiverton. 
1883 Jordan, W. F. C, The Cedars, Teignmouth. 
1899*Julian, Mrs. Hester Forbes, f.g.s., f.r.a.i., Redholme, 


1920 Juniper, Admiral W. V., c.b., Elmsleigh, Ashburton Road, 


1913 Keene, Rev. E. G. Perry-, Dean Prior, Buckfastleigh. 

1916 Keily, The Rt. Rev. Bishop John, d.d., Bishop's House, 

1920 Kelway, Clifton, f.r.hist.s., Church House, Westminster, 

London, S.W. 
1920 Kendall, W. H. Redworth, Totnes. 
1920 Kendall, Mrs., Redworth Totnes. 


zed by G00gk 


919 Kidwell, W. G., 16, Twyford Place, Tiverton. 
918 Kirkwood, Major J. H. Morrison, D.8.O., Yeo, Fairy Cross, 
S.O., K Devon. 

918 Kitson, Major Robert, Hengrave, Torquay. 

919 Knight, Rev. Francis, d.d., Kincraig, Forest Road, Torquay. 
901 Knight, Mrs. J. H., The Firs, Friar's Walk, Exeter. 

903 Laing-Oldham, Philip M. T., m.a., Strawbridge, Hatherleigh, 

N. Devon. 
907 Lane, John, The Bodley Head, Vigo Street, London, W. 1. 

904 Lang, Charles Augustus, St. George's Cottage, Weybridge. 
898 Langdon, Rev. F. E. W., Membury Vicarage, Axminster. 
916 Langford, Rev. Canon John Frere, Southbrook, Starcroes, 

906 Lartbr, Miss C. Ethelinda, f.l.s., 2, Summerland Terrace, 
St. Marychurch, Torquay. 

920 Last-Smith, E. A., 63, Drayton Gardens, South Kensington, 

London, S.W. 10. 

905 Laycock, C. H., Cross Street, Moretonhampstead. 

919 Lazenby, Miss, b.a., Eastfield, Tiverton (Viob-Prbsidbnt). 

889*Lee, Col. J. W., Budleigh Salterton, South Devon. 

914 Lewin, L. H., Heathfield, Yelverton, S. Devon. 

911 Lindsay, W. A., j.p., d.l., k.c, m.a., p.s.a., Norroy King of 

Arms, College of Arms, London, E.C., and Deer Park, 


919 Littledale, F. Woodhouse, St. Marychurch, South Devon. 

920 Lockner, Conrad, Northgate House, Totnes. 
920*Lockyer, Lady, The Hill Observatory, Salcombe Regis, 

Sidmouth, Devon. 
920 Lockyer, Major W. J. S., The Hill Observatory, Salcombe 

Regis, Sidmouth, Devon. 
920 Lomax, W. F., The Library, Ashburton. 
890*Longstaff, G. B., m.d., Twitcham, Mortehoe, R.S.O. 

919 Lovett, W. T., Highfields, Halberton, Tiverton. 
898 Lows, Harford J., f.g.s., Kotri, Chelston, Torquay. 

920 McClean, Capt. W. N., 1, Onslow Gardens, London, S.W. 7. 

906 MacDermot, E. T., Lillycombe, Porlock, Somerset. 

907 McLennan, Frank, Lynch Villa, Axminster. 
920 Maddick, Henry, j.p., Velwell, Totnes. 

919 Mahood, A. G., Sunnyside, Tiverton. 
894 Mallet, W. R., Exwick Mills, Exeter. 

904 Manchester Free Reference Library, King Street, Manchester. 

905 Manisty, George Eldon, Nattore Lodge, Budleigh Salterton. 
903 Manlove, Miss B., Moor Lawn, Ashburton. 

901 Mann, F., Leat Park, Ashburton. 

914*Mardon, Evelyn John, b.a., ll.b., f.r.g.s., New Court 
Topsham, Devon. 
1897*Mardon, Heber, Clifden, Teignmouth. 

Digitized by 



1901 Marines, The Officers Plymouth Division R.M.L.I., Royab 

Marine Barracks, Stonehouse, Devon. 
1919 Marquand, C. V. B., Y Glyn, Llanfarian, Cardiganshire. 
1917 Marsh, Charles, Cross Street, Barnstaple. 

1904 Marshall, James C, Woodchurch, Crapstone, Yelverton. 

1917 Martin, Major Arthur J., r.a.m.c, 44, St. George's Square, 

London, S.W. 1. 

1918 Martin, Mrs. C. L., Clanmarina, Torquay. 

1919 Martin, W. H., Tiverton. 

1918 Mason, Samuel, 15, College Road, Newton Abbot. 

1908 Matthews, Lieut.-Colonel Alfred, Gratton, Bow, N. Devon. 
1887 Matthews, Coryndon, p.z.s., p.b.s., Stentaway, Plymstock, 

S. Devon. 
1894 Maxwell, Mrs., Lamorna, Torquay. 
1917 May, Mrs. Mary Elizabeth, Sefton House, Northam, 

N. Devon. 

1920 Maye, Thomas, Mount Elwell, Totnes. 

1898 Melhuish, Rev. George Douglas, m.a., Ash water Rectory, 

1902 Messenger, Arthur W. B., Staff Paymaster R.K, 11, St. 

John's Road, Harrow. 
1900 Mildmay, Lt.-Colonel the Rt. Hon. F. B., m.p., Flete, Ivybridge 

1919 MiUer, Brian S., The Castle, Exeter. 

1910 Monkswell, Right Hon. Lord, 117, St. James's Court, 
London, S.W. 1. 

1905 Moon, W. J., j.p., 20, Home Park Villas, Devonport. 

1919 Moore, R., m.a., Tidcombe House, Tiverton. 

1906 Morley, The Rt. Hon. the Earl of, Saltram, Plympton. 

1909 Morris, R. Burnet, m.a., ll.b., Belair, Exmouth. 
1914 Morris, Miss E. A., Nirvana, Ivybridge, S. Devon. 
1908 Morrison-Bell, Colonel E. F., Pitt, House, Chudleigh. 

1910 Morrison-Bell, Major A. C, m.p., 13, Seymour Street, Portman 

Square, London, W. 

1920 Morrison, J. W., Winsland, Totnes. 

1898 Morshbad, J. Y. Anderson, Lusways, Salcombe Regis, 

. Sidmouth. 
1886*Mortimer, A., 1, Paper Buildings, Temple, London. 
1912 Mortimer, Fleet-Surgeon, Edgar F., r.n., Rock Mount, 
Torrington, N. Devon. 

1917 Mortimer, Miss, 2, The Myrtle, Sidmouth. 

1919 Mott, Rev. L. 0., m.a., Hennock Vicarage, Bovey Tracey, S. 

1919 Mudford, E., 12, Fore Street, Tiverton. 
1904 Murray, Sir O. A. R., k.c.b., The Admiralty, London, 

S.W. 1. 

1918 Murrin, A. J., j.p., c.c, Powderham Road, Newton Abbot. 
1918 Myers, Rev. T., Elm Tree, St. Marychurch, S. Devon. 

1885*Neck, J. S., j.p., Great House, Moretonhampstead. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


1919 New, H. G., j.p., Craddock, Cullompton, Devon. 

1912 Newberry library, Chicago (per Messrs. B. F. Stevens and 
Brown, 4, Trafalgar Square, London, W.C. 2.). 

1912 Newman, Sir Eobert, Bart., d.l., j.p., ii.p., Mamhead Park, 

1902 Newton Club (per B. D. Webster, Esq., Hon. Sec), Newton 

1913 New York Public Library (per Messrs. B. F. Stevens and 

Brown, 4, Trafalgar Square, London, W.C). 
1918INixon, Sidney E., Wayside, Watcombe, near Torquay. 

1908 Northcote, Gordon Stafford, Willowmead, Budleigh Salterton. 

1909 Northcote, The Rt. Hon. Lady Rosalind, Pynes, near 


1920 North Devon AthensBum, Barnstaple (per Hon. Sec). 
1915*Northmore, John, Moorfield, Lee-on-the-Solent, Hants. 
1915 Notley, Rev. J. T, B., b.a., c/o Lloyd's Bank, Totnes. 
1904 Nourse, Rev. Stanhope M., Shute Vicarage, Axminster. 

1920 Oates, Rev. John, The Haven, Cherry Cross, Totnes. 

1914 Odell, Rev. F. J., r.n., Endsleigh, Totnes, Devon (Vice- 


1918 Odell, William, m.d., f.r.c.s., Ferndale, Torquay. 
1917 Oliver, Bruce W., a.r.i.b.a., Bridge End, Barnstaple. 

1914 Openshaw, Oliver, The Grange, Kentisbury, near Barnstaple. 

1913 Paige, Henry, j.p., Broomborough, Totnes (Vice-President). 

1910 Palmer, Frederick William Morton-, m.d., m.a., b.c. (Cantab.), 

f.s.a., 13, Orchard Gardens, Teignmouth. 

1911 Pannell, Rev. A. P., Buhner Vicarage, Sudbury, Suffolk. 

1919 Parker, Oxley Durant, j.p., c.c, Sharpham, Totnes (Vice- 

1906 Parry, H. Lloyd, B.A., b.Sc, ll.b., Guildhall, Exeter. 

1912 Pastfield, John Robinson, 7, Victoria Terrace, Magdalen 

Road, Exeter. 
1908 Pateman, Arthur F., Braeside, Belle Vue Road, Exmouth. 

1902 Patey, Rev. Charles Robert, Sowton Rectory, Exeter. 

1903 Peacock, H. G., l.r.c.p., m.r.c.s., Mem. Brit. Mycol. Soc, 

Hareston Lodge, Ash Hill Road, Torquay. 

1914 Pearse, Major A. B. Rombulow, 6th Gurka Rifles, c/o Messrs. 

Cox and Co., 16, Charing Cross, London, S.W. 1. 
1901 Pearse, James, 11, Salutary Mount, Heavitree, Exeter. 

1910 Peck, Miss Charlotte L., Maidencombe House, St. Mary- 

church, Torquay. 

1911 Peek, C, j.p., The Keep, Kingswear, S. Devon. 
1882 Penzance Library, Penzance. 

1919 Perkin, Emil S., The Wilderness, Tiverton. 

1917 Perry, Francis A., 4, Kirchen Road, West Ealing, London, 

W. 13. 
1908 Peter, Claude H., Craigmore, Launceston. 

Digitized by 



1883 Petherick, J., 8, Clifton Grove, Torquay. 
1918*Phillpotts, Eden, Eltham, Torquay. 

1918 Pillar, James Elliott, Drake Circus, Plymouth. 

1912 Pinder, William Henry, Shillingford Lodge, near Exeter. 
1899 Pinkham, Colonel Charles, m.b.e., m.p., d.l., j.p., c.a., Linden 
Lodge, 7, Winchester Avenue, Brondesbury, N.W. 6. 

1919 Pinnock, Miss A., Head Mistress, Girls' Middle School, 


1918 Pitman, C. E., c.i.b., Drewton, Chelston, Torquay. 

1879 Plymouth Free Public Library, Plymouth. 

1916 Plymouth Proprietary Library, Cornwall Street, Plymouth. 

1880 Pode, J. D., j.p., Slade, Cornwood, Ivybridge. 
1892/)Pollook, Sir F., Bart., ll.d., p.s.a., etc., 21, Hyde Park 

Place, London, W. 2. 
1900*Ponsonby, Rev. Preb. Stewart Gordon, m.a., Rectory, Stoke 

Damerel, Devonport. 
1900*Pope, John, Coplestone House, Copplestone. 

1919 Powell, Alfred S., Hill Garden, Torquay. 

1909 Prance, H. Penrose, Whitchurch, Mannamead, Plymouth. 

1919 Pratt, Miss E. H., Pratshayes, Exmouth. 

1915 Prideaux, Charles S M F.R.S.M., l.d.s. Bno., Ermington, Dor- 
chester, Dorset. 

1901*Prideaux, W. de C, F.R.S.M., l.d.s. eno,, p.s.a., 12, Frederick 
Place, Weymouth. 

1918 Priestley, C. W., b.Sc., Richmond Lodge, Torquay. 
1887*Prowse, Lt.-Colonel Arthur B., r.a.m.c.(t.), m.d., p.r.o.s., 

5 t Lansdown Place, Clifton. 
1891 Prowse, W. B., l.r.o.p., m.r.c.8., 31, Vernon Terrace, 

1919 Pugsley, J. Follett, How Hill, Tiverton (Vice-President). 
1919 Purvis, John Archibald, d.Sc. p.r.s.e., 6, Pennsylvania Park, 

1919*Pyne, H. B., Northbrook, Farnham, Surrey. 
1919*Pyne, M. Taylor, Drumthwacket, Princeton, New Jersey, 


1918 Radcliffe, Alexander Nelson, Bag Park, Widecombe-in-the- 

Moor, Ashburton, and 45, Kensington Square, London, 

W. 8. 
1901 Radford, A. J. V., p.s.a., Vacye, College Road, Malvern. 
1898*Radford, Arthur L., f.s.a., The Manor House, Bradninch, 

1888 Radford, Lady, f.r.hist.s., 2, Pennsylvania Park, Exeter. 

1919 Radford, Miss Cecily, 2, Pennsylvania Park, Exeter. 

1920 Rawson, Rev. J., The Rectory, Gidleigh, Chagford. 

1916 Raymond, Miss Mildred, St. Michael's Lodge, Stoke, Ply- 

1918 Rea, C. F., b.a., b.Sc, j.p., Lake Mead, Totnes (Vice- 

Digitized by 



1915 Becord Office Library, The Public, c/o The Supt. of Publica- 

tions (Book Dept.), Stationery Office, Princes Street^ 

Westminster, London, S.W. 1. 
1896 Reed, Harbottlb, f.r.i.b.a., 12, Castle Street, Exeter. 
1912 Keed, William Henry, Thornlea, Cowley Road, Exeter. 

1919 Rees, Rev. J. J., m.a., Sampford Peverell Rectory, Tiverton. 

1920 Reeves, Francis J., j.p., Hillside, Totnes. 

1909 Reform Club, Pall Mall, London, S.W. (per Librarian). 
1885*Reichel, L. H., Beara Court, Highampton, North Devon. 
1872 Reichbl, Rev. Oswald J., B.C.L., p.s.a.^ A la Ronde, Lymp- 
stone. Devon. 

1911 Rendell, Dr., 19, Norfolk Crescent, Hyde Park, London, W. 2. 
1904*Reynell, B., Gorse Hill, 61, Albion Street, New Brighton. 
1898*Reynell-Upham, W. Upham, 4, Keat's Grove, Hampstead, 

London, N.W. 3. 

1918 Rich, W. J., 21, New North Road, Exeter. 

1919 Riding, Miss Laura, Treaslake, Stevenstone Road, Littleham v 

1914 Roberts, Herbert James, Redgate, Postbridge, Princetown, 

S. Devon. 
1906 Roberts, Rev. R. 0., East Down Rectory, Barnstaple. 
1905>Robertson, The Rt. Rev. Dr., Oxford. 

1916 Rogers, Henry J., 8, May Terrace, Plymouth. 

1917 Rogers, Inkerman, f.g.s., Inkerman House, Clovelly Road v 

1909 Rogers, R. B., Hexworthy, Lawhitton, near Launceston. 
1902*Rogers, W. H., j.p., Orleigh Court, Bideford. 
1914 Rowe, Miss Flora A. M., Wonwood, Lamerton, Tavistock. 

1912 Rowley, F. R., f.r.m.s., Royal Albert Memorial Museum,. 


1918 Royse, Rev. William Henry Harvey, r.n., Holne Vicarage, 

1899 Rudd, E. E., 18, Gladys Road, London, N.W. 6. 
1905*Rundell, Towson William, f.r.Met.Soo., Terras Hill, Lost- 

withiel, Cornwall. 
1914 Rylands Library (The), Manchester. 

1912*pST. Cyrbs, The Rt. Hon. Viscount, j.p., m.a., Pynes, near 

1898*St. Maur, Harold, d.l., j.p., Stover, Newton Abbot. 
1904 Sanders, James, j.p., c.c, 21, South Street, South Molton. 
1881*Saunders, Ernest G. Symes, m.d., 20, Ker Street, Devonport. 
1877*Saunders, George J. Symes, m.d., Lustleigh, Burlington Place, 


1918 Sayers, Rev. A. H., The Manse, North Gate, Totnes (Vice- 

1917 Scarlett, J. F., Orchard Mount, Ashburton. 

1919 Scott, Miss M. K, m.a., Broomfield, Tiverton. 

1906 Scott, S. Noy, d.p.h. lond., l.r.o.p. Lond., m.r.o.s. eno... 
Elmleigh, Plymstock. 

Digitized by 



1918 Sbarley, A. W., Northernhay, Kingskerswell. 

1906 Segar, Eichard, 64, St. Gabriel's Road, Cricklewood, 

London, N.W. 2. 
1894 Sbapland, A. E., j.p., Church House, South Molton. 

1919 Shapland, Hubert R., Bellaire, Barnstaple. 
1919 Sharland, H. B., 13, St. Peter's Street, Tiverton. 
1919 Shearman, Frank, Stoodleigh Court, Tiverton. 

1909 Sheldon, Gilbert, 39, Kirkdale, Sydenham, London, S.E. 26. 

1910 Sheldon, Miss Lilian, 39, Kirkdale, Sydenham, London, 

S.E. 26. 
1882 Shelley, Sir John, Bart., d.l., j.p., Shobrooke Park, 

1915 Shepherd, Captain E., 2, Cornwall Road, Westbourne Park, 

London, W. 11. 

1917 Shepperd, W. J., 94, Boutport Street, Barnstaple. 

1918 Sherwin, Rev. Charles, m.a., Clyst Hydon Rectory, near 

1885 Sibbald, J. G. E., Mount Pleasant, Norton S. Philip, Bath. 

1919 Siddalls, John, m.i.m., o.b., Drumore, Tiverton, N. Devon 

(Hon. Local Secretary). 

1913 Simmons, Sydney, j.p., Okehampton, Torrington Park, Friern 

Barnet, London, N. 12. 

1914 Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co., Ltd., 4, Stationers' 

Hall Court, London, E.C. 4. 

1907 Simpson, S., Cleeve, Christow, near Exeter. 

1919 Skelt, R. H., Uffculme, Cullompton. 
1902 Skinner, A. J. P., Colyton. 

1906 Skinner, Miss Emily, 21, St. Peter's Street, Tiverton (Vice- 
1914 Small, A., Taw View, 15, Pitt Hill, Appledore, N. Devon. 

1918 Smith, Mrs. C. H.,The Hey, St. Marychurch, S. Devon. 
1916JSnell, H. J., Grimston, Houndiscombe Road, Plymouth. 

1905 Snell, M. B., j.p., 5, Copthall Buildings, London, E.C. 

1909 Snell, William D., 27, Chapel Street, Stonehouse, Ply- 

1920 Soddy, Rev. T. E., Bridgetown, Totnes. 

1912 Soper, H. Tapley, p.s.a., f.r.Hmt.s., The Monastery, Waverley 
Avenue, Exeter. 

1906 Sparks, Miss Hilda Ernestine, Suffolk House, Putney Hill, 

London, S.W. 15. 

1919 Squire, H. Brimsmead, 90, Wood Street, London, E.C. 2. 
1918 Staines, A. W., 69, Union Street, Torquay. 
1868*jpStbbbing, Rev. T. R. R., m.a., p.r.s., Ephraim Lodge, The 

Common, Tunbridge Wells, Kent 

1920 Stephens, H. E., 10, Plymouth Road, Totnes. 
1900 Stiff, J. Carleton, Alfoxden, Torquay. 

1920 Stoyle, E. B., j.p., Northcote, Totnes. 

1885*Strode, George S. S., d.l., j.p., o.c, Newnham Park, 

187 5*Sulivan, Miss. 


zed by G00gk 


1896 Swansea Devonian Society (per S. T. Ifcrew), Swansea. 
1919 Sydenham, J. F., m.d., Dulverton, Devon. 

1919 Sydenham, Miss K. S. B., Dulverton, Devon. 

1899 Symonds, F. G., The Firs, Sturminster Newton, Dorset. 
1920tSymons, George, Totnes. 

1899*Tanner, C. Peile, b.a., Chawleigh Rectory, Chulmleigh. 
1890 Tavistock Public Library, Bedford Square, Tavistock. 
1900*Taylor, Alfred, f.r.g.s., The Mission House, Sehore Canton- 
ment, Central India. 

1886 Taylor, Arthur Furneaux, Ingleside, Hanwell, London, 

W. 7. 

1920 Templer, Colonel H. L., Exedene, Topsham, Devon. 

1918 Thomas, Mrs. F. S., The Old Vicarage, Holne, near Ash- 

1912 Thurgood, Ernest Charles, Beverley, Dagmar Road, Exmouth. 

1918 Tidman, Arthur, m.a., 2, Ashburne Villas, Kent's Road, 

1903 Tindall, J., Marino, Sidmouth. 

1920 Tingey, m.a., p.s.a., Valetta, Kent's Road, Torquay. 

1906 Toley, Albert, Devonia, The Grove, Hanwell, W. 7. 

1908 Torquay Public Library, Torquay. 

1918 Tracey, Miss B., The Fair Park, Chudleigh, Devon. 

1908 Treglohan, William Thomas, b.a., Conington, Clarendon Road,. 

Watford, Herts. 
1902 Trelawny-Ross, Rev. J. T., d.d., Ham, near Devonport. 

1919 Treliving, Norman, Central Library, Leeds. 

1918 Trethewy, A. W., 11, Brandize Park, Okehampton. 
1902*Trist, Pendarves, Harbertonford, Totnes. 

1887 Troup, Mrs. Frances Rose-, Bradlegh End, Ottery St. Mary. 
1876 Tucker, Major R. C, j.p., c.a., The Hall, Ashburton (Hon. 


1920 Tucker, Edward M., Mount Pleasant, Totnes. 

1910 Tuker, Miss M. A. R., Birdcombe Court, Wraxall, Som. 

1905 Turner, Alfred, m.d., Plympton House, Plympton. 

1906 Turner, C. S., Kelbuie, Westbourne Terrace, Budleigh 

1918 Turner, Joseph H., The Elms, High Road, Willesden, 

London, N.W. 10. 
1912 Turner, Mrs. Richard, 2, St. Germans, Exeter. 

1911 Ulyat, William Francis, Port Meadow, Totnes (Vice-Presi- 

1916 Upham, Samuel Victor, Emscote, Fortescue Road, Preston, 

1881 Varwell, H. B., j.p., Sittaford, West Avenue, Exeter. 

1912 Veitch, Peter C. M., j.p., Elm Grove House, Exeter. 
1884 Vicary, W., j.p., The Knoll, Newton Abbot. 
1902*Vidal, Edwin Sealy, 32, Sticklepath, Barnstaple. 


zed by G00gk 


1916 Wainwright, Mrs., Courtenay Lodge, Petitor Road, St. Mary- 

church, Torquay. 

1917 Wainwright, Miss Maud, Badge worth Court, near Chel- 


1907 Wall, Mrs., Fairlight, St. Marychurch, Torquay. 

1916 Walling, K. A. J., j.p., Western Daily Mercury, Ply- 
1895 Walpole, Spencer C, Church Farm House, Lancing, Sussex. 

1918 Ward, Arthur E., 9, Higher Summerlands, Exeter. 
1916 Ward, Thomas, 44, Headland Park, Plymouth. 
1908pWatkin, Hugh R., Chelston Hall, Chelston, Torquay (Vice- 

1920JWatson, R. H., d.l., j.p., Brookfield, Totnes (Vice-President). 
1900 Watts, Mrs. R. I., Greenbank, Yelverton, S. Devon. 

1908 Waymouth, Cecil, 33, Park Road, St. Marychurch, Torquay. 
1900*Wbekes, Miss Lega-, f.r.hist.8., Varnello, Topsham Road, 

1911 Wellacott, Rev. Thomas William, m.a., The Vicarage, 

1911 Wells, Lionel Bury, Carberry, Salcombe, Kingsbridge. 

1915 Westlake, W. N., Hollacombe, West Avenue, Exeter. 
1920 Whipham, Thomas, m.d., St. Loye's House, Exeter. 

1872| Whitaker, W., b.a., f.r.s., p.g.s., Assoc. Inst. C.E., F. San. 
Inst., 3, Campden Road, Croydon. 

1920 White, Dr. Harold E., Ridgecote, Totnes. 

1893 White, T. Jeston, 39, Burne Street, London, N.W. 

1897 Whitley, H. Michell, m.inst.c.e., Broadway Court, West- 
minster, London, S.W. 1 (Vice-President). 

1920 Widger, George H., Borough Surveyor, Totnes. 

1883*Willcocks, A. D., m.r.c.s., Park Street, Taunton. 

1918*Willcocks, Lieut. R.E., 9, Rodway Road, Roehampton, 
London, S.W. 15. 

1918*Willcocks, Lieut. Roger Hussey, r.f.a., 4, College Hill, 
Cannon Street, London, E.C. 4. 

1876*Willcocks, W. K., M.A., 12, Lansdowne Crescent, London, 
W. 11. 

1912*Willey, Mrs. Emilie L., Pennsylvania Park, Exeter. 

1913 Williams-Lyouns, H. F., The Knowle, Kingsbridge, Devon. 

1920 Williams, Lionel M., Buckfastleigh, Devon. 

1912 Wills, Sir E. Chaning, Bart., m.a., p.c.s., Harcombe, 

Chudleigh, S. Devon. 
1911 Wilson, A. H., Sandridge Park, near Totnes. 
1920 Wilton, Sir Thomas, j.p., Hawarden, Dartmouth. 

1916 Wimbush, Mrs., Altamira, Topsham, Devon. 
1875*pWindeatt, Edward, j.p., c.a., Heckwood, Totnes (Presi- 

1920 Windeatt, Lt.-Col. F. K., t.d., Elmfield, Totnes (Vice- 

1896*Windeatt, Major George E., o.b.e., t.d., Totnes (Hon. 
General and Local Secretary). 

Digitized by 



1920jWindeatt, Mrs. T. W., Clifton Villa, Totnes. 

1896 Winget, W., Glen Almond, Cockington, Torquay. 
1872*Winwood, Rev. H. H., M.A., p.q.s., 11, Cavendish Crescent, 


1884*Woodhouse, H. B. S., 7, St. Lawrence Road, Plymouth. 

1896*Woodley, R. W., Place, Ashburton. 

1920 Woods, R. M., The White House, Beer, Seaton, S. Devon. 

1907 Woollcombe, Rev. A. A., Leusdon Vicarage, near Ashburton. 

1920 Woollcombe, Louis A. W., Leusdon Vicarage, near Ash- 

1904 Woollcombe, Gerald D., Cranmere, Newton Abbot 

1916 Woollcombe, J. Y.j 6, Queen's Gate, Plymouth. 

31901 Woollcombe, Robert Lloyd, m.a., ll.d., f.i.inst., f.r.g.8., 
F.R.E.S., f.s.s., 14, Waterloo Road, Dublin. 

1891*Worth, R. Hansford, mem.inot.c.e., f.g.s., 32, Thornhill Road, 

1919 Worthington, Rev. Joseph, m.a., St. Denis, Avenue Road, 

1919 Wynne, A. E., m.a., Old Blundells, Tiverton (Vice-Presi- 

1919 Wynne, Mrs. A. E., Old Blundells, Tiverton. 

1897 Yacht Club, The Royal Western, The Hoe, Plymouth. 
1910 Yale University Library, New Haven, U.S.A., per Messrs. 

Edward G. Allen and Son, 14, Grape Street, Shaftesbury 

Avenue, London, W.C. 2. 
1900*Yeo, Miss Mary E. J., Holsworthy, Rossi Street, Yass, New 

South Wales. 
1900 Yeo, W. Curzon, 10, Beaumont Avenue, Richmond, Surrey. 
1895 Young, E. H., m.d., Darley House, Okehampton. 

The following Table contains a Summary of the foregoing lift. 

Honorary Members . . . 1 

Life Members . . . . . 89 

Annual Members . . ... 516 

Total . . . . 606 


zed by G00gk 


-Abbreviations used. — Bot. = Botany ; Dipt.=Diptera ; obit. = obituary. 

Abbey : Torre, 156 
Abbot : Dud, 308 
Abbotsford, 196 
Accounts, Statement of, 20, 21 
Acland: Sir Henry, 207-9, 214, 
219 ; visits Canada, 216 ; United 
States, 216, 219 ; Egypt and the 
Holy Land, 220 ; his Honours 
and Distinctions, 210, 211, 219, 
220 ; his character, 221 ; his 
writings : on The Plains of Troy, 
208 ; A Memoir of the Cholera 
at Oxford in the year 1854 with 
considerations suggested by the 
Epidemic, 212 ; Drainage of the 
Upper Thames Valley, 212 ; Mis- 
cellaneous Works by, 212 ; Mrs. 
Henry, 218; Herbert, 218; 
Sarah, 211; Sir Thomas, 208; 
Admiral Sir William, 220 
Acland, Sir Henry Wentworth 

(Julian), 207 
Adams, Dr. George, 45 ; Harriet 

Mary, 45 ; Maxwell, 30 
Adelung, 199 
Agriculture, Board of, 36 
Albert, Prince Consort, 213 
Aldhelm (705), 296, 297, 299, 302 
Alexander, Emperor of Russia, 195 
Alexander, J. J., on When the 
Saxons came to Devon, Part II. , 
Alexandria, 228, 229 
Alfred (871-901), 29, 304, 306 : Census List of, 272 ; 
Freshwater, 123, 124; The 
Freshwater Algas of Devonshire 
(Harris), 263 ; (Parfitt), 263 ; 
Lists of : in Flora Devoniensis, 
264 ; in Journ. Royal Micro- 
scopical Soc, 264 ; in Victoria 
County Hist. Devon, 265 ; in 
Journ. Quekett Microscopical 
Club, 265 ; in Trans. Torquay 

Nat. Hist. Soc., 265; Alg® of 

Hampshire, 264; of South of 

England, 264 
Alger, W. H., 37 
Algiers: 225-30, 232, 234; Dey 

of, 227 ; Slaves in, 225 
Alison, Dr., 210 
Allen, Dr. E. J., 29 
Alphington, 100 
Amery, Fabyan, 207 
Amisius de Bruges, 361 
Anderson, Rev. J. K., 38 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicles (892-1154), 

Annals of St. Neots, 304 
Anonymus Ravennas Geographus 

(7th Century), 297 
Anthony, 316, 317; Church of, 

Antiquaries, Society of, 40, 46 
Apprentice Indentures, 31 ; Salmon 

Clause in, 31 
Arbuthnot : Archibald F., 42 ; 

Fanny, 42 
Archaeological Society of Wilts, 41 
Archdeacon: Cecilia, 318; Cicely, 

323; Elinor, 315; Elizabeth, 

312, 313-15; her WiU, 314, 

315 ; Henry, 318, 319 ; Isabella, 

311 ; Joan, 317 ; John, 311, 312, 
317, 319, 323, 324, 326; Sir 
John, 310-12, 316, 318, 322; 
Johanna, 316 ; Margery, 315 ; 
Martin, 311, 318, 319, 321 ; his 
career, 320 ; his WiU, 321 ; 
Matilda, 318 ; Michael, 311, 319, 
321; Odo, 311, 326; Philippe, 

312 ; Ralph, 311, 312 ; Reginald, 
311, 312; Richard,. 311, 316, 
31 7 ; Robert, 311, 319 ; Stephen, 
311, 312 ; Thomas, 316-19, 326 ; 
Warren, Warin, 310-15, 317; 
his possessions, 313, 314 ; Family 
of, 310 ; Arms of, 311 

1 The Editor gratefully acknowledges the kind assistance of Mr. J. A. 
Cumming, i.c.s., and of Major M. C. Brotherton in the preparation of 
this Index. 

VOL. LH. 2 B 

Digitized by 




Archdeken, Archdekne. See Arch- 
Archpriest, Status of, 326 
Armada Belie, An (Windeatt), 155 
Armorials: Archdeacon, 311; 
Boson, 316 ; Carew, 311 ; Davie, 

91 ; England, 311 ; France, 311 ; 
Haccombe, 311 ; Hall, 121 ; 
Lamplugh, 9& ; Lucy, 315 ; 
Nonant, 311 ; Pomeroy of Biry, 
311 ; Redvers, 311 ; Trelawney, 

92 ; Tuckfield, 95 

Arrow, The (ship) : 200 ; Chinese 

outrage on, 200, 201 
Arundell : Margaret, 316; Mar- 
gery, 315, 316, 318, 321 ; Sir 

Thomas, 315, 318 
Ashburton : 35 ; Churchwardens' 

Accounts, 360 
Ashcombe, 101 
Ashford, 327, 330 
Ashley, Anthony, 156 
Ashton, 102 
AsilidcB (Dipt.), 352 ; Bombyledce 

(Dipt.), 336 
Asser (893), 297, 299, 302 
Astronomy : The Hill Observatory, 

Salcombe Regis (Lockyer), 289 ; 

Royal Astronomical Society, 292 
Athelard: 307, 309; Charter of, 

Athelstan, 306 
Athenaeum, 59 
Avery : Captain, 224 ; John, 99, 

Axe, Book of the (Pulman), 46 
Ayshford, Roger de, 364 

Baba Hassan, 227 

Back-house or slee house, 168 

Bncklet, 165 

Baldred, 307 

Balliol Coll., Oxford, 42 

Bardsley's Dictionary of English 

English Surnames, 287 
Baredown : Clapper Bridge, 34, 35 ; 

Man, 34 
Baring-Gould, Rev. S., 37^0 ; on 

A Lost Lake, 152 
Barnard : Elizabeth, 121 ; Rev. 

Manister, 121 
Barnard, Messrs. (Goldsmiths). 86. 

88-91, 93-5, 97, 101, 105-07, 

116, 117, 119, 120 
Barn Hill, Barrow on, 79 
Barnstaple : 57, 204 ; D. A. 

Meeting at in 1867, 204 ; Stone, 

50, 56 
Barnstaple Records (Chanter and 

Wain wright), 57 

Barrow, John, 46 

B arrows : 39th Report of the- 
Committee on, 78 ; on Whit- 
church Common, 79 ; on Barn 
Hill, 79 

Bartema, Ludovico de, 223 

Bartlett, Jolin, 49 

Barton, description of, 1 62, 1 64 

Bateman : Ann, 95, 108, 109 ; 
Hester, 85 ; Peter, 95, 108, 109,. 
Ill ; W., Ill 

Batracho8pemum atrum (Dillw,. 
Herr. (Bot.), 271 

Battishill, W. J., 365 

Battling Stone (Darlington)/ 55 

Baverstoke (Wilts.), 46 

Bayley, Richard, 121 

Beale, Prof., 213 

Beaverbrook, 154 

Becky Fall, 193 

Bede, 304, 306 

Beechcombe, 153 

Bellew : Frances, 94 ; Mary Anne, 94 

Bennett, A. W., The Freshwater 
Algce, etc., of Hampshire and 
Devonshire, 264 

Bentham, Jeremy, 195, 198 

Berry Narbor, 327-30 

Beiry Pomeroy: 31, 348; Castle, 
31, 32 ; Church, 1 ; E. Win- 
deatt on, 31 

Beveridge, 154 

Beverley, 154 

Bibionidae (Dipt.), 339 

Bibliography : of Joseph Pitts, 
237, 238 ; Fifth Report of Com- 
mittee on, 130 

Bishop, M., 234 ; Philip, 234 

Bishops : Brantingham, 362 ; Lord 
William Cecil of Exeter, 365 
Daniel of Winchester, 308 
Forthere of Sherborne, 308 
Joseph Hall of Exeter, 224 
Temple of Exeter, 204 ; Wilber- 
force of Oxford, 213 

Bishopsteignton, 41 ; see also 
Teignton Bishop 

Blake, Thomas, 82, 87, 102 

Bodmin, 360 

Bodley, Sir Thomas (Bowring), 205 

Bolitho, Thomas, 110 

Bolton : 199 ; Sir John Bowring, 
Member of Parliament for, 199 

Bombylidce (Dipt.), 351 

Bond, Peter Gillard (obit.), 36 

Book of the Axe (Pulman), 46 

Boson, Bosowr : Sir John, 316 ; 
Johanna, 316 ; Arms of, 316 

Botanical Districts : Barnstaple, 
122 ; Torrington, 124 ; South 

Digitized by 




Molton, 124 ; Exeter, 124 ; Honi- 
ton, 125 ; Torquay, 125 ; Tavis- 
tock, 129; Plymouth, 128 

Botany : 12th Report of the Com- 
mittee on, 122 

Botryococcu8 Braunii, Kiitz. (Bot.), 

Boveyheathfield, 154 

Bovey Tracey : 34, 217; Stone, 

Bow, 82 

Bower, James W., 119 

Bowring : Charles, 193 ; Deborah, 
201 ; Edgar, 204, 205 ; M.P. for 
Exeter, 204 ; Sir John, 200-02 ; 
his character, 206 ; his Honours 
and Distinctions, 206 ; Lady, 
192, 202 ; Lewin, 192, 205 

Bowring : Sir John, Matins and 
Vespers, 196 ; Servian Anthology, 
196 ; Poetry of the Magyars, 196 ; 
Specimens of Russian Poets, 1 95 ; 
on Ancient Exeter and its trade, 
205 ; Fables and Fabulists in ! 
connection with John Qay, 205 ; on 
Sir Thomas Bodley, 205 

Bowring, Sir John, First President 
of the Devonshire Association 
(Julian), 192 

Bowringsleigh, 193 

Bradford, Mary, 91 

Bradninch, Hist, of (Croslegh), 365 

Bramford Speke, 83 

Brantingham, Bishop, 362 

Bray, Rev. E. Atkyns, 38 

Breton, Rev. H. H., 79 

Brew-house, 165 

Brice, Andrew, 236 

Bridford, 102 

Brighton : 205 ; B.A. Meeting at, 

Brimley House, Teignmouth, 43 

Brockedon, William (artist), 55 

Brodie, Sir James, 213 

Bronze Age in Devon, 294 

Brooking-Rowe, J., 207 

Brown : Rev. Charles, on the 
Records of Whitstone, 62 ; Rev. 
Wilse, 62, 63 • 

Brown : Robert, 96 ; Adventures oj 
Thomas Pellow of Penryn, 229, 

Brunei's Atmospheric Railway, 44 

Brushfield : Dr. T. 31 ; Life of 
Andrew Brice, 234 

" Brutus' Stone," Totnes : 48, 49, 
59, 60 ; King's Proclamations 
read from, 49 

Brutus, the Trojan, 49, 53, 60 

Brythons in Devon, 294, 296 

Buckingham, Rev. F. F., 108 

Buckland, Dean, 209 

Buckland-in-the-Moor, 310 

Buhner Stone (Darlington), 55 

Buhner, William, 55 

Burdon, John, 104 

Burmington (Warwicks), 47 

Burnard and Alger, Messrs., 40 

Burnard : Charles Frederick, 37 ; 
Major Charles, 40 ; Fanny 
Louise, 36, 37, 40 (obit.), 36; 
Lawrence, 40; Robert, 36 (obit.), 
37, 78 ; Hon. Gen. Secretary 
D.A., 40; President, 40; on 
Dartmoor (Presidential Address) ; 
Reports of the Dartmoor Explora- 
tion Committee, 38, 39 ; Dart- 
moor Stone Implements and 
Weapons, 39, 40 ; News from the 
West, 40 ; Notes on Dartmoor 
Kistvaens, 40 ; The Great Central 
Trackway — Dartmoor, 40 ; The 
Ancient Population of Dartmoor, 
40 ; on Grimspound, 38 ; on 
Recent Dredging in Cattewater, 
38; on The Track of the Old Men, 
Dartmoor, 38 ; on The Explora- 
tion of the Hut Circles in Broadun 
Ring, 38 ; Dartmoor Records, 39 ; 
on Plundered Dartmoor, 39 ; on 
A Dreamer of Ancient Egypt — 
Akenaton, 40 ; Crafts and Cus- 
toms of Ancient Egypt, 40 

Burnard, Lack and Alger, Messrs., 

Burrington, 333 

Burton, Sir Richard, 228, 236 

Bye -Laws, 16 

Byne, Thomas, 117 

Byrom, Edward, 111 

Cadbury, 84 

Ccelastrum reticulatum (Dang. ) 

Senn. (Bot.), 270 
Cairo, 228, 229 
Caldecott, William, 118 
Cambridge : Emmanuel College, 

63 ; St. John's College, 45, 47 ; 

Trinity College, 46 ; University 

Observatory, 292 
Camden, his Remains concerning 

Britain, 287 
Campbell-Bannerman, Sir Henry, 

Canton, 200 
Carew : Alexander, 316; Bamp- 

fylde -Moore, 224 ; Sir Henry, 

311; Joan, 316; Sir Nicholas, 

316 ; Richard, 316 ; Arms of, 



zed by G00gk 



Carlyon, Edmund, 56 

Cam Br&, 39 

Carpenter : Dr., 219 ; Dr. Lant, 

Cart-linhay, 165 

Cartwright, Dr., 43 

Cary: George, 165, 156; letter 
from, 156 ; Robert, 316 

€assls, 224 

€astle, Deborah, 201 

Castleman, R., 31 

Castles : Berry Pomeroy, 31, 32 ; 
Cranbrook, 193 ; Uton, 156 ; 
Totnes, 30, 32 

€attedown, 37 

Cattewater Harbour Commission, 

Cave men in Devon, 293 

Cavour, 198 

Ceadwalla, 305, 307 » 

€eawlin, 306 

Cecidomyidoe (Dipt.), 337 

Cecil, Lord Robert (Marquis of 
Salisbury), 212 

Celts in Devon : 294 ; Celts of the 
Bronze Age, 294 ; of the Iron 
Age, 294 

Centwine, 307 

Ceolred of Mercia, 307 

€eolric, 306 

Ceolwulf, 306 

Ceratopogon (Culicoides) pulioaris 
(Dipt.), 336 

Cerita, 229 

Chaddesley Corbett (Worcester), 47 

Chadwick, J., 121 

Chalices : Elizabethan, Ash- 
combe, 99, 101 ; Bramford 
Speke, 81 ; Cheriton Bishop, 99, 
103 ; Cadbury, 81, 84 ; Down 
St. Mary, 81, 87 ; Dunchideock, 
99, 108; Kenton, 99, 113; 
Sandford, 81, 91 ; Shillingford, 
99, 116 ; Shobrooke, 81, 92 ; 
Spreyton, 81, 93; Stockleigh 
Pomeroy, 81, 94 ; Thoverton, 
81, 94 ; Whitstone, 99, 121 : 
Upton Helions, 81 

Chalk, Rev. E. S., 47 

Champernowne, Arthur, 207 

Chanter, Rev. J. F., llth Report of 
the Committee on Church Plate, 80 

Chanter, J. R., History of Lundy 
Island, 224 

Chanter and Wainwright, Barn- 
staple Records, 57 

Chapel, Benjamin, 232 

Chardstock Church, 46 

Charters : of Athelhard, 308 ; 
Crawford Collection, 308 

Cheney, William, 107 

Cheriton Bishop, 103 

Cheriton Fitzpaine, 85 

Childe's Tomb, 34, 35 

Chironomidai (Dipt.), 340 

Chlorophycece (Bot.), 273 

Cholake, 34 

Chope, R. Pearse, 63, 166, 167, 
1 77 ; on Some old Farm Imple- 
ments and Operations, 159 

Christow, 104, 327, 329 

Chronology, A Wessex, 303 

Churches : Anthony, 315 ; Berry 
Pomeroy, 31 ; Chardstock, 46 ; 
Escot, 42 ; Exeter Holy Trinity, 
361 ; Haccombe, 310, 324, 325 ; 
Harberton, 32 ; Hartland, 177 ; 
Heavitree, 361 ; St. Mellion, 
361 ; Totnes, 360 ; Ugborough, 
360; Wolborough, 36; Estab- 
lishment of, 241 ; in Canterbury, 
241 ; London, 241 ; Rochester, 
241 ; York, 241 ; Dorchester 
(Oxfordsh.), 241 ; Winchester, 
241 ; Collegiate : Wimborne, 
241 ; Axminster, 241 ; Ex- 
minster, 241 

Church Missionary Society, 42 

Church Plate : Wth Report of 
the Committee on, 80 ; Rural 
Deanery of Cadbury, 80 ; Bow 
als Nymet Tracy with Brod 
Nymet, 82 ; Bramford Speke, 
83 ; Cadbury, 84 ; Cheriton 
Fitzpaine, 85 ; Clannaborough, 
85 ; Colebrook, 86 ; Crediton, 
86 ; St. Luke's, Posbury, 87 ; 
Down St. Mary, 87 ; Hittisleigh, 
88 ; Kennerleigh, 88 ; Morchard 
Bishop, 89 ; Newton St. Cyres, 
90 ; Poughill, 90 ; Sandford, 91 ; 
Shobrooke, 92 ; Spreyton,- 93 ; 
Stockleigh English, 93; Stock- 
leigh Pomeroy, 94 ; Thoverton, 
94 ; St. John's, Thoverton, 96 ; 
Upton Pyne, 96; Woolfardis- 
worthy, E., 97 ; Deanery of 
Kenn, 80, 98 ; Alphington, 100 ; 
Ashcombe, 101 ; Ashton, 102 ; 
Bridford, 102 ; Cheriton Bishop, 
103 ; Christow, 104 ; Cofton, 
104 ; Dawlish, 105 ; St. Mark's, 
Dawlish, 106 ; Doddiscombs- 
leigh, 107 ; Dunchideock, 108 ; 
Dunsford, 108 ; Exminster, 109 ; 
Holcombe Burnell, 110; Ide, 
111 ; Kenn, 112 ; Kenton, 113 ; 
Luton, 114 ; Mamhead, 115 ; 
Powderham, 115; Shillingford, 
116; Starcross, 116; Tedburn 

Digitized by 




St. Mary, 117 ; Teignmouth, 
East, 118; Teignmouth, West, 
119; Teignton Bishop, 120; 
Whitstone, 121 

Churchwardens* Accounts : Ash- 
burton, 360 ; Whitstone, 63 

Churchwardens* Accounts (Cox), 360 

Clannaborough, 85 

Clare, Joseph, 107 110 

Clarke, Miss K. M., The Baptismal 
Fonts of Devon, Pt. VII, 327 

Claudius Ptolemaius, 297, 299 

Clement {alias Fishe), John, 365 

Clifton (Yorks.), 46 

Climate : 3&A. Report (3rd Series) 
of the Committee on, 135 ; Com- 
parative Statement for 1919, 
136 ; List of Observing Stations 
and of Observers, 137 ; Statistics, 
139 ; Summary, 151 

Clotaire II, 360 

Cob Cottages for the Twentieth Cen- 
tury (Joce), 182 

Cob-walling, 179 

Cockington, 156 

Coffin, Thomas, 84, 104 

Comnswell, 315 

Cofton, 104 

Colchester, 231 

Colebrook, 86 

Coleridge : The Lord, 58 ; Sir John 
Taylor, 95 

Coles, Lawrence, 118 

Collier : Ellen, 45 ; John, 45 

Collingwood, Lord, 193 

Collyn, William, 105 

Committees : List of, 25-7 

Compton, Lord Alwyne, 310, 311 

Comyns, Rev. R. George, 107 

Conesby, John, 87 

Coote, General Sir l£yre, 41 

Cope, Sir Arthur, 219 

Cornish, John, 49 ; his MS. History 
of Totnes] 50 

Cornwallis, The Marquis, 41 

Coronation Stone : 53 ; Kingston- 
on-Thames, 54 ; Westminster 
Abbey, 50 

Cory and Son, Messrs. William, 45 

Coryton, W., 36 

Coryton Station, 152, 153 

Cotton : Sarah, 211 ; W., 55 ; his 
Graphic and Historical Sketch of 
Totnes, 49 

Council : Members of, 8 ; Report 
of, 22 

Courtenay, The Hon. Charles, 209 ; 
Sir Hugh, 312, 315, 317 ; Joan, 
316; Philip, 318; Philippa, 
315-17; Philippe, 312 

CourUedge, explanation of, 164 

Cowley Bridge, Exeter, 44 

Cowsic River : 35 ; inscribed stones 

near, 35 
Cox, Dr., Churchwardens' Accounts, 

Cranbrook Castle, 193 
Crediton, 86, 308 
Cresswell, Miss B., 311 
Crockern Tor, 34 

Croslegh's History ofBradninch, 365 
Crouch, John, 109 
Culex pvpiens (Dipt.), 336 
CulicidcB (Dipt.), 342 
Culver-house, 166 
Cuthred (741), 304, 308, 309 
Cuvier, 194 
Cynewulf, 306 
Cyrtidce (Dipt.), 351 

Dagobert, 360 

Damnonica, Domnonica, Dom- 
nania: 296, 297 ; various spellings 
of the name, 296 

Damnonii, Dumniones, 297 

Daniel, bp. of Winchester, 308 

Darlington Stone, 50, 54, 56 

Dartmeet, 35 

Dabtmoob : 38, 39, 193 ; Com- 
mons, 34 ; excursion to, 34 ; 
Forest, 34 ; Hounds, 36 ; Track- 
ways, 35 ; Presidential Address 
by R. Burnard, 40 ; Preservation 
Association, 39 ; proposed in- 
corporation of Hydro-Electric 
Supply Company, 22 ; Col. A. B. 
Prowse on, 34 ; Reports of the 
Exploration Committee (Burnard), 
39 ; Stone Implements and 
Weapons (Burnard), 39, 40 ; 
Kistvaens (Burnard), 40 ; The 
Great Central Trackway (Bur- 
nard), 40 ; The Ancient Popu- 
lation of (Burnard), 40 ; Records 
(Burnard), 39 

Dart, River, 58 

Dartmouth, 40 

Darwin's Origin of Species, 213 

Daubeney, Dr. C, 212, 214 

Davene, Davenescire, Davenescyre, 
Davenscyre, 297 

Davie : Sir John, 81, 92, 96 ; 
Lady, 81, 96 ; Margaret, 91 ; 
Sir William, 92 ; Arms of, 91 

Davis, John, 60 

Davis Straits, 60 

Davy, Gylbert, 81 

Dawlish : 105, 181 ; St. Marks, 

Defena, 297 


zed by G00gk 



Defenan, 297 

Defenanscire, 297 

Defna, Defena, 297 

Defnascire, 297 

Denshire, Devenescire, Devynshire, 

Derby : 361 ; Earl of, 212, 213 
Desmidiacece (Bot.), 275 
Desmidium cylindricum Grev. (Bot. ) 

Devil's Gully (Dartmoor): 35; 

Tor, 34 
Devon : A List of the Diptera of 

(Yerbury), 336 
Devon : Early Inhabitants of, 

293 ; Ancient name of, 206 ; 

Phonology of the Name, 298 ; 

Chronology, 303 ; Wars of Ine, 

306 ; Charter of Athelard, 308 ; 

Cave men in, 293 ; Hut men in, 

293 ; Goidels in, 294 ; Brythons 

in, 294 ; Romans in, 294 
Devon Farm-house, The old (Lay- 

cock), 158 
Devon, Hugh, E. of, 205, 312 
Diptera of Devon, A List of (Yer- 
bury), 336 
Disraeli, Benjamin, 200 
Dixidae (Dipt.), 343 
Doddiscombsleigh, 107 
Dolichopodidoe (Dipt.), 353 
Domnania, Domnonia, 296, 297 
Donald, Major-General Colin 

George, 365 
Double Waters (Dartmoor), 35 
Doumnonioi, 297 
Down St. Mary, 87 
Downman, William, 84 
Dowsing, 166 
Drake, Sir Francis, 60 
Dreadnought, H.M.S., 231 
Dud, Abbot, 308 
Duloe, 152 
Dumnonii, 296, 297 
Dunchideock, 108 
Dundridge : 32 ; Garden Party at, 

Dunsford, 108 
Duntze, Sir J. L., 117 
Dymaint, 297 
Dymond : Robert, 155 ; note by, 

Dyson, Sir Frank, W., 292 

Earle, Archdeacon (bp. of Marl- 
borough), 203, 207 

East India Company, 41 

East, John, 116 

Ecclesiastical Antiquities (Oliver), 

Edinburgh Cross : 52 ; Stone, 52 

Eddington, Prof. A. S., 292 

Edmund I, 306 

Edred, 306 

Edward the Elder : 306 ; I, 54 ; 
in, 312; Vn, 42, 49 

Edward, Prince of Wales, at 
Oxford, 215 ; Dr. Henry Acland 
his medical adviser, 216 

Egbert (800-36), 304, 306 

Egfrith (Reeve), 308 

Egwald, 307 

Egypt : A Dreamer of Ancient 
Egypt — Akenaton (Burnard), 40 ; 
Crafts and Customs of (Burnard), 

Elba, Island, 49 

Ellis, H. S., 205 ' 

Elliot, E. A. S., 31 ; on the Migra- 
tion of Salmon in the Rivers Avon 
and Erme, 31, 276 

Elston: John, 101, 102, 110, 114, 
115, 120; John (jr.), 113; 
Philip, 107, 110 

Ernes, R., 89, 106, 116, 117, 119 

Emmanuel Coll., Cambridge, 63 

Empididce (Dipt.), 356 

England, Arms of, 311 

Enys, J. D., 39 

Erchdekne. See Archdeacon 

Escot : 42 ; Church, 42 

Eston, C, 81, 84 

Ethelbald, of Mercia, 307 

Ethelburg, Queen, 307 

Ethelwerd (c. 994), 297, 301, 304 

Exe-Bridge, 362 

Exeter : 22, 28, 44, 47, 58, 181, 
192, 202, 232; Lord William 
Cecil, bp. of, 365 ; Cathedral, 
310 ; Holy Trinity Church, 361 ; 
Cowley Bridge, 44 ; Dean of, 30 ; 
Grammar School, 43 ; proposed 
history of, 28 ; first meeting of 
D.A. at, 202 ; Ancient Exeter and 
its Trade (Bowring), 205 ; An- 
tiquities of (Izacke), 226 ; History 
of (Jenkins), 362 ; Suburbs of 
(Worthy), 363 

Exminster, 109 

Exmouth, 46 

Eydes, John, 100, 109 

Fables and Fabulists in connection 
with John Oay (Bowring), 205 

Falkener, Sir William, 231, 232 

Faraday, Michael, 213 

Farley, Samuel, 234 

Farm-house, Glossary of terms 
used, 186 

Digitized by 




Farm implements, various kinds of, 

Farnham (Dorset), 47 

Fawdrey, John, 87 

Feoffees : Accounts, 362 ; Abstract 
of Title of the, 364 

Ferris : George, 111 ; Richard, 56 

Finch : Charles, 47 ; Mary, 47 

Fir Domnann (Domnann men), 
298, 302 

Florence of Worcester (ob. 1118), 
297, 304 

Flower, William, 215, 

Fonts : Berry Narbor, 328 ; Ilfra- 
combe, 328 ; Christow, 329 
West Down, 330 ; Ashford, 330 
Molland, 331 ; Halberton, 331 
Wear Gifford, 332 ; Merton, 332 
Burrington, 333 ; Netherexe, 
333; Stoke St. Nectan, 333 
Dimensions of, 335 

Fonts, Baptismal, of Devon (Clarke), 

Forthere, bp. of Sherborne, 308 

Foster, Dr. Michael, 219 

Fowler, Prof. A., 292 

Fowlhouse, 165 

France, Arms of, 311 

Frankfort, 231 

Franzen (Russian poet), 194 

Freeman, E. A., 28 

Freke, Rev. R., 85 

French, George, 38 

Fleure, Dr., 60 

Foulkes, Rev. Peter, 103, 104 

Foxcombe, 153 

Frithogyth, Queen, 308 

Fungi, 123-5, 127, 129 

•Gardiner : Sarah, 120 ; Henry, 
120 ; Mary, 120 ; Lucy, 120 

Garibaldi, 198 

Geoffrey of Monmouth, 48, 58, 60 

George: IV, 44 ; V, 49 

Gervais, William, 362 

Gerunt, 306 

Gibbon, Edward, 236 

Gildas (c. 545), 296, 297, 299, 302 

Gladstone, W. E., 37, 212, 220 

Glandfeilde, William, 364 

Glossary of farm-house terms, 186 

Goidels in Devon, 294, 296 

-Goldsmiths : Avery, John, 99, 
102 ; Messrs. Barnard, 86, 88- 
91, 93-5, 97, 101, 105-7, 116, 
117, 119, 120; Bateman: Ann, 
95, 108, 109 ; Hester, 85 ; Peter, 
95, 108, 109, 111 ; W., Ill; 
Bayley, Richard, 121 ; Blake, 
Thomas, 82, 87, 102; Brown, 

Robert, 96 ; Burdon, John, 104 
Byne, Thomas, 117 ; Caldecott. 
William, 118; Chadwick, J. 
121; Clare, Joseph, 107, 110 
Coffin, Thomas, 84, 104 ; Coles, 
Lawrence, 118; Crouch, John, 

109 ; East, John, 116 ; Elston 
John, 101, 102, 110, 114, 115, 
120; John (jr.), 113; Philip, 
107, 110 ; Ernes, R., 89, 106, 116 ; 
117, 119; Eston, C, 81, 84 
Eydes, John, 100, 109 ; Fawdrey. 
John, 87 ; Ferris, George, 111 
Hannam, Thomas, 109 ; Hen 
nell: R., 85; Samuel, 91 
Herman, Ralph, 81, 83 ; Hilliard 
Richard, 83 ; Hole, Edward, 115 
Jay, Edward, 118; Jennings, 
Edward, 90 ; Jones, John, 81 
87, 91-5, 99, 103, 104, 114, 116 
121 ; Keene, David, 105 ; Keith ; 
John, 113 ; La vers, John, 99. 

110 ; Lingard, John, 94 ; Parr, 
Sarah, 90; Parry, W., 89, 117 
Pyne, Benjamin, 115 ; Rew. 
Robert, 84 ; Richards, Edward. 
102 ; Salter, Thomas, 97 ; Samp 
son, Thomas, 103 ; Sleath, Gab 
riel, 103 ; Smith : B., 119 
Edward, 119; Stephen, 86 
Sharp, J., 119; Stone, John, 

111 ; Strang, James, 84 
Symons, P., 102 ; Terry, F., 9& 
112; Tweedie, Walter, 117 
Whipham, T., 90, 92, 101 
Wippell, J., 117, 118; Wright, 
C, 90, 101 ; English Goldsmiths 
and their marks (Jackson), 81 

Gomme, Sir Lawrence, 53 ; his 
Governance of London, 50 

Gongrosira scourfieldii, G. S. West, 
sp. nov. (Bot.), 271 

Goodridge, James, 226 

Goodsir, John, 210 

Gordon, General Charles, 200 

Gorham, George Cornelius, 83 

Gotto, Rev. E. R., 103 

Gould, John, 83 

Governance of London (Gomme), 50 

Great Central Trackway (Dart- 
moor), 35 

Great Torrington, 41 

Greenwich, Royal Observatory, 292 

Gregory, Rev. C, 92 

Grenville, Sir Richard, 60 

Grimspound, Burnard on, 38 

Groningen, University of, 196 

Grose, George, 197 

Grose : Samuel (obit.), 41 ; Mary 
Cecilia, 41 


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Gussage (Dorset), 46 

Haccombe : Stephen de, 322-4 ; 

Arms of, 311 
Haccombe, Part III (Searley) : 310 ; 

Church, enlargement of, 325 ; 

encaustic tiles in, 310 ; status of, 

325 ; value of Advowson of, 324, 

Hamatopota (Dipt.), 336 
Hakluyt'8 Voyages, 223 
Halberton, 331-3 
Hall : Joseph, bp. of Exeter, 224 ; 

Rev. Nicholas, 121 ; Arms of, 121 
Hallett, Joseph, 227, 235 
Ham, definition of, 160 
Hammatridea normanii, G. S. West 

(Bot.), 268 
Hancock, H. S., 56 
Hannam, Thomas, 109 
Harberton : Church, 32 ; H. R. 

Wat kin on, 32 ; Coffin Lid found 

at, 32 
Harlyn Bay, 39 

Harpley, Rev. W., 203, 205, 207 
Harris, G. F., on The Freshwater 

Algce of Devonshire, 263 
Harrow School, 42 
Harte, Prof., 28 
Hartland, 334 
Harvey, Sir Robert, 32 ; entertains 

Association, 32 
Harwich, 231 
Havre, 224 

Hawker, Rev. Treasurer, 207 
Hayman : B. W., 28, 32 ; Miss, 32 
Hazlitt, William, 197 
Heavitree : 363, 364 ; chapel of, 

Hehill, battle of, 307 
Helvoetsluys, 231 
Hennell: R., 85; Samuel, 91 
Henry of Huntingdon (c. 994), 297 

299, 301, 304, 308 
Hepping -stock, 168 
Herefrith (Reeve), 308 
Herman, Ralph, 81, 83 
Hett, R., 235 
Hewett, Rev. J. W., on Decorative 

Remains, 311 
Hildenbrandtia rivularis (Liebm. ) 

J. Ag. (Bot.), 270 
Hill Observatory Corporation, 22 
Hilliard, Richard, 83 
Hine, James, 207 
History of Devon (Moore), 164 
Hittisleigh, 88 
Hodgins, Rev. Canon, 62 
Hoker, 5, 28 ; his History of 

Exeter, 28 

Holcombe-Burnell, 110 

Hole: Edward, 115; Rev.Thomas v 

Holland, John, 119 
Holne Chase, 35 
Holne's Armoury, 230 
Holnicote, 209 

Homerfield, explanation of, 164 
Honey, The Archdeacon, 46 
Honiton Parliamentary Division,. 

Hood, Tom, 197 
Hooker, Dr., 213 
Hope Cove (Salcombe), 155 
Horse Hole, 34 
Hughes, Henry Allwright, 85 
Humboldt, 194 
Hurrell, S., 52 
Hussell, on North Devon Churches* 

Hut men in Devon, 293 
Huxley: Prof., 213, 215, 220;. 

Leonard, 213 ; his Biography of 

Prof. Huxley, 213 
Hyderabad, 41 
Hyder Ali, 41 
Hydmrus penicellatus, Kirchn 

(Bot.), 269 

Ibrahim, captain of a troop of 

Turkish Horse, 226, 227 
Ide : 111 ; Little John's Cross, 362 
Iddesleigh, Earl of, 97 
Ilfracombe, 327, 328 
Ilton Castle, 156 
Ine (688-728) : 304-07 ; The Wara 

of, 306 
Inner Temple, 42 
Ipplepen, 310 
Isca : Dumnuniorum, 297 ; Dum- 

noniorum, 297 
Itinerarium Antonini Augusti (c 

215), 297, 302 
Ivernians in Devon, 293, 296 
Izacke's Antiquities of Exeter, 226 

Jackson, Sir Charles, his History 
of English Plate, 81 ; English 
Goldsmiths and their marks, 81 

Jacob's pillow, 53, 54, 57 

Java, 200 

Jay, Edward, 118 

Jeddah, 228 

Jenkins' History of Exeter, 362 

Jennings, Edward, 90 

Jews, Society for promoting Chris* 
tianity among, 42 

Joce, T. J,, 182 ; on Cob Cottagea 
for the Twentieth Century, 182 


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Jones : Inigo, 42 ; John, 81, 87, 
91-6, 99, 103, 104, 114, 116, 121, 
365; Pitman, 365; Thomas, 
365 ; Winslow, 362, 365 

Jordan : Dr. Robert C. R., 43 ; 
W. F. C, 43 

Julian, Mrs. Hester Forbes, on 
Sir John Bowring, First President 
of the Devonshire Association, 
192 ; on Sir Henry Wentworth 
Acland, President of the First 
Totnes Meeting, 207 

Kairpen-Huelgoit (Exeter), 58 

Keene, David, 105 

Keith, John, 113 

Kenn, 112 

Kennaway : Emily Frances, 42 ; 

Fanny, 42 ; John, 41, 42 ; Sir 

John, 203, 205 ; Sir John Henry 

(obit.), 41, 42; "father of the 

House of Commons," 42 ; 

Richard, 41, 42 
Kennaway, Sir John, his On 

Sherman's Track, 42 
Kennerleigh, 88 
Kenneth, King, 53 
Kenton, 113 

Kent's Cavern, 203, 204, 209 
Kerslake, Thomas, 59 ; on A 

Primeval British Metropolis, 58 
Killerton, 208, 209, 217, 222 
Kilmarnock, 198 
Kingsbridge, 36, 156 
King's Coll., London, 43 
Kingscote : 42 ; Emily Frances, 42 
Kingscote (Glos.), 42 
Kingston-on-Thames Stone : 50 : 

Saxon Kings crowned at, 54 
Kirchneriella obesa (West), Schmidle 

(Bot.), 270 
Kirsopp, Elizabeth, 43 
Kirwan, Rev. R., on the Origin and 

Appropriation of Stonehenge, 57 
Kistvaen on Vixen Tor, 78 

Lafayette, 195, 197 

Lake, A Lost (Baring-Gould), 152 

Lake : Anthony Proctor, 43 ; Eliza- 
beth, 43 ; William Charles (obit.), 
43, 44 ; Rev. K. A., 40 ; Mrs., 40 

Lake, W. C, on A Sketch History of 
TeignmoiUh, 44 ; on The Frosts 
of 1855 and 1895 as observed at 
Teignmouth, 44 ; Notes on the 
Origin of Teignmouth Streets and 
their Nomenclature, 44 

Lairing, Sir Guy, 45 ; his Record of 
European Armour and Arms 
through Seven Centuries, 46 

Lamb, Charles, 197 

Lamplugh : Thomas, 93 ; Arms of, 

Landloe (Liskeard), 152 

Lane, Sarah, 193 

Larcedekne. See Archdeacon 

Larter, C. E., 12th Report of the 
Committee on Botany, 122 

Latham, Dr., 211 

Laud, Archbp., 224 

La vers, John, 99, 110 

Laycock, C. H., 31 ; 33rd Report 
of the Committee on Devonshire 
Provincialisms -, 62 ; on The Old 
Devon Farm-House, 158 

Le Blanc, Vincent, 224 

Leblich, Badia y, 228 

Leedon Tor, 35 

Lega-Weekes, Miss E., on Saint 
Loyes, East Wonford, 360 

Leghorn, 230 

Leigh, John, 364 

Leopold I of Belgium, 197 

Leptidce (Dipt.), 348 

Lercedekne, Lerchedekne. See 

Lew Lake, 154 

Lew Manor Mill, 153 

Lewin, Maria, 194 

Lew Trenchard, 152 

Libraries : British Museum, 23 ; 
Bodleian, 23 ; Cambridge Uni- 
versity, 23 ) National Library of 
Wales, 23 ; John Rylands (Man- 
chester), 23 ; Louvain (Belgium),. 

Lich Path (Dartmoor), 35 

Liddell, Dean, 209, 217 

Liddon, Canon, 209, 217 

LimnobidOB (Dipt.), 343 

Lingard, John, 94 

Linhay (Cart and Waggon), 165 

Lister, Lord, 213, 217 

List of Members, 367 

Liverworts, 127 

Llwch (Welsh), 152 

Lo, Loo, Lu, Lfugh (Cornish), 152 

Loch (Gaelic), 152 

Lockyer : Sir Norman, 289, 291 ; 
Major W. J. S., 38 ; on The Hill 
Observatory, Salcombe Regis, 34,. 

LonchopterihcB (Dipt.), 358 

London Stone : 50-4 ; History of, 

Londoner's Walk to the Land's End,. 

Long, David, 114 

Longley, Archbishop, 215 

Longman, T., 234 


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Looe (Cornwall), 152 i 

Looe Pool, 152 

Louc'h (Breton), 152 

Loudon, J. C, Encyclopaedia of 

Agriculture, 1833, 179 
Louis Phillipe, 195, 196 
Lowndes, William, 232 
Lubbock, Prof., 213 
Lucas, Seymour, 45 
Lucy : Alianora, 317 ; Elizabeth, 

315 ; Elinor, 315 ; Sir William, 

315, 318; Arms of, 315 
Lundy : 224 ; captured by Turkish 

pirates, 224 
Lundy Island, History of (Chanter), 

Luscombe, Elizabeth, 104 
Luton, 141 

Luttrell, Hugh F., 37 
Lyd River, 152-154 
Lydf ord : 22, 45 ; preservation of 

Ancient Town Wall, 22 ; Parish 

of, 34 
Lyme Regis, 23 

McClean, Lt.-Col., 289-91. 
Mahommetans, True and Faithful 

Account of (Pitts), 224 
Malay Peninsula, 40 
Mamhead, 115 
Manaton, 34 
Mangel-d'uze, 165 
Manilla, 157 
Manors : St. Austell Prior, 56 ; 

Tewington, 56 ; Treberveth, 318, 

319 ; Trenance, 56 ; Treverbyn 

Courtenay, 56 ; Trevelyn, 56 ; 

Wonford, 362 
Marshall, on The Rural Economy of 

West of England, 164, 177 
Martin, Rev. John, 106 
Marwood, 45 

Matins and Vespers (Bo wring), 196 
Mayence, 231 

Mecca, 223, 224, 228, 229, 232, 235 
Medina, 223, 228, 229 
Meetings, Places of, 9, 10 
Mehemet Ali, 199 
Melhuish, Thomas, 90 
Melksham (Wilts), 41 
Members, List of, 367 
Mengu, Menagu Stone (St. Austell), 

Merton, 332-4 
Meteorological Society, The Royal, 

Meyrick : Club, 45 ; Society, 46 
Mezzo fanti, Cardinal, 198 
Mill : James, 197 ; John Stuart, 


Mills, Dr., 43 

Milton, John, 226 

Mole, Sarah, 101 

Molland, 331, 332 

Monmouth, Geoffrey of, 48 

Montreal Bridge, Opening of, 216 

Monumenta Historica Britannica, 

Moore, Tom, 197 
Moore's History of Devon, 164 
Morchard Bishop, 89 
Moretonhampstead, 185 
Morgan, Arabella, 91 
Morris, R. Burnet, Fifth Report of 

Committee on Bibliography, 130 
Mosses, 125, 129 
Mount Tavy, Tavistock, 45 
Mow-barton or mowhay, 166 
Muley Ismail, Emperor of Morocco, 

Munday : Surg. -Commander, 40 ; 

Mrs., 40 
Murad Reis, 228 
Mycetophilidoe (Dipt.), 337 
Myxophycece (Blot.), 272 

Nansloe, 152 

Napoleon : I, 49 ; III, 197 

Nesbitt, Rev. F. H., 328 

Netherexe, 327, 333 

Newberry, Amy, 118 

New Bridge, 35 

Newman, John Henry, 209 

Newton Abbot, 34 

Newton St. Cyres, 90 

News from the West (Burnard), 40 

Nonant, Arms of, 311 

Northcott, John Frost, 103 

Northcote, Sir Stafford, 58, 97, 205 

North Devon Churches (Hussell), 330 

North Hessary (Dartmoor), 35 

Northleigh, Stephen, 110 

North Lew : 152 ; River, 154 

North Wyke (Devon), 47 

Norys, Thomas, 315 

Notes and Gleanings, Devon and 

Cornwall, 155 
Notes and Queries, 53 
Noyan, St. Eligius, Bishop of, 360 
Nun, 306 
Nymet : Tracy, 82 ; Brod, 82 

Obituaries, 36 

Ockham, Baron of, the Rt. Hon. 

Peter, Lord King, 235 
OMerotatus salinus (Dipt.), 336 
Officers, 8 

Oliver : Benjamin, 84 ; Mary, 84 
Oliver, Ecclesiastical Antiquities, 


Digitized by 




Omar, 228, 229 

Origin and Appropriation of Stone- 

henge (Kirwan), 57 
Origin of Species (Darwin), 213 
Orphenephilidce (Dipt.), 342 
Orthorrapha Brachycera (Dipt. ), 

336, 347 
Orthorrapha Nematocera (Dipt. ), 

336, 337 
Osborn, J., 234 
Oswald, 307 
Ottawa, 216 
Ottery Mohun, 316 
Ottery St. Mary, 42, 45 
Owen, Prof. Sir Richard, 210, 213, 

Oxford : Balliol College, 42 ; Christ 

Church College, 208; New 

Museum at, 212, 214, 221 ; 

Pengelly Collection at, 214 ; 

University Observatory, 292 
Oxnam, Richard, 317 

Padstow, 39 

Paget: Sir George, 217; Sir 
James, 213 

Paignton, 36, 40 

Palk, Palke, Robert, 108, 116 

Palmer, William, 153 

Palmerston, Lord, 200 

Palmodictyon viride, Kiitz (Bot.), 

Parfitt, Edward, on the Freshwater 
Algce of Devonshire, 263 

]?abish : The English, Origin and 
Upgrowth of (Reichel), 239 ; in 
the Roman Empire, 239 ; in 
Saxon England, 241 ; the 
Bishop's parish, 242 ; Collegiate 
parishes, 242 ; establishment of 
rural churches, 243 ; in Norman 
times, 245 ; manorial lord gives 
place to parson, 246 ; disposal of 
tithe, 249 ; gifts, 250, 251 ; 
chaplains, 251 ; manorial lords, 
252 ; possession of land, 254, 
255 ; Inquests of patronage, 
256 ; Consolidation of the Parish, 
256, 257 ; Vicars temporary and 
perpetual, 259, 261 ; tribal 
system superseded, 242 

Parish Registers : 30, 131, 132 ; 
Whitstone, 63 

Parishes : Crediton, 309 ; Newton 
St. Cyres, 309; Upton Pyne, 
309; Bramford Speke, 309; 
Hittesleigh, 309 ; Drewsteign- 
ton, 309; Colebrooke, 309; 
Morchard Bishop, 309 ; Sand- 
ford, 309; Kennerleigh, 309; 

Cheriton Bishop, 309 ; Clanna- 
borough, 309 

Parr, Sarah, 90 

Parry, W., 89, 117 

Parson, earliest use of term, 249 

Paul, Capt. A. G., 43 

Pease : Edward, 55 ; Fanny Louise, 
36, 40 ; S. H., 36 

Pengelly, William, 192, 202-05, 
207, 209, 213-15, 218, 219, 221 

Penpol : Cecilia de, 323, Serlo de, 

Perrin : Emily Dudley, 47 ; Josiah, 

Petertavy, 38 

Peter the Great (ship), 155 

Peter, Thurstan C, 39 

Pewter Vessels (Church), 81 

Phelps, C. H., 31 

Philip II of Spain, 157 

Phillips, Prof. John, 212, 214 

Phoridce (Dipt.), 358 

Pigs' -lewze, explanation of, 165 

Pinhoe, Cross in churchyard, 362 

Pitts : Aaron, 236 ; Hannah, 236 ; 
John, 225 ; Joseph, 223-5, 227- 
32, 234, 236 

Pitts, Joseph, his A True and 
Faithful Account of the Religion 
and Manners of the Mohamme- 
tans, etc., 224, 233 ; Biblio- 
graphy of, 237, 238 

Pitts, Joseph, of Exeter (Radford) 

Place -Names : The Investigation 
of (Prowse), 282 ; Brit. Museum 
Index to, contained in its Collec- 
tion of Rolls and Charters, 282 ; 
of Cambridgeshire (Skeat), 283 ; 
Suggested scheme of spelling, 
285; Examples of, 286, 287; 
Goidelic, 295 

Places of Meeting, 9, 10 

Plenderleath, Mrs., 107 

Plowden, Mr., 45 

Plundered Dartmoor (Burnard), 39 

Plymouth : 36, 37, 40 ; Institu- 
tion, 36, 38, 40 ; Social Science 
Congress at, 205 

Poetry of the Magyars (Bowring), 

Pomeray of Biry, Arms of, 311 

Ponsford, W., 88 

Poole, Stanley Lane, History of the 
Barbary Corsairs, 228 

Pope : Gregory XVI, 198 ; Pius 
IX, 198 

Porlock Bay, 184 

Porter, Rev. Reginald, 113 

Portman, The Lord, 46 


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Posbury, St. Luke's, 87 

Postbridge, 34, 35, 38 

Poughill, 90 

Powderham, 115 

Powley, William, 117 

Presidents : 30 ; E. Windeatt, 28, 
31 ; List of, 9, 10 

Presidential Address (Windeatt), 48 

Prestwich, Sir Joseph, 213 

Prince, John, 48, 58 ; his Worthies 
of Devon, 48, 58 

Princetown, 37, 40 

Proceedings at Totnes, 28 

Pbovincialisms : 33rd Report of the 
Committee on Laycock), 62 

Prowse, Colonel A. B., 30 ; on 
Dartmoor, 34, 35 ; on The In- 
vestigation of Place-Names, 282 

Pryke : Ellen, 45 ; Harriet Mary, 
45 ; Rev. William Emmanuel 
(obit.), 45 ; Rev. W. Maurice, 45 

Psychodidm (Dipt.), 342 

PtychoptiridoB (Dipt.), 343 

Pulman's Book of the Axe, 46 

Pump-house, 167 

Pump-pit or plump-pit, 167 

Pump-traw or plump-traw, 167 

Pusey, Dr., 209 

Puttoc (Reeve), 308 

Pyne, Benjamin, 115 

Quekett, Dr., 210 ' 

Radford : Arthur, 45 ; Daniel, 

45 ; Herbert George (obit.), 45, 

46 ; Miss C, on Joseph Pitts of 
Exeter, 223 

Raleigh, Sir Walter, 60 

Ralli, Augustus, on Christians in 
Mecca, 223 

Rask of Copenhagen, 199 

Rea, C. F., 29, 31 

Record Office, MSS. in, 130, 131 

Records of the Armada in Devon, 155 

Redruth, 39 

Redvers, Arms of, 311 

Reichel, Rev. O. J., The Origin and 
Upgrowth of the English Parish, 

Reports : of Council, 22 ; of 
Committee on Mr. Watkin's 
proposals, 22 ; of Committee on 
Ancient Earthworks and Forti- 
fied Enclosures, 22 

Rew, Robert, 84 

Rhodophyceas (Bot.), 275 

Rhyphidas (Dipt.), 347 

Richards, Edward, 102 . 

Richmond, George, 212 

Risdon Charity (Teignmouth), 44 

Risdon, Mary, 119 

Roderic Molwynoc, 307 

Roger of Hoveden, 304 

Rolleston, Dr. George, 214-16 

Rossell, Mary Cecilia, 41 

Round house, 165 

Row, John, Sergeant-at-Law, 48, 58. 

Rowe, S., 38 

Royal Society, 46 

Rules, 11 

Rural Economy of West of England 

(1796) (Marshall), 164 
Ruskin, John, 211, 212 

St. Aloysius (Aloys or Aloes), 361 
St. Andrew's, University of, 43 
St. Austell, (or St. Austell Prior),. 

Manor of, 56 
St. Austell Stone, 50 
St. Egidius, 361 
St. Eligius (Eloy or Loye), Bishop 

of Noyan, 360 
St. Eloi, 366 

St. George's Hospital, London, 210- 
St. Germans, Earls of, 36 
St. niog (or Ellidius), 361 
St. Ives, 37 

St. John's Coll., Cambridge, 45, 47 
St. Kew, 39 
St. Laudus, 366 
St, Leonard's (Exeter) : 192 ; Sir 

J. Bowring's description of, 192, 

Saint Loye's, East Wonford (Lega- 

Weekes), 360 
St. Mellion, Chapel of, 361 
St. Neots, Annals of, 304 
St. Peter : 157 ; Alcantura, 157 
St. Thomas' Hospital, London, 41 
Salcombe Regis : 22 ; The Hilt 

Observatory at (Lockyer), 289 ; 

details of, 290 ; routine work at,. 

291 ; equipment, 290, 291 ; Hill 

Observatory Corporation, 22 
Salisbury, Marquis of, 212, 221 
Salmon, A further Note on the 

Migration of, in the Rivers Avon 

and Erme (Elliot), 276 
Salter, Thomas, 97 
Sampson, Thomas, 103 
Sandbach, 47 

Sanderson, Dr. Burden, 213 
Sandford, 91 
Sandridge, 60 
Saxons est Devon : When the- 

Saxons came to Devon, Part II 

(Alexander), 293 
Scadumnamorum, 297 
Scenopinidce (Dipt.), 352 
Schlieman, Dr., 208 


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Schroeder, 215 

Scio, 230 

Scobehill, Robert, 315 

-Scone, 53, 54 

>Scott : E. M., 106 ; Sir Walter, 196 

•Searley, A. W., on Haccombe, 310 

Seccombe, Prof. Thomas, 236 

Severn, Joseph, 212 

^Servian Anthology (Bo wring), 196 

Shaldon (Teignmouth), 47 

Sharp, J., 119 

Sharpitor, 35 

Sherborne, Forthere, bp. of, 308 

Sherman' 8 Track, On (Kennaway), 

Sherwill, 328 
Shillmgford, 116 
Shippen, explanation of, 165 
Shobrooke, 92 
Sigebert, 306 
Sillifant, John, 86 
Silverton, 46, 47 

Simeon of Durham (ob. 1129), 

297, 304, 306 
Simulidce (Dipt.), 339 
Simulium latipes (Dipt.), 336 
Skeat, Prof., 284, 288; Place- 
names of Cambridgeshire, 283 

Skutt, Elizabeth, 236 

Sleath, Gabriel, 103 
JSlee-house or back-house, 168 

Smith: B., 119; Edward, 119; 
Stephen, 86; Prof., 214; Rt. 
Hon. W. H., 212 
Smyth, Gilbert, 315 

Smyrna, 230 

Society, The Royal, 46 

Solinus, Caius Julius, 295, 296, 297 

Somerset : Duke of, 30, 31 ; 
Natural Hist. Soc., 59 

Somerton, 307 

Soper, H. Tapley, 28, 30 

Specimens of the Russian Poets 
(Bo wring), 195 

Speedwell of Lympstone (ship) : 
225-7 ; captured by Algerine 
Pirates, 226 

Spreyton, 93 

Stanley, Dean, 209 

Stapleford (Cambs.), 45 

Starcross, 116 

Staurastrum orbiculare, Ralfs (Bot. ), 

Stawell, Eleanora Mabel, 111 

Stephens : Elizabeth, 111 ; Richard 
110, 111 

Stephenson, George, 55 

Stirling, Mary Elizabeth, 119 

Stock, definition of, 160 

Stockleigh English, 93 

Stockleigh Pomeroy, 94 

Stoke Gabriel, 60 

Stoke-in-Teignhead, 37, 40 

Stoke St. Nectan (Hartland), 327, 
332, 333 

Stone Age in Devon, 293 ; New 
Stone Age in Devon, 293 

Stone, John, 111 

Stonehenge, 53 

Stones : Coronation, 53 ; West- 
minster, 50 ; Historic, St. 
Austell, 50 ; Barnstaple, 50, 56 ; 
Bovey Tracey, 50, 51 ; Darling- 
ton, 50, 54-6 ; Edinburgh, 52 ; 
Kingston ( Surrey), 50, 54 ; 
London, 50, 54 ; Totnes, 53-5, 
59, 60 

Stour, River, 58 

Strang, James, 84 

StratiomyidcB (Dipt.), 347 

Strickland, H., 212 

Suez, 228 

Surnames, English Dictionary of 
(Bardsley), 287 

Sutton Road, Plymouth, 37 

Sydenham, Thomas, 221 

Sydenham Valley : 154 ; lakes in, 

Symons, P., 102 

Syria, 199 

Tabanidce (Dipt.), 336, 349 
Tabula Peutingeriana (4th Century), 

Talbot : Elizabeth, 312 ; John, 312 
Talleyrand, 197 
Talnas, Christchurch, 58 
Tame Brook, Teignmouth, 44 
Tarain (Ireland), 53 
Taunton, 307 
Tavistock, 45, 79 
Taylor, George, 226 
Tedburn St. Mary, 117 
Teignmouth : 43, 181 ; East, 118 ; 

West, 119 
Teign Naturalists Field Club, 40, 41 
Teignton Bishop, 120 
Temple, Dr., bp. of Exeter, 204 
Temple, The Inner, 42 
Templer, R. W., 43 
Tenures : Life-hold System, 161, 

Terry, F., 98, 112 
Tewington, manor of, 56 
Thatching, 182 
Therevidce (Dipt.), 352 
Thomson, Prof. Allen, 215, 217 
Thoverton : 94 ; St. John's, 96 
Tippoo Sultan, 41 
Tipulidce (Dipt.), 345 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



Tirell (Tirel, Tyrel, de TiUy), 363 

Tiverton, 22, 42, 214 

Ton, Tun, definition of, 160 

Toronto (Canada) : 47 ; Imperial 
Bank of, 47 

Torquay : 40, 41, 192, 203, 205 ; 
Nat. Hist. Society, 41 

Torre Abbey, 156 

Tothill, George, 226 

Totnes: 28, 29, 32, 35, 48, 49, 
58, 60, 61, 207, 208; Anti- 
quarian Society of, 29, 31, 32, 
34 ; Conversazione given by, 
31 ; Exhibition arranged by, 
34 ; Borough Band, 31 ; Castle, 

29, 30, 32 ; Saxon wall of, 29 ; 
Church, 360 ; Church Plate, 34 ; 
Coins minted at, 54 ; Gate 
House, 28, 30, 31 ; East Gate, 
50 ; Grammar School, 31 ; Boys' 
choir, 31 ; Seven Stars' Hotel, 

30, 31 ; Seymour Hotel, 32 ; 
Guildhall, 28 ; Mayoral Recep- 
tion at, 28; Mayor of (B. W. 
Hayman), 28, 32 ; Civic Recep- 
tion by, 28 ; entertains Associa- 
tion, 29; Stone, 53-5, 59, 60; 
E. Windeatt on Totnes Stone, 
48 ; Proceedings at, 28 ; Graphic 
and Historical Sketch of (Cotton), 
49 ; MS. History of (Cornish), 
50 ; Priory and Mediaeval Town 
(Watkin), 54 ; Totnes Times, 52 

Totonesium Littus, 58 

Tozer, J. H., 43 

Trackway (Dartmoor), 35 

Transactions : List of Societies 
receiving copies of, 23 ; Stock 
of, 23, 24 

Treberveth, manor of, 318, 319 

Tregear Rounds (Cornwall), 38 

Trelawney : Bishop, 81 ; Charles, 
36 ; Sir Jonathan, 92 ; Arms of, 

Trenance, manor of, 56 

Trentepohlia aurea Mart. (Bot.), 269 

Treverbyn Courtenay, manor of, 56 

Trevelyn, manor of, 56 

Trinity Coll., Cambridge, 46 

Trojan Colonies, 60 

Troy, The Plains of (Acland), 208 

Turmet-' ouze, 165 

Turner, Lyon, Original Records of 
Early Nonconformity under Perse- 
cution and Indulgence, 225 

Turner : Prof. H. H., 292 ; Sir 
William, 217, 221 

Tuckett, Nicholas, 103 

Tuckfield : Elizabeth, 95 ; Roger, 
95 ; Arms of, 95 , 

Tweedie, Walter, 117 
Two Bridges, 34, 35 

Ugborough Church, 360 
Uppinstock, Uppingstock, 168 
Upton Hellions, 96 
Upton Pyne", 96 

Van der Kolk, 215, 217 

Vaughan, Dr., 42 

Vespasian, 58, 60 

Veterinary Surgeons, Royal College* 

of, 36 
Veysey : Rev. James, 119 ; John* 

Vivian, Edward, 203 
Vixen Tor, Kistvaen on, 78 
Volvox aureus Ehrenb. (Bot.), 268 j 

globator (L.) Ehrenb. (Bot.), 26a 
Vrdlik, 215 

Waggon-linhay, 165 

Wales, 39 

Walrond, Sir William, 42 

Walton, W. H., 119 

Wanborough, battle of, 307 

Ward : Francis Wyndham, 47 ; 

Isaac, 46 ; Rev. Joseph Heald 

(obit. ), 46 ; Lsetitia, 46 ; on 

Herrick, 47 ; on Counsellor John 

Were of Silverton, 1645-6, 47 
Warden : Edward Hall. 103 ; John 

Hall, 102 / 

Warwick, Thomas, E. of, 312 
Watkin, H. R., 34; on Totne* 

Priory and Medieval Town, 54 
Waverley Novels, 196 
Wear Gifford, 332, 333 
Wellacott, Rev. W. T., 34; on 

Totnes Church, 34 
Wellesley, Marquis of, 58 
Werthe, Lady Alice, 315 
Wessex Chronology, A, 303 
Wessex, Kings of, List of (530-979), 

West, W. and G. S., A Contribution 

to the Freshwater Algce of the 

South of England, 264 
West Down, 327, 330 
Western Antiquary, 362 
Western Morning News, 39, 40 
Westminster, 54 
Westminster Review, 195 
Westwood, Prof., 214 
Wethey, Charles Henry (obit.), 47 
Whewell, Dr., 213 
Whipham, T., 90, 92, 101, 365 
Whitchurch Common, Barrow on> 

Whitstone, 121 


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Whitstone MS. : 62 ; Records of 
■ Whitstone (Brown), 62 

Whitton and Lang, Messrs., 172 

Whit Tor, 39 

Wilberforce, Bishop, 213 

Wild, Johann, 224 

William the Conqueror, 29 

William of Malmesbury (c. 1125), 
297, 302, 304 

Williams, Commander, 22 

Wills, stock of, 23, 24 

Wiltshire Archseol. Society, 41 

Winchester : 310, 311 ; City Cross, 
' 60; Preaching Cross, 60; 
Market Cross, 60 

Winchester, Daniel, bp. of, 308 

Windeatt : E., 28, 30-2, 34, 207 ; 
on Totnes Stone, 48 ; on An 
Armada Relic, 155 ; Mrs. E., 31, 
32, 34 ; entertains Association, 
31 ; Major G. E., 31 ; T. W., 207 

Wink, 167 

Winstanley, Miss L., 60 

Wippell, J., 117, 118 

Wistmann's Wood, 34, 35 

Wodeland, Wydelond, John, 364 

Wolborough Church, 36 

Wonford, manor of, 362 

Woolfardisworthy, 97 
Worcester, 47 

Works, First Commissioner of, 22 
Worth, R. Hansford, 32, 362 ; 

Lecture on Flint, 32, 33 ; 39th 

Report of Barrow Committee, 78 ;. 

3Sth Report (3rd Series) of the 

Committee on the Climate of 

Devon, 135 
Worth, R. N., 48, 207; on The 

Myth of Brutus the Trojan, 48 
Worthy, definition of, 160 
Worthy, on Suburbs of Exeter, 363 
Wright, C, 90, 101 
Wrothesley, Lord, 213 
Wykes, Mary, 47 
Wykes-Finch : Emily Dudley, 47 ; 

Rev. William (obit.), 47 
Wyndham : Lsetitia, 46 ; William,. 

Wynter, Sir Thomas, 319 

Yeh, Commissioner of Canton, 201 
Yerbury, Col. J. W., A List of the 

Diptera hitherto recorded in the 

County of Devon, 336 
Yonge, family of, 42 


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